KEY TO KEYS of Pacific Northwest Key Council

Prepared for the Pacific Northwest Key Council
By Ian Gibson (South Vancouver Island Mycological Society) Nov. 2002
With minor revisions 2004, 2007, 2011
Copyright © 2002-2011 Pacific Northwest Key Council

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 Introduction

 Key to Keys

 Descriptions for species not assigned to other keys

 Authorities and synonyms for descriptions

 Glossary

 References

 Index to described species

 

INTRODUCTION

This key is designed to allow people to find the appropriate Pacific Northwest Key Council key for an unknown mushroom, and to provide descriptions for those species that do not fall naturally into one of the keys.

The following indicate the status of each key.

Unmarked Groups or genera in this Key have an existing Key Council key by that name.

[ ] Groups or genera enclosed in square parentheses are those for which a key has not yet been written.

< > Groups or genera enclosed in pointed parentheses have a key in preparation.

* An asterisk in the Key indicates miscellaneous species for which descriptions are contained in this key.

(In the Descriptions, an asterisk next to the source indicates that that source contains an illustration of the species.)

Deciding on the correct key is relatively easy for nongilled mushrooms, but is occasionally quite difficult for gilled mushrooms. The key for gilled mushrooms often depends on knowing the color of the spores and knowing whether there is a partial veil. For these reasons it is a good idea to look at both young and mature specimens: the young ones will show whether there is a partial veil (as well as the true color of the gills) and the mature gills will show the spore color.

 

Note that the key is broken into sections primarily to make it easier to update. It is not necessary to understand the sections to use the key, but for those who are curious, the organization is the following:

002 - 100 nongilled

101 - 200 gilled, lateral stem

201 - 300 gilled, central stem, inky or sequestrate or volvate

301 - 400 gilled, central stem, not inky or sequestrate or volvate, partial veil

401 - 500 gilled, central stem, not inky or sequestrate or volvate, no partial veil, stem breaks like chalk

501 - 600 gilled, central stem, not inky or sequestrate or volvate, no partial veil, stem does not break like chalk, gills free

601 - 700 gilled, central stem, not inky or sequestrate or volvate, no partial veil, stem does not break like chalk, gills not free, gills waxy

701 - 800 gilled, central stem, not inky or sequestrate or volvate, no partial veil, stem does not break like chalk, gills not free, gills not waxy, gills decurrent

801 - 900 gilled, central stem, not inky or sequestrate or volvate, no partial veil, stem does not break like chalk, gills not free, gills not waxy, gills not decurrent, stem thin

901 - 999 gilled, central stem, not inky or sequestrate or volvate, no partial veil, stem does not break like chalk, gills not free, gills not waxy, gills not decurrent, stem thick

Ian Gibson
ig@islandnet.com
67 Linden Avenue
Victoria BC V8V 4C9
(250) 384-6002

 

KEY TO KEYS

1a gills are present under cap

1b gills are not present

2a well-defined cap and stem

2b no well-defined cap and stem

3a pores on underside of cap

3b no pores on underside of cap

4a tube layer that ends in pores strips easily from cap, fruitbody fleshy, usually on ground

4b tube layer does not strip easily from cap, texture usually tough and leathery, usually on wood

5a (3b) teeth on underside of cap, fruitbody not jelly-like

5b no teeth on underside of cap or fruitbody jelly-like

6a veins on underside of cap as in chanterelles: thick, blunt, foldlike, shallow, may be forked or with cross veins, decurrent

6b no veins on underside of cap

7a fruitbodies grouped on dead Russulaceae mushrooms, cap whitish becoming powdery

7b fruitbodies growing elsewhere, cap not whitish becoming powdery

8a fruitbody whitish, small with cap less than 1.5 cm wide so that gill-structure may not develop fully, slender stem centrally attached, spores inamyloid

8b not whitish, or larger, or stem thick or lateral, or spores amyloid

9a fruitbody whitish, less than 3 cm tall, slender stem with fine hairs and attached at the side of cap that is kidney-shaped to asymmetrically funnel-shaped, margin often wavy, growing on mossy needle beds

9b not with the combination of features above

10a fruitbody whitish, kidney-shaped to spathulate or funnel-shaped, white cap less than 2.0 cm wide, slightly wrinkled or smooth spore bearing surface, short lateral stem, growth on moss

10b fruitbody not whitish or differently shaped or larger, or stem not lateral, or habitat different

(a key where some mushrooms with smooth underside to cap are discussed, due to the species that vary from veined to smooth)

11a (2b) growing on wood in form that is shelf-like, fan-like, or bracket-like, often but not always tough

11b not growing on wood, or form different; tough or not

12a pores on underside

12b teeth on underside

13 (11b) growing underground

13b not growing underground

14a growing flat usually on wood but occasionally other fungi or other surfaces

14b not growing flat on wood

15a in the form of a nest less than 1 cm wide, often containing lens-shaped "eggs", or in form of 0.1-0.3 cm sphere shooting out spherical "egg" and leaving starlike rays

15b not in the form of a nest, and not in form of sphere that leaves starlike rays

16a with foul-smelling slime at maturity, in the form of a club, sometimes with branches at the end, or in the form of a red sphere with a coarse netlike pattern

16b not with foul-smelling slime, or not in the form of a club or netlike sphere

17a consistency like firm jelly (rubbery)

17b consistency not jelly-like

18a cup-like or disc-like, or with tiny tubular fruitbody; with or without stem

(keys written only for Pezizales, some descriptions for Helotiales, not basidiomycete cups)

18b neither cup-like nor disc-like nor with tiny tubular fruitbody

19a more or less spherical, with spore mass inside that often becomes powdery, with stem or without stem

19b not spherical or not with spore mass inside that becomes powdery

20a at maturity outer layer splits into several starlike rays which curl back

20b not with outer layer splitting into starlike rays

21a long stem which is usually slender

21b stem short or absent

22a thick tough rigid skin when fresh, typically yellowish to brown but sometimes whitish, purplish, or blackish

22b skin not thick tough and rigid when fresh, often whitish when fresh but also other colors

23a (19b) head of fungus convoluted or saddle-like but not honeycombed with large pits and ridges, and not with leaf-like lobes, usually with stem

23b head of fungus not convoluted or saddle-like, but may be honeycombed with large pits and ridges, or may have leaf-like lobes

24a head of fungus honeycombed with large pits and ridges, stem present

24b. head of fungus not honeycombed, stem present or absent

25a fleshy, unbranched upright club

25b not in the form of fleshy unbranched upright club

26a fleshy, intricately branched or with leaflike lobes

26b not fleshy or neither intricately branched nor with leaflike lobes

27a medium to large, coral-like, profusely branched from common base, branches mostly erect, smooth, never ribbon-like, often brightly colored, spores usually ornamented, spore-bearing surface usually staining green or bluish with ferrous sulphate

27b small to large, intricately branched or with leaf-like lobes, branches erect or not, smooth or rough, may be ribbon-like, color usually but not always whitish or grayish or yellowish, spores usually smooth, spore-bearing surface usually not staining green or bluish with ferrous sulphate

28 (26b) Not included in keys (microscopic species, lichens, slime moulds, moulds, mildews, rusts, smuts, Rhytisma, Taphrina, Hypocrea, Nectria, Hypoxylon, Daldinia, Dibotryon, Gymnosporangium, Pucciniastrum, etc.)

* * *

101a stem off-center or absent

101b stem central

102a gill edge split lengthwise into two halves

102b gill edge not split lengthwise into two halves

103a spores decidedly pink, salmon-colored, reddish clay-colored, or brownish-pink

103b spores whitish, buff, slightly pinkish, clay-colored without reddish tones, brownish-yellow, olivaceous brown, lilac, violaceous, purple-brown, blackish brown or another brown

104a spores white, cream, cream-buff, pale yellow, brownish-yellow, or slightly pinkish

104b spores buff, clay-colored without reddish tones, olivaceous-umber, lilac, violaceous, purple-brown, or blackish-brown, or another shade of brown

105a (103a) cap densely tomentose, fruitbody entirely orange-yellow to orange

105b cap not densely tomentose, or fruitbody another color

106a cap 3-6 cm wide, deeply depressed becoming flat-depressed, hispid or nearly bald, white to cream or purplish with dark purple lines, spores dull brown to yellow-brown, or cinnamon-brown, sometimes with slight pinkish tint (and smooth under microscope)

106b fruitbody with a different combination of features, spores pink, salmon, or brownish-pink (and angular under microscope)

107a (104b) spores violaceous to lilac

107b spores not violaceous to lilac

108a gills readily removed from cap

108b gills not readily removed from cap

109a spores reddish-brown or purplish to fuscous violet to dark violaceous-brown

109b spores clay-colored, cinnamon-brown, dull brown, olivaceous-umber or bright rusty-brown

110a fruitbody and lower stem coarsely scaly, dark brown to cinnamon or rusty-brown

110b fruitbody and lower stem not coarsely scaly, or not dark brown to cinnamon or rusty-brown

111a fruitbody everywhere olivaceous or olive-brown or spores dull brown or grayish-brown to umber

111b fruitbody whitish, ochraceous, yellowish, brownish, spores clay-colored or cinnamon-brown, growing shelf-like on wood

112a (104a) gills hard, regular to mazelike, fruitbody a bracket on wood

112b gills soft, regular to forking or anastomosing, fruitbody not a bracket on wood

113a gills strongly forking (dichotomously branching), fruitbody cream, orange, pink, or brown, growing on humus

113b gills either not strongly forking or fruitbody a different color or growing on wood

114a gills readily removed from cap

114b gills not readily removed from cap

115a gills strongly anastomosing

115b gills not strongly anastomosing

116a fruitbody white, on grasses and Rubus canes

116b fruitbody a different color or habitat different

117a gills often veinlike as in chanterelles, fruitbody gray to gray-brown, among mosses

117b gills usually veinlike as in chanterelles, fruitbody reddish-brown to yellow-brown to tan, on hardwoods

118a (115b) gill edge with abundant large cells appearing ciliate under hand lens

118b gill edge not with abundant large cells appearing ciliate under hand lens

119a some part of fruitbody staining blackish, bluing, or turning red, (gills usually bluing with PDAB)

119b no part of fruitbody staining blackish, bluing, or turning red, (gills not usually bluing with PDAB)

120a cap up to 2cm wide, chalky whitish, dry, minutely hairy, without stem or with short lateral whitish stem, growth on wood, spore deposit white, (spores 5-6 x 4.5-5.5 microns)

120b not with this combination of features

121a cap flesh and flesh of gills (at times) either completely gelatinous or with gelatinous layers, gill edge not serrate under hand lens

121b cap and gills neither gelatinous nor with gelatinous layers, gill edge smooth to serrate under hand lens

122a gill edge not serrate and cap fleshy

122b gill edge serrate or cap tough and leathery to corky

123a gill edge not serrate

123b gill edge serrate

124a gill edge coarsely toothed, cap whitish-ocher to brown, stem usually central

124b gill edge finely toothed, cap brown, ocher, or slightly violaceous, stem central to lateral

125a fruitbodies with one of following features a) cap hairy tomentose and stem base strigose with gray or greenish hairs, b) cap with small blackish fine scales on a white background and stem blackish scaly, c) cap bald when young and orange-yellow, ocher-yellow, or ocher-brown, or d) gills ocher to pinkish brown or violaceous

125b fruitbodies without one of the above features, cap variable in color but usually brown, rarely whitish, gills usually serrate and white, whitish-yellow or pallid-pinkish

 

* * *

201a gills and/or cap turning to inky blackish liquid

201b gills and/or cap not turning to inky blackish liquid&

202a gills distorted or convoluted and may form cavities, spores not forcibly released, so spore print not available, often in deserts or mountainous areas

202b gills well-formed

203a volva present, gills free

203b volva absent

204a spores white or pale cream

204b spores pinkish brown

* * *

301a (203b) partial veil present

301b partial veil absent

302a partial veil membranous or a solid fibrillose layer, forming a distinct annulus

302b partial veil gelatinous, weblike or granular, there may be scattered fibrils, annular zone may be present

303a partial veil gelatinous

303b partial veil weblike or granular, there may be scattered fibrils, annular zone may be present

304a (302a) gills free

304b gills abruptly adnexed, adnexed, adnate, notched or decurrent

305a spores rust-brown, cap and lower stem granular and yellow brown to pale orange, annulus sheathlike

305b spores greenish, or purple-brown to chocolate brown, or white

306a spores greenish becoming purplish brown on drying, young gills red

306b spores greenish and remaining so, or purple-brown to chocolate brown, or white

307a spores greenish and remaining so, cap with large scales

307b spores purple-brown to chocolate brown, or white

308a spore purple-brown to chocolate brown

308b spores white

309a young gills red

309b gills white to pink at first

310a (308b) warts or patches on cap, volva present

310b cap otherwise or volva not formed

311a cap viscid

311b cap scaly, granular, innately fibrillose or pruinose, rarely bald

312a (304b) spores white to cream

312b spores some shade of brown, or black

313a gills serrate, fruitbodies often tough

313b gills not serrate, fruitbodies fleshy

314a gills waxy-looking, soft, often decurrent, cap usually viscid, (and spores smooth, basidia long and narrow, at least 6 times as long as spores)

314b gills not waxy-looking, gill attachment variable, cap dry or viscid

315a cap granular, under 8 cm and usually under 5 cm wide, gills adnexed or adnate, no swollen rootlike base

315b cap not granular, or larger, gill attachment various

316a cap bald to appressed-fibrillose, large, annulus two-layered, gills decurrent

316b either cap not bald or fruitbody not large or annulus not two-layered or gills not decurrent

317a cap yellowish brown to reddish brown or brownish yellow, usually with scattered bristle-like scales, medium size, annulus one-layered

317b cap another color or not having bristle scales, size and annulus various

318a with sclerotium-like or swollen rootlike often hollow base

318b without a base like this, cap white, gray, brown, reddish, or reddish brown

319a (312b) spores rust-colored, dark reddish cinnamon, or some shade of brown other than purple-brown

319b spores reddish, purple-brown, or black

320a gills cleanly removable from cap, spores dull brown

320b gills not cleanly removable from cap, spores various in color

321a stem slender less than or equal to 0.5 cm and typically brittle or cartilaginous

321b stem fleshy greater than 0.5 cm

322a scattered or in groups or clusters on wood, gills adnate to slightly decurrent, spores ocher to dark reddish cinnamon or rust-brown, hygrophanous moist or dry reddish or reddish brown cap and brownish flesh, cap 1-5 cm with white fibrils especially near margin, base usually with white mycelial mat

322b not with above combination of features

323a on burnt ground among the moss Funaria hygrometrica, gills adnate, hygrophanous dry cap 1-4 cm

323b not with above combination of features

324a spores rust-colored or dark reddish cinnamon

324b spores some shade of brown other than rust-colored or dark reddish cinnamon

325a cap cuticle filamentous, spores without germ pore, cannot be separated reliably to genus without microscope, but cap moist to sometimes viscid (may appear dry in dry weather), usually without hoary sheen, often striate

325b cap cuticle cellular, spores with germ pore, cannot be separated reliably to genus without microscope, but dry (may appear moist in wet weather), with hoary sheen or pruinose, may be striate

326a (324b) on burnt ground and/or often among mosses, cap dry 1-4 cm

326b not on burnt ground and not among mosses, or cap not both dry and 1-4cm

327a on wood, cap strongly hygrophanous, bald, dry, brown, annulus small membranous

327b not on wood, or cap not with hygrophanous, bald, dry and brown features, or annulus different

328a cap 2-7 cm, gills reddish brown or purplish brown, stem fragile breaking into pieces with ease, spores dark umber brown

328b cap 1-4 cm, gills not reddish brown or purplish brown, stem cartilaginous to brittle but not breaking into pieces with ease, spores dull brown to pale brown

329a (321b) growing on ground

329b growing on wood

330a cap and lower stem with easily removed granules and yellow-brown to pale orange, spores rust-brown, sheathing veil on stem

330b cap and stem not with easily removed granules or not yellow-brown to pale orange, or spores not rust-brown, or without sheathing veil on stem

331a spores rust-colored

331b spores dark brown to earth-brown to milky-coffee-brown

332a mycenoid, cap surface with hoary sheen, no veil patches on stem base

332b more robust, cap surface with small white fibrils, stem base may have white volva patches

333a (331b) spores milky-coffee-brown, cap bald and hygrophanous, stem dry and without conspicuous scales

333b spores another color, or cap not both bald and hygrophanous, or stem not dry, or stem with conspicuous scales

334a gill edge colored as face or stem entirely scaly

334b gill edge white, stem often pruinose to granular or scabrous near top

335a cap often dry and cracked, surface fibrillose, fibrillose-scaly, or scaly; odor often spermatic or some other distinctive smell like fishy, fruity, green corn, bruised Geranium leaves, or like Lycoperdon flesh

335b cap usually viscid, sticky to touch, surface smooth, never cracked or scaly; odor usually like radish but also may be like burnt sugar, saccharine, sweet, orange blossoms, cocoa, or mild

336a (329b) spores clay-color to bright rusty-orange, gills bright yellow to bright rusty-brown

336b spores dull brown to milky-coffee brown

337a cap fibrillose or breaking up into small scales, more than 1.5 cm wide, brightly colored, spore deposit bright rusty orange, taste bitter

337b cap coarsely scaly, granular, pruinose or floccose, spore deposit a shade of yellow brown to cinnamon or darker brown or duller brown

338a (336b) spores milky-coffee-brown, cap bald, hygrophanous, stem dry and without conspicuous scales

338b spores another color or cap not both bald and hygrophanous, or stem not dry, or stem with conspicuous scales

339a (319b) cap viscid or subviscid

339b cap dry

340a gills mottled, fruitbody on dung, cap hemispherical to deeply convex

340b gills not mottled or fruitbody not on dung or cap not hemispherical to deeply convex

341a stem viscid or with distinct annulus, fruitbodies terrestrial

341b stem dry, with indistinct annulus, fruitbodies usually on wood

342a (339b) fruitbody fleshy not fragile, usually on wood, cap yellow, orange, yellow-brown, or greenish

342b fruitbody often fragile, on dung, humus or wood, cap brown, gray, gray-brown to black or black-brown

343a (303a) spores white to cream

343b spores black to brown

344a gills free, not waxy-looking

344b gills not free, waxy-looking

345a (343b) spores smoky to black, gills long-decurrent

345b spores brown

346a spores rust-brown, cortina present in button stage

346b spores clay-colored, cinnamon-brown, umber-brown, or black-brown, cortina not present although veil may be fibrillose

347a (303b) fruitbodies usually on old Russulaceae, caps 1-2 cm and whitish becoming powdery

347b fruitbodies not on old Russulaceae, caps a different size or color or not becoming powdery

348a spores white to cream

348b spores brownish or blackish

349a spores smoky to black, gills waxy-looking and decurrent, flesh of cap orange

349b spores not smoky to black, or gills not both waxy-looking and decurrent, or flesh of cap not orange

350a spores bright rust-brown to rust-yellow or cinnamon-brown

350b spores dull rust brown, dull brown, clay-colored, umber-brown, purple-brown, blackish-brown or black

351a spores clay-colored, dull brown, dull rust brown, or umber-brown

351b spores purple-brown, blackish brown, or black

352a (348a) stem sheathed up to annular zone with rusty recurved scales that are also present on cap; growing on wood

352b stem not sheathed up to annular zone, or cap and stem not having rusty recurved scales, growing on the ground or on wood

353a (350a) taste bitter, typically on wood, gills become bright rust-colored from spores

353b taste typically not bitter, if bitter then not exclusively on wood, if gills rust-colored then not bright rust-colored

354a cortina well-developed when young, usually with conifers

354b cortina absent, may have slight fibrillose veil, typically under alder, willow, or birch, sometimes on mosses or on burnt ground

355a (351a) cap either fibrillose to scaly, or bald and slippery to viscid or slimy, stem typically scaly, at least on basal part, rarely bald, growing typically on wood, wood chips, or rarely on hard-packed soil

355b not with above combination of features

356a brown scaly dry cap, pallid gills that turn brown, brown stem that is scaly, floccose or woolly fibrillose, growing on soil, rotten wood or among Sphagnum

356b cap not brown or not scaly or not dry, or gills not pallid or not turning brown, or stem not scaly and not floccose and not woolly-fibrillose, most often growing on ground

357a cap often dry and cracked, surface fibrillose, fibrillose-scaly, or scaly; odor often spermatic or some other distinctive smell like fishy, fruity, green corn, bruised Geranium leaves, or like Lycoperdon flesh

357b cap usually viscid, sticky to touch, surface smooth, never cracked or scaly; odor usually like radish but also may be like burnt sugar, saccharine, sweet, orange blossoms, cocoa, or mild

358a (351b) cap and stem fragile with superficial layer of dull brown fibrils, gills often purplish-violet

358b cap yellow, olivaceous-brown, or yellow brown without superficial layer of dull brown fibrils, stem not fragile, gills not purplish-violet

* * *

401a (301b) stem breaks like chalk, cap, stem and gills break into many pieces when crushed, stem typically more than 0.3 cm thick, (and spores with amyloid warts or ridges)

401b stem not breaking into small pieces but may be fragile or snap in two, cap fleshy or tough

402a fruitbody exudes watery or milky substance of various colors when cut

402b fruitbody does not exude watery or milky substance

* * *

501a (401b) gills free

501b gills abruptly adnexed, adnexed, adnate, decurrent, notched, sinuate, or toothed

502a spores white to cream

502b spores brown, pinkish-brown, purple-brown, blackish, (or spores not deposited, 1-1.5 cm conical viscid striate cap, gills gelatinize quickly, tall fragile stem that often bends over, growing in grass in early summer)

503a spores not present, 1-1.5 cm conical viscid striate cap, gills gelatinize quickly, tall fragile stem that often bends over, growing in grass in early summer

503b spores brown, pinkish-brown, purple-brown, or blackish

504a spores bright rust-brown, cap striate, usually viscid

504b spores brown or blackish (but not rust-brown) or cap not striate

505a spores pinkish-brown

505b spores brown, purple-brown, or blackish but not pinkish-brown

506a spores blackish, cap pleated

506b spores not blackish or cap not pleated

507a spores greenish becoming purple-brown on drying, cap powdery

507b spores purple-brown or chocolate-brown, cap not powdery

508a (502a) cap or stem viscid

508b cap and stem dry

509a cap surface with removable powder, 1-8 cm wide, stem 0.1-1.0 cm at top

509b cap surface without removable powder, or cap a different size, or stem a different width

510a Lepiota-like in stature, stem fragile and brittle, easily removed, without bulb

510b not Lepiota-like in stature, stem fleshy-fibrous, not easily removed, with slight bulb

511a (509b) cap 0.3-0.6 cm, silky to innately fibrillose, stem 0.02-0.05 cm at top, fruitbodies brownish lilac, not discoloring when handled or bruised and without an odor, (gills not bluing with PDAB)

511b cap and stem typically larger, cap bald, fruitbodies often discoloring black, blue or red when handled or bruised, odor often distinct, (gills discolor blue with PDAB)

512a (505a) cap often viscid, fruitbodies usually on humus, volva present young

512b cap dry, fruitbodies on wood, volva absent

* * *

601a (501b) gills thick or waxy-looking, lustrous

601b gills not thick or waxy-looking

602a (914a) spores smoky to black

602b spores white, cream, pinkish-brown, or lilac

603a flesh of cap orange, veil fibrillose, gills buff to yellow

603b flesh of cap white to pink, veil viscid, gills white to pallid at first, soon grayish

604a (602b) gills violet, purple, vinaceous-red, or pinkish-brown, often thick and rather hard as well as brittle, typically distant, stem tough and fibrous, often longitudinally striate

604b gills usually colored otherwise, typically not hard if brittle, stem fleshy and soft, usually not longitudinally striate

605a usually growing on dead Russulaceae, with one of following characteristics: a) cap surface and flesh breaking into powdery mass, b) gills poorly developed or distorted or anastomosing , or c) strong sour to farinaceous odor

605b not on dead Russulaceae, or if on dead Russulaceae not with powder cap or poorly developed gills or sour to farinaceous odor

606a gills white and forking, often red-spotted in age, cap gray

606b gills not forking or if forking not in consistently dichotomous way

607a fruitbodies typically on moss, gills often veined or with anastomosing folds and ridges, cap often lobed or spathulate, fruitbody usually less than 3 cm wide

607b fruitbodies with various habitats, gills well-formed, cap size and shape various

608a cap, stem, and gills pale tan (rare) to gray-brown to dark umber-brown, cap up to 8 cm wide, hygrophanous, stem 0.3-0.8 cm at top, (amyloid spores, clampless septa)

608b fruitbodies often vividly colored or at least colored other than above, if cap is gray-brown to umber-brown, then stem is whitish or greater than 0.8 cm wide at top, (inamyloid spores)

609a cap, stem, and often gills gray-brown to dark umber-brown, cap 2.5-8 cm wide, hygrophanous, cap margin usually striate or inrolled, gills occasionally forked, stem 0.3-0.8 cm wide at top, fairly common

609b cap, stem, and presumably gills pale tan, cap up to 4 cm wide, hygrophanous, stem about 0.5 cm wide at top, rare

* * *

701a (601b) gills decurrent or subdecurrent

701b gills neither decurrent nor subdecurrent

702a stem 0.3-0.5 cm wide at top, cap brown to orange-brown, ribbed, and with small umbo, gills sinuate and serrate, grows on hardwood

702b stem wider or narrower at top, or cap otherwise, or gills otherwise, or not on hardwood

703a stem less than 0.5 cm wide at top, often fragile and brittle or sometimes fibrous-pliant or cartilaginous, cap flesh thin usually < 0.2 cm at center, cap often membranous

703b stem greater than or equal to 0.5 cm wide at top, fleshy-fibrous or soft, cap flesh greater than or equal to 0.3 cm thick, cap not membranous

704a spores white, cream, yellow, orange, lilac, or lilac-gray

704b spores pink, pinkish brown, reddish brown, ocher-brown, or purple-brown

705a spores pale pink to pale pinkish brown

705b spores pinkish brown, salmon-brown, reddish brown, ocher-brown, or purple-brown

706a spores pinkish brown, salmon-brown, or reddish-brown

706b spores ocher-brown to reddish cinnamon brown or rust-brown

707a spores ocher-brown to reddish cinnamon brown or rust-brown

707b spores purple-brown

708a (704a) fruitbodies on dead plant remains or especially twigs, small with cap less than or equal to 1.5 cm wide, whitish to ochraceous, stem insititious or almost insititious and whitish with brownish to brownish-black base

708b fruitbodies not on dead plant remains or twigs, or caps wider than 1.5 cm, or cap not whitish to ochraceous, or stem not insititious or almost insititious, or stem not whitish with brownish to brownish-black base

709a fruitbodies on dead hardwood twigs, cap 0.4-1.2 cm wide and white, stem when present stublike or lateral, rarely central, whitish

709b fruitbodies not on dead hardwood twigs, or cap not 0.4-1.2 cm wide, or cap not white, or stem not stublike or lateral, or stem not whitish

710a stem base with yellowish to orangish hairs, not exuding juice when cut, stem at top pruinose, granular, or minutely scaly

710b stem base not with yellowish to orange hairs, or stem exuding juice when cut, or stem neither pruinose nor granular nor minutely scaly

711a usually growing on dead Russulaceae, with one of following characteristics: a) cap surface and flesh breaking into powdery mass, b) gills poorly developed or distorted or anastomosing, or c) strong sour to farinaceous odor

711b not growing on dead Russulaceae, or neither cap surface breaking into powdery mass, nor gills poorly developed, not odor strong sour to farinaceous

712a fruitbodies on moss, cap 2-5 cm wide, hygrophanous gray-brown, often umbilicate, may have farinaceous odor and taste, (round spores with blunt spines), rare

712b fruitbodies not on moss, or cap not 2-5 cm wide, or cap not hygrophanous gray-brown, or spores not round with blunt spines, or common

713a fruitbody reviving when moistened, stem rigid and horny or tough and elastic

713b fruitbody not reviving when moistened, stem fleshy and soft, often fragile and breaking easily

714a cap with removable bristles or hairs or fibrillose scales, gills adnate to subdecurrent or notched, growing on wood or at least near base of trees, stem often with basally attached black rhizomorphs, annulus usually present

714b cap not with removable bristles or hairs or fibrillose scales, or gills definitely decurrent or notched, or growing away from trees, annulus not present

715a cap grayish to yellowish-buff and radially striate with darker fibrils and minute pointed scales, gills strongly decurrent, growing on conifer wood, without black rhizomorphs

715b cap not grayish to yellowish-buff, or cap not radially striate with darker fibrils and minute pointed scales, or gills not strongly decurrent, or not growing on conifer wood

716a either some part of fruitbody bluing or blackening or fruitbodies in large cespitose clusters, stem fleshy, bald, (gills bluing with PDAB)

716b no part of fruitbody bluing or blackening, and fruitbodies not in large cespitose clusters with fleshy bald stem, (and gills not bluing with PDAB)

717a growing on wood, often cespitose or in large numbers, cap appressed-fibrillose, cracked and often lacerate

717b not growing on wood, or cap not appressed-fibrillose or not cracked

718a fruitbody white, whitish cream-colored, or cream-yellowish

718b fruitbody more strongly pigmented

719a either cap 0.1-3 cm wide, bellshaped and umbonate or papillate, or cap 0.35 to 0.45 cm wide, centrally depressed, micaceous with pruinose stem less than 0.1 cm wide

719b cap convex-depressed to slightly umbilicate, but either cap more than 0.45 cm wide, or cap not micaceous, or stem not pruinose or greater than 0.1 cm wide

720a cap 0.1-3 cm wide, bellshaped and umbonate or papillate

720b cap 0.35-0.45 cm wide, centrally depressed, micaceous, stem less than 0.1 cm, pruinose

721a (719b) cap striate, often to disc, margin scalloped or lobed

721b cap not distinctly striate to disc, margin not scalloped or lobed

722a (718b) stem at top pruinose, granular, or minutely scaly, stem base exuding a watery colorless juice when cut

722b stem at top neither pruinose, nor granular, nor minute, and stem base not exuding a watery colorless juice when cut

723a cap 0.4-1.0 cm wide, cap flesh thin, gills whitish to yellowish or buff (may be tinged violaceous) and long-decurrent, stem 1-8 cm long and less than 0.2 cm wide, growing in mosses

723b not with above combination of features

724a cap 0.3-2.5 cm, viscid, yellowish, convex with flat to depressed center, gills lilac or pink or bluish, growing on conifer wood

724b not with above combination of features

725a cap, stem, and gills pale tan (rare) to gray-brown to dark umber-brown, cap up to 8 cm wide, hygrophanous, stem 0.3-0.8 cm at top, (amyloid spores white in deposit, clampless septa)

725b fruitbodies colored other than above, if cap is gray-brown to umber-brown, then stem is whitish or greater than 0.8 cm wide at top, (spores may be amyloid or clamps may be present)

726a cap, stem, and often gills gray-brown to dark umber-brown, cap 2.5-8 cm wide, hygrophanous, cap margin usually striate or inrolled, gills occasionally forked, stem 0.3-0.8 cm wide at top, fairly common

726b cap, stem, and presumably gills pale tan, cap up to 4 cm wide, hygrophanous, stem about 0.5 cm wide at top, rare

727a (725b) cap with gray, gray-brown, olive-brown or blackish brown color, gills decurrent, white and constrasting with cap in color, growing on ground

727b not with above combination of features

728a cap surface gelatinous or slippery when fresh, umbilicate, grows on burnt soil

728b cap surface not gelatinous or slippery when fresh

729a (large cystidia scattered to abundant, 44-66 x 9-12 um)

729b (cystidia if present are small, 25-30 x 7-9 um)

730a (727b) cap when young conic to bellshaped or hemispheric, if depressed or umbilicate then with margin appressed to stem when young

730b cap more or less depressed, umbilicate, or funnel-shaped, cap margin not appressed to stem when young

731a fruitbody with some pinkish, lilac, or vinaceous tints, gills whitish

731b fruitbody lacking such tints, or if with vinaceous tints then gills vinaceous; gills often cap-colored

732a (703b) spores white, pinkish-cream, cream, yellow, orange-cream

732b spores pink, pinkish-brown, reddish-brown, brown, black

733a stem base thickened, sclerotium-like, often hollow, cap surface with removable granules or scales

733b stem base not thickened and sclerotium like, or cap surface without removable granules or scales

734a gills serrate, fruitbody tough and leathery

734b gills not serrate, fruitbody fleshy and soft

735a gills decurrent and forking

735b gills decurrent, may anastomose near stem, but not regularly forking

736a gills white to pinkish, usually red or red-brown where bruised, cap grayish, dry and umbonate

736b cap and gills cream, orange, brown, or pink, gills not turning red or red-brown where bruised

737a (735b) fruitbody densely cespitose or clustered or in rings, or gills where pressed blackening or bluing or turning red, (and usually bluing with PDAB)

737b fruitbody habit various, and gills not blackening or bluing or turning red (may turn brown)

738a growing on wood, gill edge fringed with large bead-like cells (under hand lens)

738b not growing on wood or gill edge not fringed

739a cap at least on disc with scattered bristles or removable scales, fruitbody often with black rhizomorphs at base of stem, annulus usually present

739b with neither scattered bristles nor removable scales on cap nor black rhizomorphs at base of stem, annulus not present

740a (913a) growing on ground, and has one of following features: a) base or stem retains large clump of humus bound up by masses of white mycelium, or b) cap 10-40 cm wide, whitish to yellowish, and sturdy hard flesh has bitter taste

740b not growing on ground or not with either of the two features

741a fruitbodies on buried wood or logs and sticks above ground, stem surface cracked into small scales or furfuraceous

741b fruitbodies not on wood or stem surface neither cracked into small scales nor furfuraceous

742a cap dry yellow 8-20 cm wide, short thick dry yellow stem, growing under conifers

742b cap not dry yellow 8-20 cm wide, or stem not with thick, dry and yellow features, habitat may be different

743a spores pinkish-cream

743b spores white

744a cap, stem, and often gills gray-brown to dark umber-brown, cap 2.5-8 cm wide, hygrophanous, cap margin usually striate or inrolled, gills occasionally forked, stem 0.3-0.8 cm wide at top, (amyloid spores, clampless septa)

744b not with above combination of features

745a cap, stem, and presumably gills pale tan, cap up to 4 cm wide, hygrophanous, stem about 0.5 cm wide at top, (amyloid spores, clampless septa), rare

745b not with above combination of features

746a (732b) gills easily removable from cap, brownish or bright yellow

746b gills not easily removable from cap or gills not brownish or bright yellow

747a cap reddish to purplish-brown or olive-green, cap surface turning blue with KOH, gills bright yellow

747b cap ocher-brown, brown, olive, or black, cap surface not turning blue with KOH, gills brownish

748a (746b) spores pale pink to very faintly pinkish-brown or creamy pink

748b spores pinkish brown, salmon-brown, reddish-brown, bright rust-brown, earth-brown, or black

749a spores pinkish brown, salmon-brown, or reddish-brown

749b spores bright rust-brown, earth-brown, or black

750a spores bright rust-brown, growing on wood, taste bitter

750b spores earth-brown, black-brown, olive-sepia, or black, if on wood, taste not bitter

751a spores earth-brown, terrestrial, rarely on wood

751b spores black, black-brown, or olive-sepia, terrestrial

752a flesh of cap orange, veil fibrillose, gills buff to yellow

752b flesh of cap white to pink, veil viscid, gills white to pallid at first, soon grayish

* * *

801a (701b) stem 0.1-0.4 cm wide, often fibrous-pliant or fragile and brittle, at times with a brittle or cartilaginous rind and fibrous center, cap flesh usually less than 0.3 cm thick, often membranous

801b stem 0.5 cm or more thick, typically fleshy, cap flesh 0.3-0.5 cm or more thick

802a with lateral branches on stem, growing on dead mushrooms

802b growing elsewhere, or if on mushrooms lacking lateral branches on stem

803a growing on dead mushrooms, growing from sclerotium or with stem less than 0.1 cm wide

803b growing elsewhere, or if on dead Russulaceae, cap surface and flesh breaking into powdery mass, or gills distorted, or sour to farinaceous odor

804a usually growing on dead Russulaceae, with one of following characteristics: a) cap surface and flesh breaking into powdery mass, b) gills poorly developed or distorted or anastomosing, or c) strong sour to farinaceous odor

804b growing elsewhere, or if on dead mushrooms, not with characteristics above

805a spores white, pale cream, pale yellowish or pale ochraceous

805b spores pale pink, pinkish, reddish brown, another shade of brown (may be clay-color but not pale ochraceous), gray, or black

806a spores pale pink to pinkish-cream or pinkish-buff

806b spores salmon-brown, pinkish brown, reddish brown, another shade of brown, gray, or black

807a spores salmon-brown, pinkish brown, or reddish-brown

807b spores reddish, clay-colored, cinnamon-brown, rust-brown, rust-yellow, umber, earth-brown, tobacco-brown, purple brown, gray or black

808a spores reddish, clay-colored, cinnamon-brown, rust-brown, rust-yellow, umber, earth-brown, tobacco-brown

808b spores purple-brown, black-brown, gray, smoky, or black

809a (805a) fruitbodies on moss, cap 2-5 cm wide, hygrophanous gray-brown, often umbilicate, may have farinaceous odor and taste, (have round spores with blunt spines), rare

809b not with above combination of features

810a fruitbody fragile, cap usually bellshaped to conic, rarely broadly convex, cap margin typically appressed to stem when young

810b fruitbody variable in consistency, cap convex, broadly convex, parabolic or flat

811a dry fruitbody reviving when moistened, stem often tough and horny or stiff

811b dry fruitbody not reviving when moistened

812a stem exuding juice when cut

812b stem not exuding juice when cut

813a stem and cap exuding watery juice when cut

813b stem exuding colored or white juice when cut, or if stem exuding watery juice then cap not exuding watery juice

814a (812b) fruitbody small, soft, dry, cap 0.2-3 cm wide, white to slightly cream-yellowish or slightly ocher-brown, (spores inamyloid)

814b not with above combination of features

815a stem granular, hairy-bristly, velvety, or floccose; if stem is merely pruinose, either the cap is pruinose to velvety at least when young, or gills are marginate

815b stem bald or pruinose, if pruinose then cap is bald

816a stem stiff and pruinose, gills not marginate

816b stem soft and fleshy, velvety to floccose, if stem merely pruinose then gills marginate

817a (815b) (spores appear spiny)

817b spores do not appear spiny or spores not examined

818a (large cystidia scattered to abundant, 44-66 x 9-12 um)

818b (cystidia if present are small, 25-30 x 7-9 um)

819a (810b) growing on dead hardwood, cap 0.4-1.2 cm wide, white, stem typically lateral to absent but rarely central

819b not with above combination of features

820a surface of cap and stem granular, fruitbodies ocher-yellow, ocher-brown, orange-brown, red-brown, dingy white, vinaceous, or red-purple, stem typically with floccose annular zone

820b surface of cap and stem not granular, or fruitbodies a different color

821a usually growing on dead Russulaceae, with one of following characteristics: a) cap surface and flesh breaking into powdery mass, b) gills poorly developed or distorted or anastomosing, or c) strong sour to farinaceous odor

821b not growing on dead Russulae or not with any of those characteristics

822a stem base with yellowish to orangish hairs

822b stem base not with yellowish to orangish hairs

823a stem rigid and horny or tough and elastic, reviving when moistened but cap not with long hairs

823b stem not rigid and horny and not tough or elastic, or fruitbody not reviving when moistened after drying; cap hairy or not

824a (912a) with one of the following features: a) some part of fruitbody blackening or bluing with bruising, b) in large cespitose clusters with large fleshy stems, c) (gills staining blue with PDAB)

824b not with any of the above features

825a cap gray, gray-brown, olive-brown or blackish-brown, gills white, growing on ground

825b cap or gills a different color, habitat various

826a cap surface gelatinous or slippery when fresh, on burnt ground

826b cap surface not gelatinous or slippery when fresh, not typically on burnt ground

827a (large cystidia scattered to abundant, 44-66 x 9-12 um)

827b (cystidia if present are small, 25-30 x 7-9 um)

828a (825b) growing on wood, cones, or dead plant remains

828b growing on ground or humus or old mushrooms

829a cap usually less than 1.0 cm wide and with long hairs under hand lens, stem threadlike

829b cap larger or not having long hairs under hand lens, or stem not threadlike

830a cap usually less than 1.5 cm wide, whitish, stem insititious or nearly insititious and whitish with brownish to brownish black base, growing on dead plant remains and twigs

830b not with above combination of features

831a cap viscid to slippery or dry, yellowish to orange, stem velvety to hairy

831b cap dry or slippery but not viscid, various colors, stem tomentose, furfuraceous, pruinose or bald

832a fruitbody yellow-brown with olivaceous tint, olivaceous, or green when fresh, becoming deep vinaceous on drying

832b fruitbody a different color

833a cap whitish, or pale gray, or grayish brown with darker disk; cap appressed-fibrillose, sometimes radially cracked, 1-6 cm wide, gills crowded to subdistant, with moderate breadth, stem not yellowing at base, growth gregarious to cespitose, (spores amyloid)

833b not with above combination of features

834a strong odor of cucumber or fish, dark brown cap with paler margin, gill edge with large cells visible with hand lens

834b odor different, cap a different color, or gills without fringe under hand lens

835a fruitbody with threadlike stem or stem tapering toward base, odor of garlic, onion, or rotting cabbage

835b fruitbody with neither threadlike nor tapering stem, or odor different

836a (845a) stem insititious

836b stem not insititious

837a (835b) cap 4-15 cm wide, growing on mouldy foliage, coniferous wood, or buried wood

837b cap 0.5-4.0 cm wide, typically from cones but also woody debris

838a gill edge ciliate due to large cells under hand lens, stem not rooting

838b gill edge not ciliate, stem rooting

839a (837b) cap flat to convex; gills pallid to violet, narrow and crowded; stem uniform in color

839b cap variable in shape; gills white and close; stem white at top becoming yellow to yellow-orange toward base

840a (828b) cap broadly convex becoming flat-convex to flat, often obtusely umbonate, gills abruptly adnexed to adnexed, narrow and crowded, stem round in cross-section, longitudinally striate, and equal

840b not with above combination of features

841a stem with prominent branches arising at right angles

841b stem not with branches at right angles

842a fruitbodies arising from a sclerotium or growing on dead mushrooms

842b fruitbodies neither arising from a sclerotium nor growing on dead mushrooms

843a cap less than 1.0 cm wide, with long hairs especially on margin, stem threadlike

843b cap larger or without long hairs, or stem not threadlike

844a odor strong of cucumber or fish, dark brown cap with paler margin, cells on gill edge visible with hand lens

844b odor otherwise, or cap not dark brown with paler margin, or cells on gill edge not visible with hand lens

845a odor of garlic, onion, or rotting cabbage

845b odor not of garlic, onion, or rotting cabbage

846a gills adnate or adnexed, cap flesh thin

846b gills abruptly adnexed or if adnexed or broadly adnate, cap flesh thick

847a gills broadly adnate, spores white

847b gills abruptly adnexed or notched, spores cream to yellow in heavy deposit

848a (806a) stem relatively stiff, odor strong of fish or cucumber, dark brown cap with paler margin, gills with long cells visible under hand lens

848b not with above combination of features

849a gills broadly adnate

849b gills abruptly adnexed

850a (808a) spores dark reddish in mass, stem extremely fragile

850b spores not dark reddish in mass or stem not extremely fragile

851a spores and gills bright rusty brown, growing on wood, taste bitter

851b spores and gills not bright rusty brown, or not growing on wood, or taste not bitter

852a stem long and often rooting, cartilaginous or brittle but with fibrous center, cap typically conic, bellshaped, or convex-bellshaped or at least acutely umbonate, typically viscid

852b not with above combination of features

853a cap viscid to glutinous

853b cap dry to moist

854a cap thick and when viscid not striate, growing on ground, stem fleshy to fibrous, spores rust-brown, cortina present and distinct in button stage

854b cap thin and striate when moist, growing on ground or wood, stem fragile to horny, spores rust-brown to tobacco-brown or hazel to milky-coffee, cortina absent

855a growing on ground, stem horny, spores hazel to milky-coffee

855b growing on wood or terrestrial, stem fragile, spores rust-brown to tobacco-brown

856a cap white, yellow, violet-gray and pleated to grooved at least young

856b cap brown or orange-brown, not pleated or grooved but often striate

857a (853b) spores bright rust-brown, rust-yellow, clay-colored, cinnamon-brown

857b spores umber-brown or tobacco-brown

858a growing on wood, cap granular to scaly

858b growing on humus or if on wood, cap not granular to scaly

859a cortina present and distinctly evident when young

859b cortina absent, or if present not distinctly evident when young

860a cap pleated to furrowed at least when young

860b cap not pleated to furrowed

861a odor cucumber or fishy, dark brown cap with paler margin, gills whitish to reddish-ocher, stem relatively stiff, velvety

861b not with above combination of features

862a on burnt ground among the moss Funaria hygrometrica, gills rust-yellow to rust-brown, cap dry, 1-4 cm wide

862b not with above combination of features

863a scattered or in groups or clusters on wood, gills adnate to slightly decurrent, spores ocher to dark reddish cinnamon or rust brown, hygrophanous moist or dry reddish or reddish brown cap and pinkish brownish flesh, cap 1-5 cm with white fibrils especially near margin, base usually with white mycelial mat

863b not with above combination of features

864a growing on ground, stem horny, spores hazel to milky-coffee

864b growing on wood or terrestrial, either stem not horny or spores some other shade of brown

865a cap cuticle cellular, spores with germ pore, cannot be separated reliably without microscope from Galerina which has filamentous cap cuticle and spores without germ pore, but dry (may appear moist in wet weather), with hoary sheen or pruinose, may be striate

865b not with above combination of features

866a cap margin straight at first, cap typically conic to bellshaped, sometimes convex, cap surface moist to viscid (may appear dry in dry weather), usually without hoary sheen, and often distinctly striate, stem fragile and often pruinose at top

866b cap margin at first inrolled to incurved, cap rarely conic, more typically parabolic, stem not as fragile, and not pruinose at top

867a (933a) fruitbody collybioid in stature, growing with alder, cap dry to hygrophanous and somewhat scabrous to scurfy, stem narrow, equal and not particularly fragile

867b not with above combination of features

868a on burnt ground among the moss Funaria hygrometrica, gills rust-yellow to rust-brown, cap dry

868b not with above combination of features

869a membranous partial veil present in button stage, annulus often present in young stages, but often fleeting

869b membranous partial veil and annulus absent in all stages, small fruitbodies

870a on stumps or wood remains, stem may be scaly below annulus, cap hygrophanous and gray-brown to ocher-brown

870b terrestrial or rarely on wood, stem not scaly below annulus, cap not hygrophanous and gray-brown to ocher-brown

871a (869b) spores fawn to purple brown, growing on monocots

871b spores another shade of brown or not growing on monocots

872a spores deep rust-brown to rust-yellow

872b spores brown, fuscous-brown or olivaceous-umber, cap often with olivaceous tone, growing on wood or plant remains

873a (857b) stem extremely fragile, cap fibrillose, gills often purplish-violet

873b stem not extremely fragile or cap not fibrillose

874a cap olive to olive-brown or yellow-brown, stem pruinose, cortina absent

874b cap greenish, greenish-yellow, yellow-orange to reddish, stem not pruinose, cortina present but often fleeting

875a (808b, 904b) fruitbodies on monocots, spores fawn to purple brown, fruitbodies small with slender stem typically less than 0.1 cm wide, cap less than 0.7 cm wide, dry not striate

875b fruitbodies not on monocots, or spores another color, or stem greater than 0.1 cm wide, or cap viscid or distinctly striate

876a fruitbodies on wet soil under conifers and alders or along margins of bogs among mosses, spores pale purplish-brown, cap 1-3 cm hygrophanous orange-brown shiny striate, stem 0.1-0.2 cm wide, cartilaginous to horny

876b fruitbodies on wood, dung, or in grass or humus, cap viscid or dry, if stem is less than 0.2 cm wide then very fragile and snaps easily, often striate

877a cap dry

877b cap moist, slippery, viscid, or slimy

878a cortina present in button stage but typically fleeting, stem fleshy to fibrous and not fragile, annulus absent, cap yellow, olivaceous-brown, red, or yellow-brown, fruitbodies on wood or in Sphagnum bogs, cap shiny under hand lens

878b not with the above features, cap surface dull under hand lens

879a gills dark brown and spotted, cap dark at first becoming pale, growing in grass

879b gills not dark brown or not spotted, or cap not dark at first becoming pale, or habitat different

880a cap pleated-striate

880b cap not pleated-striate

881a (877b) gills mottled with spore maturity, annulus present or absent, cap 2-10 cm wide, pallid to pale ochraceous, growing on dung

881b not with above combination of features

882a annulus absent, cap 0.5-2.0 (7.5) cm wide, yellow-brown to brown, at most greasy, at times acutely umbonate to conic

882b annulus present or absent, cap 2-12 cm wide, white, yellow, brown, reddish, or greenish, often viscid, never acutely umbonate or conic

* * *

901a (801b) spores white to pale cream to yellow

901b spores pinkish, rust-yellow, some shade of brown, or black

902a spores pink, pinkish-cream, or pinkish buff

902b spores pinkish-brown, salmon-brown, some other shade of brown, rust-yellow, or black

903a spores pinkish-brown or salmon-brown

903b spores brown, rust-yellow or black

904a spores clay-colored, rust-yellow, cinnamon-brown, milky-coffee-brown, dark brown, earth-brown, reddish-brown, rust-brown, umber-brown, or tobacco-brown

904b spores purple-brown, blackish-brown, or black

905a (901a) gills sinuate

905b gills abruptly adnexed, adnexed, or adnate

906a spores white, stem with tough outer rind, broad frequently eroded gills, cap 4-12 cm, nonviscid often radially streaked, and dark brown to grayish-brown or pallid with dark center

906b not with above combination of features

907a spores white or yellow, stem with brittle or cartilaginous outer rind

907b spores white, pale cream, or cream, stem without a brittle or cartilaginous outer rind

908a (905b) stem rooting, tapering to a point and often buried in ground

908b stem not both rooting and tapering to a point

909a stem with sclerotium or bulb-like base that is often hollow but is not marginate, cap with easily removed granules or scales

909b stem lacking the combination of sclerotium or bulb like base and cap with easily removed granules

910a cap viscid, stem velvety and cartilaginous or brittle, although sometimes quite tough or thick, fruitbodies typically on wood

910b cap not viscid or stem not velvety and cartilaginous or brittle, habitat various

911a gill edge ciliate (fringed) due to large cells easily visible under hand lens

911b gill edge not fringed

912a gills adnate or adnexed, cap flesh thin

912b gills abruptly adnexed, or if adnexed to broadly adnate then cap flesh is thick

913a gills broadly adnate

913b gills abruptly adnexed, or adnexed

914a (907b) gills thick and waxy-looking

914b gills not thick and waxy-looking

915a fruitbody pinkish or purple-red to wine-red, odor mild to farinaceous

915b fruitbody a different color, or odor different

916a fruitbodies more or less densely cespitose or in clusters or rings, or gills turning blue or black when bruised, (or gills bluing with PDAB)

916b not with any of the above features

917a growing on wood, gill edge ciliate (fringed) due to large cells visible with hand lens

917b not growing on wood, or gill edge not fringed

918a cap broadly convex to flat-convex becoming flat, often obtusely umbonate, suede-like to the touch, gills narrow and crowded, stem equal, longitudinally striate

918b not with the above combination of features

919a with an inrolled margin at least when young, and has one of following features a) base or stem retains large clump of humus bound up my masses of white mycelium, or b) cap 10-40 cm wide, whitish to yellowish, and sturdy hard flesh has bitter taste

919b not with an inrolled margin or not having either of those features

920a fruitbody pinkish or purple-red to wine-red

920b fruitbody colored otherwise

921a (902a) stem rooting or tapered at base, longitudinally striate with a cartilaginous rind and fleshy interior, fruitbodies may stain reddish

921b stem not rooting or tapered and not longitudinally striate, fleshy throughout, fruitbodies not staining reddish

922a (904a) gills readily removed from cap

922b gills not readily removed from cap

923a cap reddish to purplish-brown or olive-green, cap surface turning blue with KOH, gills bright yellow

923b cap ocher-brown, brown, olive, or black, cap surface not turning blue with KOH, gills brownish

924a (922b) spores clay-colored to bright rusty-brown, gills bright yellow to bright rusty-brown, cap more than 1.5 cm wide, brightly colored, taste bitter, growing on wood

924b not with the above combination of features

925a spores dark brown or black-brown, cap bald, greenish, greenish-yellow, reddish-ochraceous, or yellow-brown, taste often bitter, cortina present but often fleeting, fruitbodies on peat, bogs, or wood

925b not with the above combination of features

926a cap 1-5 cm wide, yellow-brown, and with a lighter margin, gills with a whitish edge, stem pruinose at top, odor indistinct, growing on burned wood or burned ground

926b not with the above combination of features

927a gills with whitish gill edge, stem pruinose at top, spores reddish-brown to clay-colored to umber

927b gills without whitish edge, or if so then the stem not pruinose, spores either rust-brown to rust-yellow or umber-brown, earth-brown, milky-coffee-brown, or tobacco-brown

928a cap often dry and cracked, surface fibrillose, fibrillose-scaly, or scaly; odor often spermatic or some other distinctive smell like fishy, fruity, green corn, bruised Geranium leaves, or like Lycoperdon flesh

928b cap usually viscid, sticky to touch, surface smooth, never cracked or scaly; odor usually like radish but also may be like burnt sugar, saccharine, sweet, orange blossoms, cocoa, or mild

929a (927b) spores umber-brown, earth-brown, milky-coffee-brown, or tobacco-brown

929b spores rust-brown to rust-yellow

930a stem dry and without conspicuous scales, cap bald and dry, growing on ground, on dung, on decaying wood, or on wood chips

930b stem typically scaly, at least on basal part, rarely bald, cap either fibrillose to scaly, or bald and slippery to viscid or slimy, growing typically on wood, wood chips, or rarely on hard-packed soil

931a (929b) cap conic to bellshaped, bald, viscid or moist, stem rooting, fruitbodies often clustered to gregarious or nearly cespitose

931b not with the above combination of features

932a cortina evident in young stages, if cortina overlooked the stem typically either viscid or with fibrils that represent the remnants of the cortina

932b cortina not evident in young stages

933a fruitbody with yellow-brown, tobacco-brown, red-brown, or umber-brown colors, fruitbodies under alder, willow, birch, or in mosses

933b fruitbody variable in color but usually brighter or lighter than above, typically growing on wood, if on humus then not associated with alder, willow, birch, or mosses

DESCRIPTIONS FOR SPECIES NOT ASSIGNED TO OTHER KEYS

Bolbitius vitellinus (Pers.) Fr.

CAP 1-7 cm across when expanded, ovoid to conic or bell-shaped when young, often becoming flat when old but often retaining a small central umbo; bright yellow to pale yellow, often fading when old; smooth, viscid or slimy when moist, margin striate, often becoming grooved nearly to center; flesh thin, soft; yellowish. GILLS free or nearly free, close, narrow, thin, soft, dissolving somewhat in wet weather; straw-colored then then tinged rust and finally deep rusty tawny. STEM 3-12cm x 0.2-0.8cm, equal or widening in lower part, hollow, fragile; whitish to pale yellow; often pruinose or flocculose. VEIL absent. ODOR and TASTE indistinct. EDIBILITY yes, flavorless, (Arora). HABITAT single, scattered or gregarious (or even cespitose) on dung, manure, straw, rotting vegetable debris, cultivated ground, grass, and at margins of woods. SPORE COLOR rusty orange to rusty brown or ocher brown. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 10-16 x 6-9 microns, elliptic, smooth, truncate from large germ pore; basidia 4-spored; pleurocystidia rare, when present lageniform, cheilocystidia variable, utriform or lageniform with long or short neck, intermixed with a few colorless inflated cells, 30-50 x 14-20 microns; clamp connections absent. REMARKS Breitenbach & Kränzlin give the opinion that Bolbitius reticulatus (Pers.: Fr.) Ricken with a lilac, reticulate-venose cap and B. variicolor G.F. Atk., with an olive-yellow to olive-brown, sometimes venose cap, are not separate species but only deviations from the type of Bolbitius vitellinus caused by substrate, age, or weather, especially since the microscopic features do not show any marked differences. SOURCES Watling(1), Arora(1)*, Lincoff(2)*, Lincoff(1)*, Schalkwijk-Barendsen(1)*, Courtecuisse(1)*, Barron(1)*, Breitenbach(4)* Bolbitius vitellinus
Bolbitius vitellinus
Andrew Parker

Callistosporium luteo-olivaceum (Berk. & Curt) Singer

CAP 1.5-6.5 cm, convex or slightly umbonate becoming flat or shallowly depressed; dark olive to olive brown or olive yellow, often becoming yellower when old and developing dark reddish brown tones when dried; not viscid, often finely scurfy at first but becoming smooth; flesh thin, pallid or yellowish or tinged cap color. ODOR mild to pungent or slightly fruity. TASTE mild or slightly bitter. GILLS notched or adnexed or adnate, close, yellow, tending to redden when dried. STEM 2.5-7 x 0.3-1 cm, more or less equal, often flattened; colored like cap or slightly darker, tending to turn deep red-brown from the base up as it dries; smooth to fibrillose or scurfy especially over lower part, sometimes streaked when old. HABIT solitary, scattered or in small groups or cespitose. HABITAT on rotten wood under conifers. DISTRIBUTION at least BC, WA. EDIBILITY unknown. SPORE COLOR white. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 4.5-6.5 x 3-4.5 um according to Arora, (7-8 (8.5) x 3.5 um and larger for 2-spored or 1-spored basidia according to Favre quoted by Redhead), elliptic to nearly round, smooth, inamyloid; pleurocystidia absent, cheilocystidia generally present, rarely exceeding basidia, 10-39 x 2.5-5 um, clavate to filamentous, usually with contorted appearance, sometimes sparingly branched. REMARKS stature of a Collybia and originally in that genus, but distinguished by olive and yellow coloration and tendency to grow on rotten wood. SOURCES Arora, Redhead(23), Lennox. Callistosporium luteo-olivaceum
Callistosporium luteo-olivaceum
Steve Trudell

Cantharellula umbonata (Fr.) Singer  grayling

CAP 1-5 cm, conic to convex often becoming depressed with a small umbo and sometimes a wavy margin, margin remaining downcurved; brownish gray to smoky or violaceous gray or buff to vinaceous buff, occasionally tinted greenish; dry, initially soft like leather becoming firmer and wrinkled, otherwise bald; flesh whitish, slowly bruising reddish where cut or handled or exposed. ODOR faintly of cucumbers, or fragrant or not distinctive. TASTE mild. GILLS decurrent, crowded, narrow, thickish, regularly forked; whitish bruising or staining reddish brown or becoming yellowish in the edges near the cap margin. STEM 2-8 x 0.3-0.7 cm, more or less equal, tough; whitish to buff or sometimes with pinkish tint in lower part, silky to velvety, sometimes striate at top. EDIBILITY good if young and fresh. HABITAT among mosses, especially Polytrichum. DISTRIBUTION at least BC, ID. SPORE COLOR white. MICROSTRUCTURES spores (7.8) 8.5-10 (11.1) x (2.5) 3-3.5 (4.2) um, narrowly cylindric to fusoid-cylindric, smooth, amyloid, thin-walled, with 1-3 droplets; pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia not seen; clamps present. REMARKS features include grayish umbonate dry cap, white flesh which sometimes stains reddish, crowded whitish forking decurrent gills which develop reddish brown patches, white to grayish stem, and cylindric amyloid spores. SOURCES Redhead(36), Phillips*, Lincoff(2)*, Breitenbach(3)*, Kibby*, Schalkwijk-Barendsen*, Courtecuisse*, Bessette(2)*, Redhead(6), Barron*. Cantharellula umbonata
Cantharellula umbonata
Michael Beug

Cantharocybe gruberi (A.H. Sm.) H.E. Bigelow & A.H. Sm.

CAP 8-20 cm, convex with inrolled margin; pale yellow to lemon yellow drying darker yellow; dry, unpolished, tomentose at the edge at first; flesh thick, firm, white, unchanging when cut or bruised. ODOR radishlike, somewhat sweetish, or like green pepper, or farinaceous. TASTE similar to odor or mild. GILLS long decurrent, ends unequal at top of stem, close, about 3 tiers of subgills, narrow becoming broad, anastomosing or forming a network at top of stem; colored as cap or paler and duller. STEM 3-5 x 1.5-2.5 cm, short and thick, firm, solid; colored as cap or darker yellow; bald. HABIT solitary. HABITAT on needle beds and soil under conifers. DISTRIBUTION found at least ID (Smith), WA (by Janet Lindgren, Jennifer Schmidt). SPORE COLOR white or pale lemon yellow. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 11-16 (17.5) x (4.5) 6-7.5 um, elliptic to almost cylindric, smooth, inamyloid; pleurocystidia rare, adjacent to gill edge when present, similar to cheilocystidia in size and shape, cheilocystidia abundant, 33-75 um long, 4-7.5 (1) um broad in swollen portion, usually lageniform to lecythiform, apices branched at times, colorless, thin-walled, smooth; clamps present. REMARKS distinctive features are large size, yellow color of dry cap and stem, decurrent close gills that anastomose near stem and are colored as cap or paler and duller, white or pale lemon yellow spore deposit, large elliptic to subcylindric spores, and the presence of cheilocystidia. SOURCES Bigelow(1), Smith(17). Cantharocybe gruberi
Cantharocybe gruberi
Andrew Parker

Catathelasma imperiale (Fr.) Singer  imperial cat

CAP 10-40 cm, convex to flat with incurved margin at first; blackish brown to dingy brown, dingy yellow-brown, or olive-brown; slightly viscid when moist but soon dry, smooth, fibrillose-scaly, or cracked into scales or plaques; flesh very thick (up to 15cm!) and hard, white. ODOR floury. TASTE floury or bitter. GILLS decurrent, close, narrow in relation to flesh, many forked; pallid or buff to yellowish or pale greenish gray. STEM 12-18 x 3-8 cm, thick, narrowing to bluntly pointed base; dingy brown to pinkish buff below the annulus; dry; annulus membranous, two-layered, lower surface often areolate (like cracked mud) while still covering gills, typically forming double ring, the upper one thick, striate above and often flaring, the lower one sheathing stem as a thin membrane or gelatinous zone. EDIBILITY yes, but tough. HABIT and HABITAT solitary, scattered, or in groups on ground under conifers (especially spruce and fir). SPORE COLOR white. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 10-15 x 4-5.5 um, cylindric, smooth, amyloid; marginal cells on gill edges 37-70 x 2.5-3.5 um, cylindric, some flexuous. REMARKS C. ventricosum has dingy whitish to grayish cap which is not viscid. SOURCES Arora*, Phillips*, Lincoff(2)*, Kibby*, Lincoff(1)*, Courtecuisse*, Kernaghan, Breitenbach(3)*. Catathelasma imperiale
Catathelasma imperiale
Michael Beug

Catathelasma ventricosum (Peck) Singer  swollen-stalked cat

CAP 7-15(35) cm, dingy whitish to brownish or grayish; dry, smooth, patchy with age; flesh hard, thick, white. ODOR reported as not distinctive and as cucumber-farinaceous. TASTE mildly unpleasant. GILLS decurrent, close to nearly distant, narrow to broad; whitish to buff. STEM 5-15 x 2.5-6 cm, short and stout, narrowing toward base and deep in soil; white above double annulus and yellow-brown below it; dry; annulus two-layered flaring, upper layer hairy, lower membranous. EDIBILITY good. HABITAT under conifers especially spruce. DISTRIBUTION mentioned by Jumpponen et al. for Washington, but appears more widely in Pacific Northwest on foray lists. SPORE COLOR white. MICROSCOPIC spores 9-12 x 4-5.5 um, elliptic, smooth, amyloid. REMARKS Tricholoma magnivelare somewhat similar but has spicy odor and lacks double veil. C. imperiale taller and usually larger than and has sticky dark cap when young. SOURCES Phillips*, Lincoff(2)*, Bessette(2)*, Barron*, Jumpponen(1). Catathelasma ventricosum
Catathelasma ventricosum
Steve Trudell

Clitocybula abundans (Peck) Singer

CAP up to 4cm across, generally about 2cm, convex becoming flat then depressed, margin inrolled at first and remaining arched, often splitting; somewhat hygrophanous, grayish tan to light fuscous, darker fuscous on disc; moist to dry, innately radially fibrillose, only slightly if at all translucent-striate; flesh thin, firm, not tough; whitish. ODOR and TASTE not distinctive. GILLS broadly adnate to subdecurrent, close to normal spacing, rather narrow, thin, white, may be interveined. STEM up to 5 cm long and up to 0.5 cm wide, equal or slightly flared at base, generally curved both ways, round, hollow; whitish, thinly pruinose at top or throughout. HABITAT tufted on logs or stumps of conifers. DISTRIBUTION found at least Washington and Oregon. SPORE COLOR white. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 4.5-6(6.5) x 3.5-5.5 microns, nearly round to ovate, smooth, amyloid; basidia 4-spored. cheilocystidia 33-50 x 7-16 microns, basidioid to subsaccate, smooth, colorless, thin-walled; clamp connections present. REMARKS Clitocybula lacerata is larger, with lacerate cap and gills, and has larger more ovate to elliptic spores and lacks cystidia. SOURCES Lennox, Bigelow(3), Barron(1)*, Breitenbach(3)*

Cleistocybe gomphidioides (A.H. Sm.) Ammirati, A.D. Parker, & Matheny

CAP 5 to 9 cm across, flat at first with inrolled margin, becoming broadly convex with disc depressed or flat; reddish brown to cinnamon brown on disc, paler toward margin; viscid, with streaks of agglutinated fibrils or scaly or finely tomentose then bald when old, disc with minute scales or minutely areolate, margin at times fringed with veil remnants; flesh thick, firm, whitish or brownish. ODOR and TASTE strongly rancid farinaceous. GILLS short-decurrent or long-decurrent, close to crowded or subdistant, narrow to moderately broad, often forked; pinkish buff to light pinkish brown when young, light gray to gray, darkening when old. STEM 3 to 9 cm long, 8 to 15 mm wide, equal or club-shaped; pale gray, base darkening where handled, appressed fibrillose below ring zone, partial veil apical, thin, fibrillose to submembranous, at times annulate, at times collapsed or disappearing. HABITAT single to gregarious under conifers or in mixed forest, August to October. DISTRIBUTION found at least Washington, Idaho, and Colorado, but not common. SPORE COLOR white. MICROSTRUCTURES spores (6.0)7.5-11.8(15.5) x (3.5)4.0-5.5 microns, elliptic, smooth, inamyloid; basidia usually 4-spored but rarely 1-3-spored; pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia absent; cap cuticle subgelatinous to gelatinous in KOH; clamp connections present. REMARKS Cleistocybe vernalis occurs in spring, has a non-gelatinous cap cuticle microscopically, has spores slightly different, and has different molecular data. Clitocybe gomphidioides A.H. Sm. and Clitocybe subvelosa A.H. Sm. & D.E. Stuntz are synonyms. SOURCES Ammirati(12), Bigelow(5) CLEISTOCYBE INFORMATION

Cleistocybe vernalis Ammirati, A.D. Parker, & Matheny

CAP 2 to 6 cm across, convex at first with incurved margin, becoming depressed with downcurved margin, appressed-fibrillose to squamulose with vinaceous brown fibrils like kid leather over pale pinkish gray background, at times cracked-areolate and/or margin with scattered patches of submembranous veil remnants; flesh thick, firm, pale pinkish gray-brown. ODOR strongly farinaceous. GILLS decurrent, close, gills more or less equal in number to subgills, narrow; pale pinkish gray. STEM 3 to 6 cm long, 7 to 15 mm wide, equal to slightly narrowing downward, at times 2-4 fruitbodies from common base; colored as cap; fibrillose above ring zone, with coarse irregular patches of veil tissue in lower part, annulus submembranous, superior, pale pinkish gray. HABITAT single or clustered on soil, late April to mid-May. DISTRIBUTION type found in eastern Washington. SPORE COLOR presumably pale. MICROSTRUCTURES spores (6.3)7.4-10.4 x 3.7-4.8 microns, elliptic to ovate, amyloid, presumably smooth; basidia 4-spored; pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia absent; cap cuticle not embedded in a gelatinous matrix; clamp connections present throughout. REMARKS Cleistocybe gomphidioides occurs in fall, has a sub-gelatinous to gelatinous cap cuticle microscopically, and has spores that are slightly different. SOURCES Ammirati(12) CLEISTOCYBE INFORMATION

Clitocybula atrialba (Murrill) Singer   black and white Clitocybula

CAP 2.5-8(10)cm across, convex at first expanding to flat, disc soon depressed, finally funnel-shaped, margin at first downcurved then elevated; smoky to dark blackish brown, usually streaked with lighter brown and paler on disc; dry to moist at times but not hygrophanous, somewhat hoary or finely matted fibrillose, becoming furfuraceous, margin entire or scalloped, not striate; flesh thin; whitish near disc, cap-colored near margin. ODOR and TASTE not distinctive. GILLS decurrent, ends even and forming a collar on stem top, distant, narrow or broad, occasionally forked when old; grayish to whitish; intervenose, faces venose. STEM 5-12.5 cm x 0.3-1.5 cm, base somewhat enlarged; brown, paler when old, diffracted scaly to furfuraceous at top, scales dark, fibrillose streaked downward, top streaked with ridges as continuation from gills, base often with rhizomorphs. HABITAT single, scattered or somewhat tufted on buried hardwood or less commonly on hardwood logs and sticks above ground. DISTRIBUTION at least BC, WA, OR. SPORE COLOR white. MICROSTRUCTURES spores (6)7.5-9 x 7-8 microns, from 4-spored basidia, round or nearly round, up to 13 x 9 microns, from 1- and 2-spored basidia, then broadly elliptic to subovate, smooth, amyloid; pleurocystidia none, cheilocystidia none; clamp connections present REMARKS Clitocybe avellaneialba has brownish cap and smooth stem, along with inamyloid fusoid spores. SOURCES Bigelow(3), Lincoff(2)*, Arora(1), Bandoni(1). Clitocybula atrialba
Clitocybula atrialba
Steve Trudell

Clitocybula familia (Peck) Singer   family Clitocybula

CAP 1-4 cm across, hemispheric to convex with margin narrowly incurved at times and slightly exceeding gills, occasionally broadly lobed or faintly grooved but not pellucid-striate, disc may have slight small umbo; watery whitish or faintly smoke-tinged, moisture lost in radiating streaks but no color change; moist, bald to the eye, thinly pruinose under hand lens, margin may be torn when old; flesh white, thin, pliant or brittle. ODOR not distinctive. TASTE not distinctive or slightly disagreeable. GILLS adnate or notched to nearly free, close or crowded, narrow (up to 0.4cm); white or pale gray. STEM 4-8cm x 0.15-0.3cm, compressed and fluted at times, easily splitting longitudinally, hollow; top and middle part white, base dingy and rather grayish at times; white pubescent, base woolly-hairy. HABITAT cespitose in large clusters on logs and stumps, usually on conifer wood, but occasionally on hardwood. DISTRIBUTION in the Pacific Northwest found at least in Idaho. SPORE COLOR white. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 3.5-4(5)5 microns, round, smooth, amyloid; basidia 4-spored; pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia absent; clamp connections present. REMARKS Clitocybula lacerata is usually on hardwoods and has larger elliptic spores. Collybia acervata is also densely clustered on rotting conifers, but cap of Clitocybula familia is watery white to smoky-gray to brownish or tan (never reddish-brown), and stem is white to grayish. Mycena species have straight cap margin when young. SOURCES Bigelow(3), Phillips(1)*, Lincoff(2)* Clitocybula familia
Clitocybula familia
Ben Woo

Clitocybula lacerata (Scop.) Metrod

CAP 3-6 cm across, convex with inrolled margin, expanding to broadly convex, disc soon depressed, margin thin and soon lacerated or lobed and quite irregular; hygrophanous, dull watery gray when moist, fading as it dries to pallid ashy gray; translucent striate or streaked with dark lines; appressed radially fibrillose; flesh thin, fragile, pallid when faded. ODOR and TASTE not distinctive. GILLS broadly adnate to subdecurrent with a tooth, distant to subdistant, broad, at times anastomosed, thin. dull gray, usually venose. STEM 1.5-5 cm x 0.2-0.5 cm, equal or widening downward, hollow, soon deeply furrowed or compressed, cartilaginous, often curved; dingy to pale gray, colored as cap or paler; moist, faintly pruinose at first, soon bald and polished, white cottony mycelioid base. HABITAT scattered to gregarious or clustered on logs or stumps of conifers or hardwoods. DISTRIBUTION in the Pacific Northwest found at least in Idaho. SPORE COLOR white. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 6-8 x 4.5-5.5 microns, broadly ovate to elliptic, smooth, amyloid; basidia 4-spored; no cheilocystidia or pleurocystidia; clamp connections present. REMARKS Clitocybula familia is usually on conifers, usually in tufted clumps and has small round spores. Clitocybula abundans similar q.v. Megacollybia platyphylla is significantly larger. SOURCES Lennox, Bigelow(3), Breitenbach(3)*.

Clitocybula oculata (Murrill) H.E. Bigelow

CAP reaching 4.5cm across, convex to flat, slightly depressed; avellaneous (grayish brown), fuliginous (sooty) at center; dry, smooth, finely furfuraceous, margin very thin, entire, even; flesh thin. GILLS short-decurrent, distant; white. STEM 6cm x 0.5cm, equal, twisted, hollow, with tough rind; whitish with a pale avellaneous tint; furfuraceous. HABITAT type solitary in low woods, probably attached to buried wood. DISTRIBUTION type found at Mill City, OR in 1911. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 9-12 x 6-9 microns, broadly elliptic or oval, smooth, granular, colorless, amyloid; basidia 2-spored; pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia not found; cap cutis consisting mostly of pileocystidia, usually clavate to clavate-bulbous and often pedicellate, sometimes +/- fusoid or cylindric, 19-68 x 6-12.5 microns, smooth, with brownish intracellular pigment; clamps present. REMARKS Clitocybula atrialba is darker in color. SOURCES Bigelow(3).

Cyphellostereum laeve (Fr.) Reid

CAP 0.2-2.0 cm, kidney-shaped, spathulate, or sometimes almost funnel-shaped, soft; white, only slightly discoloring with age; appressed silky tomentose becoming radially and concentrically grooved on drying with fringed margin; flesh thin. GILLS spore-bearing surface reduced to fine wrinkling or smooth; white. STEM 0.5-1.0 cm, reduced to a lateral strap-like extension of cap, or as a distinct attachment round in cross-section, rarely central; similarly colored to cap; bald. HABITAT on or amongst mosses and liverworts, especially Polytrichum. DISTRIBUTION reported from BC, WA, OR, ID. SPORE COLOR white. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 3-4 x 2-2.5 um, broadly elliptic, smooth, inamyloid, thin-walled; pleurocystidia abundant, 35-50 x 4-4.5 um with long narrow neck 1.5-2 um broad, thin-walled, often colorless, often terminating in obtuse or somewhat enlarged apices, cheilocystidia similar to pleurocystidia, Moser gives length up to 20 um; clamps absent. REMARKS features include small kidney-shaped to spathulate or funnel-shaped white cap, slightly wrinkled or smooth spore bearing surface, short lateral stem, growth on moss, white spore deposit, and small spores. SOURCES Watling(2), Moser(1), Redhead(6). Cyphellostereum laeve
Cyphellostereum laeve
Steve Trudell

Flammulina populicola Redhead & R.H. Petersen

CAP 1.5-3.3 cm, convex, somewhat umbonate; yellow brown to orange brown; somewhat striate, subviscid or pruinose. GILLS adnate; whitish. STEM 5-8 x 0.2-0.7 cm, fasciculate (bundled); yellow brown, darkening from base upwards becoming blackish brown ultimately; pruinose to velvety. HABITAT found most frequently on Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen), but occasionally on other substrates. DISTRIBUTION widespread in western and central portions of North America, at least WA (Lorelei Norvell, pers. comm.). SPORE COLOR presumably white or whitish. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 6-8.7 x 3.7-4.8 um elliptic, oval or oboval, smooth, inamyloid; cheilocystidia, pileocystidia and caulocystidia lageniform or ventricose; clamps present. REMARKS Features include typically convex, dry to viscid, yellowish to orangish brown cap, whitish gills, pruinose to velvety stem that darkens from base upwards becoming blackish brown ultimately, and microscopic features. It is similar to F. velutipes, but fruiting bodies of populicola are more frequently found in clusters or solitary on the ground (somewhat rooting) at the base of trees, and are microscopically distinguishable by combination of a hymeniform to somewhat hymeniform suprapellis, (like rossica but not velutipes) with or without limited apical or basal growths, with typical pileocystidia (nearly always conspicuously projecting, unlike those of velutipes which may become embedded and/or collapse in slime), and short elliptic spores. SOURCES Redhead(37).

Flammulina rossica Redhead & R.H. Petersen

CAP 2-5 cm, convex, somewhat umbonate; ochraceous-buff; viscid, somewhat striate. GILLS adnexed or adnate; ochraceous buff. STEM pruinose to velvety and darkening from the base up, becoming dark brown ultimately. HABITAT most frequently on Salix (willow) or on Populus, but also on other substrates. SPORE COLOR presumably white or whitish. DISTRIBUTION not yet clear, but some collections clustering with the Russian type in some analyses are from western North America (Canada, US). MICROSTRUCTURES spores 7.4-11 x 3.8-4.5 um, elliptic or oval, smooth, inamyloid, colorless; cheilocystidia, pileocystidia and caulocystidia lageniform or ventricose; clamps present. REMARKS Features include typically convex, viscid, ochraceous-buff cap, whitish gills, pruinose to velvety stem that darkens from base upwards becoming blackish brown ultimately, and microscopic features. It is similar to F. velutipes or F. populicola, although more frequently with very pale cap, and microscopically distinguishable by combination of hymeniform to somewhat hymeniform suprapellis (as with F. populicola but not F. velutipes) with or without limited apical or basal growths in some collections, with typical pileocystidia which may be scarce, and elongated elliptic to cylindric spores (usually 9.2-10.3 x 3.9-4.5 um). SOURCES Redhead(37).

Flammulina velutipes (Curt.ex.Fr.) Singer  velvet-foot, velvet-stalk, winter mushroom

CAP 1-5 (7) cm, convex to flat or broadly umbonate, margin at first inrolled, often becoming wavy; reddish-brown, orange-brown or yellow-brown, spotting or staining dark brown; smooth, slimy or viscid when moist, cap skin peeling easily from cap, striate half to three-quarters of radius; flesh thin to moderately thick, firm, whitish or yellowish. ODOR and TASTE mild. GILLS adnate to adnexed or notched, subdistant to close, broad; whitish to pale yellow. STEM 2-11 x 0.2-0.5 (1.2) cm, equal or wider below, tough, often curved, round in cross-section or flattened, sometimes slightly off-center, smooth and pallid to yellowish to orange-brown when young, but developing a rusty-brown to blackish-brown velvety coating from the base upward, brown rhizomorphs at base. VEIL annulus none. EDIBILITY yes, but remove sticky skin. HABITAT in tufts or clusters on or near stumps, logs, and roots of hardwoods, spring or fall, in the cooler part of the season, often grows through winter. DISTRIBUTION at least BC, WA, OR, (Lorelei Norvell, pers. comm.) SPORE COLOR white or pale yellow. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 6.5-7.5 x 3-4 um, larger from 2-spored basidia, elliptic to cylindric or pip-shaped, smooth, generally with a somewhat thickened wall, inamyloid; pleurocystidia not differentiated; cheilocystidia abundance variable, 26-57 x 9-14 um, ventricose, often pedicellate, tapering gradually upward to an obtuse broad apex, thin-walled; cap has ixotrichoderm (turf-like with gelatinized hyphae) of filamentous to branched and thorny ixohyphidia (gelatinized terminal hyphae). REMARKS cultivated as enokitake which looks different; features include smooth, slimy or viscid, yellow-orange to brownish cap, stem which is dark brown and velvety at maturity, at least in its lower part, absence of veil, clustered growth on dead hardwoods, and white spore deposit; similar to F. populicola and F. rossica which have hymeniform to somewhat hymeniform suprapellis (composed of broadly clavate, ten-pin-shaped, to sphaeropedunculate hyphal tips with scattered pileocystidia), populicola is more often found in clusters or solitary on ground (somewhat rooting) at the base of trees, and rossica more frequently exhibits a very pale cap and has elongate spores. SOURCES Lennox, Arora*, Phillips*, Lincoff(2)*, Lincoff(1)*, Ammirati*, Courtecuisse*, Bessette(2)*, Barron*, Redhead(37). Flammulina velutipes
Flammulina velutipes
Norman Evans

Heliocybe sulcata (Berkeley) Redhead & Ginns  sunray mushroom

CAP 1-4 cm, convex to flat-depressed, small umbo; brown to orange-brown or cinnamon; ribbed over the gills like a small umbrella, dry, fibrillose becoming appressed scaly; flesh confluent in cap and stem, white. GILLS sinuate, close to distant, subgills present, sometimes forked near the stem; bone colored; serrate. STEM 1-3 x 0.3-0.6 cm approximately, solid; whitish near top, pinkish tan lower down; fibrillose, lined at top, base with small scales. VEIL absent. HABITAT on hardwoods, especially dry habitats such as decorticated dry wood in rail fences or debarked fallen trees. DISTRIBUTION widely distributed, especially on avalanche debris of aspen in Rocky Mountains; distribution includes AB, MB, ON, SK, YT, AZ, CO, IN, KS, KY, MI, MT, NE, NM, NY, OH, WY, Mexico, according to Redhead, reported from BC by Schalkwijk-Barendsen. SPORE COLOR white to orange buff. MICROSTRUCTURES 11-16 (20) x 5-7 um, bean-shaped in profile, presumably elliptic to oblong in face view, pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia 60-90 (110) um, subcylindric; no clamps. REMARKS features include convex dry cap with small umbo which is brown to orange brown, ribbed, and fibrillose-scaly, gills serrated as Neolentinus, fibrillose dry stem that is whitish near top and pinkish tan lower down, growth on hardwoods, and elongated spores. SOURCES Schalkwijk-Barendsen*, Smith(6), Redhead(6)

Leucopaxillus albissimus (Peck) Singer

CAP 4-10cm, convex to flattened; pure white, creamy white, or creamy tan; dry, unpolished, sometimes surface minutely scurfy or matted especially at center, margin may be ribbed and downy; flesh thick at disc, tough, resistant to decay, white. ODOR mild, sweet-spicy, pungent and unpleasant, or like rancid corn meal. TASTE mild to bitter. GILLS adnate to short decurrent, crowded to subdistant, narrow to broad, sometimes forked, white to cream, sometimes spotted, sometimes becoming yellow. STEM 3-7 cm x 1-1.5cm at top, equal to club-shaped or with bulbous base, sometimes off-center; white; white; smooth to scurfy. HABITAT single or in groups, under conifers. SPORE COLOR white. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 5.5-8.5 x 4-5.5 um, nearly round to broadly elliptic, with amyloid warts, few or no cystidia. REMARKS Singer and A.H. Smith described a number of varieties and forms in 1943. Of these, var. paradoxus is regarded by some authors as a separate species. It is said to have an odor like Tricholoma sulphureum (burned rubber gym shoes). Var. lentus forma typicus has sweet-spicy odor and bitter taste, var. lenta forma olympianus has odor like rancid corn meal and mildly rancid taste, and var. lentus forma furcatus has mild odor and taste. Var. piceinus has pungent, unpleasant odor and bitter taste, and gills that are deeply forked near stem and turn dark yellow with age. Var. lentus forma typicus and var. lentus var. furcatus are pure dull white and unchanging, but the others are white to buffy, bruising or darkening in age. Later, another whitish (unchanging) variety, var. monticola, was described which had aromatic odor, mild taste, and strongly forking gills. Two other large Pacific Northwest species of Leucopaxillus are described for the Pacific Northwest, L. septentrionalis Singer and A.H. Smith, and L. giganteus (Sowerby) Singer. Both were later included as Clitocybe species in Bigelow’s 1982 Clitocybe monograph. The information here on Leucopaxillus depends on a 1981 key to Leucopaxillus written by Judy Roger. SOURCES Singer(19), Singer(5). Leucopaxillus albissimus
Leucopaxillus albissimus
Michael Beug

Leucopaxillus gentianeus (Quél.) Kotlaba

CAP 4-12 cm across, liver-chocolate to deep red brown, margin paler, convex with broad umbo, margin inrolled and deeply grooved, dry, roughened to slightly scaly surface; flesh whitish, firm. ODOR strong, like Tricholoma sulphureum (old gym shoes). TASTE bitter. GILLS white, often with reddish spots, close, attached, maybe toothed. STEM 4-6 x 1-4 cm, hollow, white, bruising red brown, with bulbous base. HABITAT under conifers, clustered. SPORE COLOR white. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 4.3-6 x 3.7-5 um, subglobose, with isolated amyloid warts, cheilocystidia abundant, clavate-fusoid, forked. REMARKS Leucopaxillus amarus (Alb. & Schwein. ex Fr.) Kühner is said to be a misapplied name, but several varieties were described by Singer & A.H. Smith in 1943. This description is for var. typicus. Leucopaxillus amarus var. roseibrunneus can be found under conifers but is usually associated with alder: microscopically it has non-staining gills with abundant cheilocystidia that are cylindric-fusoid, flask-shaped or wavy. Leucopaxillus amarus var. bicolor has less red tints in the brown cap (though pinkish near the margin), and is found only under conifers, usually fir. It has only scattered cylindric cheilocystidia. SOURCES Singer(19) Leucopaxillus gentianeus
Leucopaxillus gentianeus
Steve Trudell

Leucopholiota decorosa (Peck) O.K. Miller, Volk & Bessette

CAP 2.5-6 cm, hemispherical when very young, becoming broadly convex and nearly flat at maturity, margin incurved and often remaining so at maturity; covered with numerous rusty brown pointed upcurved scales and fibers; dry; flesh firm, moderately thick, white. ODOR mild. TASTE mild or somewhat bitter. GILLS adnexed, close, moderate breadth, with several tiers of subgills; white; edges finely scalloped. STEM 2.5-7 x 0.6-1.2 cm, solid, equal or widening downward; white at top, sheathed up to a annular zone with rusty brown, pointed, upcurved scales and coarse fibers. VEIL partial veil flaring upward at first, consisting of coarse rusty brown fibers. EDIBILITY unknown. HABIT in groups or clustered. HABITAT on decaying wood, typically hardwood. DISTRIBUTION found in northeastern North America, but reported from BC by Paul Kroeger. SPORE COLOR white. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 5-6 x 3.5-4 um, elliptic, smooth, amyloid, thin-walled; cheilocystidia clavate; cap cuticle consists of broad filamentous hyphae up to 24 um in diameter; clamps present. REMARKS It is recognized by pointed, recurved, rusty brown scales on cap and stem, white gills, white spore deposit, growth on decaying wood, and clavate cheilocystidia. Cystoderma species are somewhat similar but they typically grow on soil and have spherical cells in cap cuticle and partial veil; Armillaria species have inamyloid spores and rhizomorphs; Floccularia species lack the unique cap cuticle and are terrestrial; Pholiota species have brown spores. SOURCES Bessette(1)*. Leucopholiota decorosa
Leucopholiota decorosa
Paul Kroeger

Macrocystidia cucumis (Pers. ex Fr.) Heim  cucumber-scented mushroom

CAP 1-5 cm, bell-shaped to conical when young, with small umbo; hygrophanous, dark brown to blackish to reddish-brown to orange-brown, the margin often abruptly paler, fading to buff; moist, smooth to velvety or silky; flesh brittle in cap, tough in stem. ODOR usually strong and fishy or reminiscent of cucumber. TASTE farinaceous. GILLS adnexed, close, broad; white or pale ocher or buff or pink; edges fringed minutely. STEM 2.5-5 x 0.2-0.4 cm, hollow, fibrous-brittle; similarly colored to cap, paler in upper part; dry, minutely velvety. HABITAT solitary to several in grassy areas, May to December. DISTRIBUTION at least BC, WA, OR, not uncommon. SPORE COLOR pinkish to ocher-brown to red-brown. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 7.5-10 x 4-5 um, elliptic, smooth; pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia large, 60-100 x 12-24 um, lanceolate; cap cuticle of repent, radial hyphae with membrane pigment; clamps present. REMARKS features include hygrophanous smooth to velvety cap that is dark brown to reddish brown to orange-brown often with abruptly paler margin, adnexed fringed gills that are white becoming pink, velvety stem colored as the cap, strong fishy-cucumber odor, pinkish to ocher-brown spore deposit, elliptic smooth spores, and large bulbous based lanceolate cystidia that occur on all surfaces. SOURCES Lincoff(2)*, Courtecuisse*, Arora, Hansen, Breitenbach(3)*, Stuntz(2). Macrocystidia cucumis
Macrocystidia cucumis
Michael Beug

Melanotus caricicola (Orton) Guzmán

CAP 0.3-0.6 cm, convex expanding to nearly flat, margin incurved when young, flaring with age, separable gelatinous cap skin; yellowish brown darkening to rusty yellowish brown, paler marginally, slightly viscid when moist, somewhat striate, sparsely hoary but soon nearly bald; flesh colored as cap. ODOR mild. GILLS adnate, moderately spaced, moderate breadth, subgills in 2 tiers; buff then tinged with spore color, sometimes with a pinkish tint, with paler edges. STEM 0.1-0.3 x 0.02-0.05 cm, central to slightly off-center, curved, equal or widening downwards, arising from a basal pad of whitish cottony mycelium; yellowish brown to umber brown; dry, finely fibrillose to pruinose. HABITAT on monocots: Carex (sedge), Juncus (rush), Scirpus (bulrush), grass. DISTRIBUTION at least BC. SPORE COLOR described as brown vinaceous to fawn or as violaceous umber. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 5.5-6.9 x 3-4.5 um, oval to elliptic, smooth, walls pronounced, germ pore well developed, apiculus minute; cheilocystidia abundant, forming a sterile margin, 12-25.5 x 4.5-6 um, colorless, thin-walled, base clavate to short sphaeropedunculate, with an elongated, undulating neck. REMARKS characterized by small size and habitat on monocots, well-developed gelatinous layer on ochraceous cap, distinct but small stem, and violaceous umber spore deposit; M. phillipsii lacks well developed gelatinous cap skin, and has paler narrower spores (5-7 x 2.7-3.5 um). SOURCES Redhead(33), Watling(3); Redhead(9).

Melanotus horizontalis Bull.: Fr.

CAP 0.8-1.8 cm, convex to flat-convex, margin incurved at first, often deeply indented on side by stem and somewhat kidney-shaped; yellow brown to orange brown or cinnamon; dry, nearly bald or appressed tomentose, opaque or slightly striate, may appear frosty; flesh up to 0.1 cm, pinkish buff to orange brown, unchanging. ODOR faintly aromatic or mild. TASTE mild. GILLS adnexed to adnate and sometimes with short decurrent teeth, close to subdistant, 2-3 tiers of subgills, narrow becoming moderately broad; light purple brown to pinkish cinnamon, staining dark brown on handling, edges whitish. STEM 0.5-1.5 x 0.1-0.5 cm, off-center but not lateral, usually distinctly curved and tapered toward base; brown, often darker than cap, often furry. HABITAT old fabrics or old carpets, seat covers of abandoned cars, mattresses, rotting blue jeans, or on wood. DISTRIBUTION at least BC, WA, OR. SPORE COLOR purple brown to dark brown. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 6.4-7.2 (8) x 4-5 um, elliptic to oval or somewhat almond-shaped, with an apical germ pore, smooth; pleurocystidia numerous to scattered, 17-30 (35) x 4-5 um, always embedded but with a protruding neck, easy to overlook, similar in shape to cheilocystidia, often with an apical droplet, cheilocystidia numerous, 15-30 (33) x 4-5 um, clavate, lageniform to ventricose-rostrate, neck often wavy, narrowing at top, thin-walled, often with a golden droplet up to 7 um diameter; clamps present. REMARKS features include growth on old fabric or on wood, small size, kidney-shaped dry brown cap, light purple brown to pinkish brown gills that are white-edged and stain dark brown with handling, off-center curved brown furry stem that narrows toward base, and purple brown to dark brown spore deposit; Melanotus textilis considered a synonym. SOURCES Redhead(18), Sime(1), Redhead(6), Watling(3). Melanotus horizontalis
Melanotus horizontalis
Paul Kroeger

Mythicomyces corneipes (Fr.) Redhead & A.H. Sm.

CAP 1-3 cm, obtusely conic with inrolled margin at first, becoming bellshaped or broadly convex, sometimes umbonate; hygrophanous, orange to orange-brown becoming yellowish brown, fading; moist, bald and polished, margin striate; flesh firm, watery orange brown fading to yellowish. GILLS adnate to adnexed and soon seceding, close, 2 tiers of subgills, broad; pallid to whitish becoming light yellowish gray brown. STEM 3-5.7 x 0.1-0.2 cm, equal or slightly enlarged at top, cartilaginous to horny; yellowish or pale orange or yellowish brown at top, dark reddish brown below and blackening from base upward; top faintly pruinose, base of stem sometimes with tawny hairs. VEIL none. ODOR mild to faintly geranium. TASTE mild or faintly bitter. HABIT gregarious. HABITAT along margins of bogs among mosses or on wet soil under conifers and alders. DISTRIBUTION BC, WA, OR, ID. SPORE COLOR pale purplish brown. MICROSTRUCTURES 6-8.5 x 4-5.5 um, oval to elliptic, often with one droplet, punctate under light microscope with short ridges and projections; pleurocystidia abundant, 43-86 x 10-24, walls up to 3 um thick and pale brown to colorless, fusoid-ventricose with obtuse apices which are sometimes incrusted with prominent colorless crystals; cheilocystidia similar but shorter, 37-46 x 10.5-14 um; clamps present. REMARKS features include hygrophanous orange-brown moist shiny striate cap, tawny to yellowish cap flesh, close broad gills that are pallid to whitish becoming brownish, shiny cartilaginous to horny stem that is yellowish to tawny, dark reddish brown below and blackening from base upward, tawny basal mycelium, pale purplish brown spore deposit, and microscopic characters including roughened spores and thick-walled cystidia; Stagnicola perplexa has milky coffee spore print instead of pale purplish brown, and has smooth spores and thin-walled cheilocystidia; similar to some Psilocybe species but rough spores and a combination of other unusual features: horny stem, tawny basal mycelium, relatively pale spore deposit, and lack of germ pore. SOURCES Redhead(14), Stamets, Arora, Smith(8)*. Mythicomyces corneipes
Mythicomyces corneipes
Paul Kroeger

Naucoria escharioides (Fr. ex Fr.) P. Kumm.  brown alder mushroom

CAP 1-4 cm, convex, later expanded or with margin uplifted, may be umbonate; yellowish brown to reddish brown; slightly appressed fibrillose, then often smooth, moist at first, striate or not, GILLS crowded to subdistant; light brown, colored similarly to cap. STEM 1.5-4 x 0.1-0.4 cm, brittle, pale yellowish brown, turning darker at base; whitish fibrillose. VEIL makes stem somewhat white-silky. ODOR mild to strongly acidic. HABITAT under alder, especially in wet areas. DISTRIBUTION found at least BC (as Alnicola melinoides), OR (by Kauffman 1925, Ammirati 1986, as N. melinoides, according to Lorelei Norvell pers. comm). SPORE COLOR brownish. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 9-12 x 5-6.5 um, roughened; cheilocystidia 35-50 x 8-10 um, often with a bill-like extension, pleurocystidia presumably absent. REMARKS also known as Naucoria melinoides and Alnicola melinoides; N. alnetorum and N. bohemica have different cheilocystidia; other Naucoria species not included here occur in Pacific Northwest. SOURCES Hansen, Moser(1), Lincoff(2)*, Gamiet(1), Courtecuisse*. Naucoria escharioides
Naucoria escharioides
Steve Trudell

Omphaliaster asterosporus (J.E.Lange) Lamoure

CAP 2.2-3.3 cm, flat, disc slightly depressed; hygrophanous, gray brown, fading soon to faintly grayish; dry, bald, margin striate when moist; flesh very thin, colored as cap. ODOR and TASTE farinaceous. GILLS adnate then short decurrent, subdistant, broad, not forked or interveined; gray brown. STEM 2.5-3.5 x 0.3-0.4 cm, equal, hollow, curved; colored as cap; bald and more or less translucent. HABITAT on moss under pine and hemlock. DISTRIBUTION WA, OR, apparently rare. SPORE COLOR whitish. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 5.5-7 x 5.5-7 um, round or 5.5-7.5 x 4.5-5.5 um, nearly round, nodulose with nodules up to 3 um, inamyloid; pseudocystidia present; clamps absent, (Bigelow), spores 6-8 x 6-8 um including spines up to 1.5 um long, (Hansen). REMARKS features include hygrophanous gray brown often umbilicate cap with striate margin, adnate to short decurrent subdistant broad gray brown gills, farinaceous odor and taste, growth on moss under conifers, whitish spore deposit, and round or nearly round spores with blunt spines; Omphaliaster borealis has deeply umbilicate cap and at most faintly striate cap margin. SOURCES Bigelow(6), Hansen.

Omphaliaster borealis (M.Lange & Skifte) Lamoure

CAP 2-5 cm, convex soon becoming nearly flat with disc shallowly depressed, finally somewhat funnel-shaped; hygrophanous, dark brown when moist, fading to dull ash gray; dry, densely pruinose becoming bald, margin faintly striate at times; flesh soft, watery, colored as cap when moist, fading pallid. ODOR and TASTE unknown. GILLS broadly adnate, becoming decurrent, close, narrow to moderately broad, occasionally forked, interveined at times; grayish brown usually with a hoary sheen. STEM 3-5 x 0.2-0.4 cm, central, flattened at times, hollow, longitudinally striate from splitting of cuticle; colored as cap; bald except for white tomentum at base. HABITAT gregarious on moss (Polytrichum and Sphagnum). DISTRIBUTION reported from OR. SPORE COLOR whitish. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 4.5-6.5 (8) um, nearly round, with nodulose projections 1-2 um long, inamyloid; pseudocystidia present +/- 35 x 3.5 um, filamentous, refractive and brownish in KOH; clamps connections absent, (Bigelow), spores 7.5-8.5 (10) x 6.5-7.5 um including coarse spines up to 1.5 um long, (Hansen). REMARKS features include hygrophanous dark brown to gray brown depressed cap, at times with faintly striate margin, adnate to decurrent close gills colored as cap, growth on moss, whitish spore deposit, and nearly round spores with blunt spines; Omphaliaster asterosporus has cap that only becomes slightly depressed and which is striate halfway to center. SOURCES Bigelow(6), Hansen.

Phaeolepiota aurea (Matt. ex Fr.) Maire ex Konr.& Maubl.  gold-cap, golden false Pholiota

CAP 7-20 (30) cm, convex to bellshaped, expanding to blunt umbonate or nearly flat; light orange brown to yellow brown; dry, granular to bald (when old, most of the veil particles have weathered away); margin often hung with veil remnants; flesh moderately thick, firm, pallid or yellowish. ODOR mild to slightly pungent, or strong and aromatic. TASTE mild to slightly astringent (puckering the mouth). GILLS adnate to notched or free or with short decurrent tooth, close, moderately broad; pallid becoming colored as cap or darker. STEM 10-15 (25) x (1.5) 3-5 (6) cm, widening toward base, stuffed becoming hollow, more or less colored as cap though sometimes darker at top; dry, unpolished, smooth and bald above annulus, but below annulus sheathed with granular covering similar to that of cap; internal flesh whitish or somewhat streaked with orange down center. VEIL annulus membranous, colored like cap, granular on lower surface and smooth on upper surface, flaring upwards and outwards, finally hanging, then disappearing when very old. EDIBILITY questionable, some reports of illness. HABIT in groups and clusters. HABITAT on rich humus and soil, under hardwoods and conifers, on compost and leaf litter, often near the edges of roads under alder. DISTRIBUTION BC, WA, ID. SPORE COLOR light yellow-brown to orange-buff. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 10.7-13 (14) x 5-6 um, somewhat elliptic, smooth or some with minute markings, with one large central oil drop, wall thin and many spores collapsing, no germ pore; pleurocystidia absent or rarely clavate-mucronate and brownish in KOH, 26-30 x 7.5-8.5 um, cheilocystidia absent; clamps present. REMARKS no other large brown-spored mushroom is orange-brown to yellow-brown with a granular coating on both the cap and stem. SOURCES Smith(3), Arora, Phillips*, Lincoff(2)*, Lincoff(1)*, Ammirati*, Schalkwijk-Barendsen*, Courtecuisse*, Redhead(6), Breitenbach(4)*. Phaeolepiota aurea
Phaeolepiota aurea
Steve Trudell

Phaeomarasmius erinaceus (Fr.) Romagn.

CAP 0.5-1.4 cm, convex, often becoming flat on disc, or slightly depressed or umbonate; medium to dark rusty brown, dry, densely covered with fibrillose scales, the scales erect and nearly spine-like over the disc, toward the margin somewhat pressed down, the edge usually fringed with hanging fibrils; flesh thin, fleshy-tough, pallid to reddish brown. ODOR and TASTE mild. GILLS adnate, close to subdistant, often becoming broader in the middle, subgills in 2-3 tiers; whitish to orange brown. STEM 0.8-1.5 x 0.1-0.2 cm, equal or base somewhat enlarged, central to slightly off-center, pliant and tough, stuffed becoming hollow; pallid brownish in upper part, rusty reddish brown; lower part densely finely scaly, somewhat silky above the fringe left by the broken veil. HABIT solitary to cespitose (tufted). HABITAT on fallen or standing barked twigs and branches of hardwoods. DISTRIBUTION at least BC, WA. SPORE COLOR amberish-ochreous (Redhead), cinnamon color (Watling). MICROSTRUCTURES spores 7.2-10.8 x 5.0-6.4 x 5-7.4 um, oval to almost rhomboid in face view, oval to obscurely almond-shaped in side view, smooth, apiculus minute, no germ pore, walls thin to pronounced; basidia 1-spored, 2-spored or 4-spored; cheilocystidia abundant, forming a sterile margin, 26-32 x 6.5-7 um, ventricose to fusoid basally, neck elongated, often undulating, mostly irregularly capitate or branched apically or subacute, colorless above, often brownish and some with walls thickened at base, occasionally with a loose wrinkled membrane over the apex; pleurocystidia scattered, 30-42 x 7-10 um, fusoid-ventricose with subacute apex, colorless, thin-walled, smooth, in some caps apparently absent; clamps regularly present. REMARKS recognized by small size, dark rusty brown color, cap with erect scales, and habitat; other species of Phaeomarasmius such as P. granulosus and P. erinaceellus may occur in the Pacific Northwest. SOURCES Redhead(26), Smith(3), Watling(3), Courtecuisse*, Redhead(6).

Pseudobaeospora pillodii (Quél.) S. Wasser

CAP 0.3-0.6 cm, convex with a small umbo; lilac to brownish violet; dry, silky, opaque, may be striate when moist; flesh fleshy, colored as cap. ODOR and TASTE mild. GILLS free to adnexed, crowded to subdistant, moderate breadth and broader in middle, subgills in 1 tier; dark lilac-brown. STEM 2.0-3.0 x 0.02-0.05 cm, equal with a tapered rooting base, cartilaginous; colored like cap becoming brown; sparsely covered with paler flecks. HABITAT rooting in soil under conifers or hardwoods. DISTRIBUTION at least BC. SPORE COLOR white. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 3.5-4 x 2.9-3.1 um, broadly elliptic to nearly round, smooth, a few dextrinoid, walls slightly thickened, no germ pore, usually one droplet; basidia 4-spored according to Redhead, 2-spored according to Hansen for Europe, pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia not mentioned; caulocystidia 25-35 x 9.5-10 um, fusoid to clavate, sometimes constricted centrally, thin-walled, collapsing readily, cap cuticle of radially repent hyphae, 5-25 um broad, with pale brown membrane pigment; clamps absent. REMARKS features include small size, lilac to brownish-violet umbonate dry cap, free to adnexed lilac brown gills, slender rooting stem colored as cap and with paler flecks, white spore deposit, and small elliptic to nearly round spores which are smooth and sometimes dextrinoid. SOURCES Redhead(30), Moser(1), Hansen, Redhead(5).

Pseudoclitocybe cyathiformis (Bull.:Fr.) Singer  the goblet

CAP 2.5-8 cm, centrally depressed with inrolled margin becoming funnel-shaped or cup-shaped; hygrophanous, dark brown to dark gray-brown, fading when old to grayish or paler brown; bald when moist, somewhat fibrillose or hoary when fading, not viscid, margin often striate or at times grooved when moist; flesh thin, pallid or cap-colored. ODOR and TASTE mild. GILLS adnate but soon deeply decurrent, close to subdistant, narrow to moderately broad, occasionally forked, usually interveined and the faces often veined; pallid to grayish brown or pale brown. STEM 3-12 x 0.4-1 cm, off-center at times, equal or somewhat widened in lower part, usually curved, stuffed then hollow, finally compressed (flattened) and fluted; colored like cap or paler, bald when moist, brownish fibrillose streaked over a pallid ground when faded; base sometimes with white rhizomorphs. EDIBILITY not recommended because of similar species. HABIT solitary, scattered, gregarious, or subcespitose (somewhat tufted). HABITAT usually on or near logs and stumps of conifers or hardwoods, sometimes on soil and humus. DISTRIBUTION BC, WA, OR, ID. SPORE COLOR white. MICROSTRUCTURES spores (6.5) 7.5-10.5 (13) x (4) 5-6.5 (7.5) um, elliptic, smooth, inamyloid to very weakly amyloid (blackish to grayish in Melzer's); basidia usually 4-spored, occasionally 1- or 2-spored; pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia presumably absent; clamps absent. REMARKS features include depressed hygrophanous dark brown to dark gray brown non-viscid cap, decurrent close pallid gills which become grayish or grayish brown, stem colored as cap or paler, mild odor and taste, white spore deposit, and elliptic smooth amyloid spores; Cantharellula umbonata has crowded narrow whitish forked gills that stain reddish in age; Clitocybula atrialba is blackish brown with well-spaced gills, and has dark scurfy scales on stem; Pseudoclitocybe oregonensis is rare, light brown when moist, and cap is not striate. SOURCES Bigelow(5), Arora*, Courtecuisse*, Barron*, Redhead(5), Breitenbach(3)*. Pseudoclitocybe cyathiformis
Pseudoclitocybe cyathiformis
Michael Beug

Pseudoclitocybe oregonensis (Murrill) Singer

CAP up to 4 cm, depressed or funnel-shaped; hygrophanous, pale isabelline (pale dingy yellowish brown); bald; flesh thin. GILLS short decurrent, subdistant, narrow, arched; "(presumably concolorous with pileus) discolored on drying". STEM 5 cm long, 0.5 cm wide, widening downward to enlarged base, fleshy; colored as cap; smooth, bald. HABITAT type found on ground in mixed woods in the foothills of the Cascades at 800 and 1200 feet. DISTRIBUTION at least OR, rare. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 7.5-8.5 x 5.5-6 um, broadly elliptic, smooth, amyloid; basidia 2- and 4-spored; pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia presumably absent; clamps absent. REMARKS Pseudoclitocybe cyathiformis is much more common, with dark brown to dark gray-brown cap when moist. SOURCES Bigelow(5).

Rozites caperata (Fr.) P. Karst.  gypsy mushroom

CAP 5-15 cm, bell-shaped to broadly convex, flat or obscurely umbonate; pale yellow-brown to orange-brown, margin often paler; dry, with a hoary coating when young, especially at center, usually wrinkled or corrugated radially; flesh thick, firm, white. ODOR and TASTE pleasant. GILLS adnate to adnexed or notched, close, broad; at first pallid, soon dull tawny or brown to rusty brown, sometimes transversely banded with darker and lighter zones. STEM 5-13 x 1-2.5 cm, equal or slightly enlarged at base, solid, firm; white to pale tan or pale yellow brown; top often striate or scurfy, base sometimes with an obscure volvalike zone. VEIL white, membranous, forming a fragile more or less median annulus. EDIBILITY yes, discard tough stems. HABIT scattered or in groups. HABITAT on ground in woods. DISTRIBUTION common in the Pacific Northwest, found BC (in Redhead), WA (Jan Lindgren, pers. comm.), OR (Lorelei Norvell, pers. comm.), ID (Drew Parker, pers. comm). SPORE COLOR rusty brown. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 11-15 x 7-10 um, elliptic, roughened or warty, presumably dextrinoid, some cheilocystidia. REMARKS this species has been absorbed into Cortinarius as Cortinarius caperatus (Pers.: Fr.) Fr., but is called Rozites caperata in some of the most commonly used field guides; features are tan to yellow-brown or orange brown, wrinkled cap that has a hoary sheen when young, membranous annulus, and rusty-brown spore deposit. SOURCES Arora*, Phillips*, Lincoff(2)*, Lincoff(1)*, Ammirati*, Schalkwijk-Barendsen*, Courtecuisse*, Bessette(2)*, Barron*., Odell(1), Redhead(5), Peintner et al. Mycotaxon 83: 449. 2002. Rozites caperata
Rozites caperata
Michael Beug

Schizophyllum commune Fr.  split-gill

CAP 0.5-5 cm, fan-shaped; white to grayish-white, gray or sometimes brownish-gray when wet; dry, densely hairy; flesh tough, leathery to brittle, thin; light brownish or light grayish. ODOR mild, pleasant, sourish, like Heterobasidion annosum. TASTE pleasant. GILLS radiating from point of attachment, well-spaced, brittle, waxy; white to light brownish or light grayish; edges appearing split or grooved lengthwise. STEM absent or present only as narrowed basal point of attachment, up to 0.7 cm long and 0.3 cm wide, generally round in cross-section. EDIBILITY too small and tough. HABIT scattered or in groups, rows, or fused clusters. HABITAT on hardwood sticks, stumps, logs, of a broad range of species. DISTRIBUTION BC, OR, WA, ID. SPORE COLOR white. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 6-8 (9) x 2-2.4 (2.8) um, cylindric, smooth, inamyloid, thin-walled; pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia not seen; basidia with clamps, some septa in cap cuticle with clamps. REMARKS features include fanshaped whitish hairy caps growing on hardwood and white gills with edges that appear split or grooved lengthwise. SOURCES Ginns(4), Ginns(5), Arora*, Phillips*, Lincoff(2)*, Lincoff(1)*, Schalkwijk-Barendsen*, Bessette(2)*, Barron*, Breitenbach(3)*. Schizophyllum commune
Schizophyllum commune
Kit Scates Barnhart

Stagnicola perplexa (Orton) Redhead & A.H. Sm.

CAP 0.4-2.5 cm, conic with incurved margin at first, becoming bellshaped to convex with prominent small umbo; brown on disc, orange-brown to yellowish toward margin, moist to lubricous, striate at margin when moist, silky when faded; flesh thin, colored as cap. ODOR mild. TASTE slightly to intensely bitter. GILLS narrowly adnate to narrowly adnexed, often seceding, close, 1-3 tiers of subgills, broader in middle; pallid olivaceous gray to honey-colored or cinnamon. STEM 1.5-4.5 x 0.09-2.0 cm, (but photographs do not show a thick stem), often tapered toward base and often curved, horny; reddish brown to black at base and paler toward top; bald, dull or with a luster, yellowish brown mycelium at base. HABIT gregarious. HABITAT on rotting plant remains (needles, leaves, twigs, bits of wood) in bogs, ditches and in drying temporary pools in coniferous forests. DISTRIBUTION at least BC, WA, ID, (according to Redhead), OR (collections by A.H. Smith, Bob Isaacs, according to Lorelei Norvell), rare. SPORE COLOR milky-coffee or pale gray brown. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 4.9-6.0 (6.4) x 3-3.8 (4.5) um, elliptic to vaguely kidney-shaped, smooth, inamyloid, often with 1 or 2 droplets, lacking germ pore, walls only slightly thickened; cheilocystidia abundant, but not always forming sterile margin, 25-54 x 5-7 um, cylindric to narrowly fusoid, sometimes forked or septate once, thin-walled, colorless, pleurocystidia lacking or present only near the gill edge and similar to cheilocystidia; clamps mentioned for basidia, stem hyphae, and basal mycelium; similar to Mythicomyces corneipes which has rough spores which are "benzo-brown" (a purplish brown) rather than milky-coffee in deposit, as well as microscopic differences in cystidia; somewhat like Phaeocollybias in appearance, but stem not rooting. SOURCES Redhead(14). Stagnicola perplexa
Stagnicola perplexa
Paul Kroeger

Stereopsis humphreyi (Burt) Redhead & Reid

CAP single or rarely 2 or 3 per stem, 0.6-2.9cm wide, becoming kidney-shaped to funnel-shaped, cleft on one side to the stem, often with convoluted (markedly wavy) margins, membranous and soft; dull white on upper surface; dry, silky when young, nearly smooth to wrinkled, later most becoming obscurely zoned-ridged and often minutely floccose scaly or rough towards stem. SPORE-BEARING SURFACE surface on the underside of cap decurrent, demarcated from stem; creamy white; nearly smooth but sometimes when old with low radiating wrinkles or more prominent furrows. STEM 1-3cm x 0.1-0.3cm, stuffed to hollow, tough, pliant; white (but with age faintly cinnamon); velvety, a few bald except at base, base with hairs. HABIT gregarious. HABITAT on mossy needle beds, cones, twigs, fern fronds, and mosses, in coniferous forest. DISTRIBUTION at least BC, WA, (Redhead), OR (Lorelei Norvell, pers. comm.). MICROSTRUCTURES spores 6.5-9 x 3.5-5.5 um, narrowly to broadly oval to elliptic, smooth, inamyloid, prominent oblique apiculus, walls thin to pronounced, mostly with one droplet; basidia (3-)4-spored; cystidia none; clamp connections present. REMARKS features include white dry fruitbody with kidney-shaped to funnel-shaped cap, often with convoluted margins, smooth or almost smooth spore-bearing surface underneath, and upright lateral stem. SOURCES Redhead(46). Stereopsis humphreyi
Stereopsis humphreyi
Adolf Ceska

Tetrapyrgos subdendrophora (Redhead) Horak

CAP 0.5-1.2 cm, circular to ear-shaped, convex; whitish; somewhat translucent, minutely hoary. GILLS pseudogills, anastomosing, up to 0.2 cm distant; white. STEM short lateral; gray; minutely hoary. HABITAT on grasses and Rubus canes in dense enclosing vegetation. DISTRIBUTION at least BC, OR, coastal, rarely collected. SPORE COLOR presumably whitish. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 8-10 x 6-7 um, triangular, pyramidal, or tetrahedron-like in shape, colorless, inamyloid, sometimes guttulate; tibiiform cystidia abundant on pseudogills. SOURCES Redhead(10), Redhead(6). Tetrapyrgos subdendrophora
Tetrapyrgos subdendrophora
A and O Ceska

Tapinella atrotomentosa (Batsch) Šutara (=Paxillus atrotomentosus) velvet pax

CAP 4-15(20) cm across, convex becoming flat or centrally depressed, margin at first inrolled; yellowish brown to reddish brown becoming dull brown to blackish brown; dry, velvety becoming smoother; flesh thick, firm, whitish to yellowish, yellowish brown, or buff. GILLS close or crowded, usually decurrent, often forked or veined near stem; cream, tan, yellowish, or yellowish brown, dingy yellowish, staining brownish. STEM 2-9(12) cm x 1-3(5) cm, usually off-center or even lateral, solid, tough; brown to blackish brown, top may be paler; velvety. VEIL absent. ODOR mild to slightly fetid. TASTE mild to bitter or acrid. FRUITING single or in groups or tufts on conifer stumps or decayed wood of conifers or madrone, July to October. SPORE DEPOSIT yellowish to brownish , may have slight olive tint. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 4.4-6.5 x 3-4.5 um, elliptic, smooth, inamyloid or some dextrinoid. SOURCES Arora(1)*, Trudell*, Phillips*, Lincoff(1)*, Breitenbach(3)*. Tapinella atrotomentosa
Tapinella atrotomentosa
Michael Beug

Tapinella panuoides (Batsch) E.-J. Gilbert (=Paxillus panuoides) fan pax

CAP 1.5-7(10) cm across, petal-shaped to fan-shaped, margin often lobed and at first incurved; buff to dingy yellowish, yellow-brown, or olive-yellow; dry to moist, minutely downy becoming smooth; flesh thin, soft, whitish to yellowish brown. GILLS radiating from base of cap, close, often crimped and forked or cross-veined; pale or dingy yellowish to yellowish brown or pinkish buff. STEM absent or as a small, laterally attached base. VEIL absent. ODOR mild. TASTE mild to slightly bitter. FRUITING single or in groups or clusters on coniferous logs, stumps, and debris, timber, wood chips, or humus rich in wood breakdown products, May to November. SPORE DEPOSIT light brown to yellowish buff to brown or yellowish brown. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 4-6.5 x 3-4.5 um, elliptic, smooth, inamyloid or many dextrinoid. REMARKS The color of the spore deposit is helpful in distinguishing fruitbodies of similar shape (Panus, Panellus, Pleurotus, Lentinellus, Hohenbuehelia, Phyllotopsis), and the crimped, forked, veined gills are helpful too (Crepidotus). SOURCES Arora*, Bessette(2)*, Breitenbach(3)*, Trudell. Tapinella panuoides
Tapinella panuoides
Michael Beug

Tubaria confragosa (Fr.) Kühner  ringed Tubaria

CAP 1-5 cm, broadly convex to more or less flat or slightly uplifted; hygrophanous, brown to winy-brown or reddish-brown when moist, drying buff; moist or dry but not viscid, smooth or often appearing hoary at first (from thin layer of whitish fibrils or minute scales), especially toward margin, margin striate when moist; flesh thin, fragile, colored as cap. GILLS adnate to slightly decurrent, close; cinnamon to rusty-brown to reddish-cinnamon to brown. STEM 2-8 x 0.15-0.6 cm, equal or wider in lower part, soon hollow; colored like cap or paler, whitish and silky above annulus, usually brownish with fibrils or a few small scales below the annulus, base typically with white mycelial mat. VEIL usually forming a membranous, often flaring superior annulus, but sometimes disappearing or leaving only a fibrillose zone. EDIBILITY unknown. HABIT scattered or in groups or troops. HABITAT on rotting logs, fallen branches, twigs, herbaceous stems, debris, sawdust, usually of hardwoods. SPORE COLOR brown to dark reddish-cinnamon. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 6.5-9 x 4-6 um, elliptic, smooth; cheilocystidia presumably present. REMARKS T. furfuracea is similar but lacks an annulus, is slightly smaller, and is less likely to be clustered. The Tubaria species in the Pacific Northwest need more work: precise identification is difficult and distributions are uncertain. SOURCES Arora*, Lincoff(2)*, Courtecuisse*, Bessette(2)*, Barron*.

Tubaria furfuracea (Pers. ex Fr.) Gillet  fringed Tubaria

CAP 1-3 (4) cm, convex becoming flat or slightly depressed, may have small umbo; hygrophanous, gray-brown to reddish-brown, cinnamon-brown, or tan when moist, fading to buff or whitish as it dries; smooth to finely fibrillose or often with minute flecks and patches, not viscid, margin striate when moist; flesh thin, brownish to pale pinkish brown. ODOR mild or faintly spicy or sourish. TASTE mild. GILLS adnate to slightly decurrent, close, broad; cream becoming pale yellowish brown to reddish brown. STEM 2-6 x 0.1-0.4 cm, equal or slightly wider in lower part, fragile; colored more or less as cap or paler; sometimes with whitish flecks, fibrillose, base usually with whitish mycelium. VEIL whitish, fibrillose, fleeting. EDIBILITY unknown. HABIT scattered to gregarious. HABITAT on ground, sticks, and woody debris in wet places, in late fall (needs cool temperatures). DISTRIBUTION at least BC, WA. SPORE COLOR ocher-brown to pale ocher. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 6.5-9.3 x 4-5.5 um, elliptic to cylindric-elliptic, smooth, light yellow; pleurocystidia not seen, cheilocystidia 23-53 x 5-9 um, cylindric to somewhat lageniform or flexuous (curved both ways), occasionally subcapitate; clamps mentioned for cap cuticle and basidia. REMARKS T. confragosa is similar but usually forms a membranous superior annulus on stem, is slightly larger, and is more likely to be cespitose (tufted). The Tubaria species in the Pacific Northwest need more work: precise identification is difficult and distributions are uncertain. SOURCES Arora*, Phillips*, Lincoff(2)*, Schalkwijk-Barendsen*, Courtecuisse*, Bessette(2)*, Barron*, Breitenbach(4)*, Murrill(3). Tubaria furfuracea
Tubaria furfuracea
Kit Scates Barnhart

Tubaria punicea (A.H. Sm. & Hesler) Matheny, Ammirati, et P.-A. Moreau   Christmas Tubaria

CAP 1.0-5.0cm across, convex, disc at times with a low, blunt umbo; wine red to blood-red but shading lighter toward margin; dry, shiny, translucent striate at margin, when young covered by silky white veil, later finely fibrillose to smooth; flesh reddish brown. GILLS adnate to slightly decurrent, broad, moderately close; deep vinaceous becoming brown with a vinaceous tinge. STEM 1.5-9.0cm x 0.2-0.6cm, round in cross-section to compressed, at times slightly widened toward the base, wine-red with white base; covered with silky white veil when young, later fibrillose or twisted-fibrillose. VEIL when young the silky white veil shows on the cap and the stem. ODOR unremarkable. FRUITING on rotten wood or base of Arbutus menziesii (Pacific Madrone), typically in hollowed bases of large trees (sometimes damaged by fire); late fall or winter. DISTRIBUTION BC, OR, CA. SPORE COLOR cinnamon brown. MICROSTRUCTURES spores (6.5)7.0-10.0 x 4.0-6.0 um, slightly wider in face view, elliptic, smooth, thick-walled; pleurocystidia present only as scattered pseudocystidia, cheilocystidia in clusters on gill edge, (25)30-65(80) x 4-12(16) um, versiform, short clavate to ovate, 15-30 x 7-10 um, ventricose at the base with a long, narrow flexuous neck and subacute apex, utriform to dumbbell-shaped with enlarged apex as broad as the ventricose portion and rarely with a secondary septum in the constriction; clamp connections present. SOURCES Matheny(6), Smith(3). Tubaria punicea
Tubaria punicea
Adolf Ceska

Tubaria vinicolor (Peck) Ammirati, Matheny, et Vellinga

CAP 1.0-5.0cm, conic-umbonate with incurved edge, expanding but margin remaining incurved; more or less hygrophanous, rich dark red, vinaceous, maroon red, or brighter red in places, cap edge sometimes pinkish vinaceous from veil fibrils; moist at first, almost velvety tomentose to matted fibrillose, bald when old, some veil fibrils near margin, and margin becoming somewhat striate; flesh somewhat fragile, colored as cap surface or duller; in stem dull reddish vinaceous. GILLS adnate to slightly decurrent, moderately crowded to subdistant, 20 reaching stem, up to 0.6cm broad, subgills 3-9 between neighboring gills; pink when becoming, darker red and browner; edges white-fringed. STEM 2.8-7.0cm x 0.25-0.5cm at top, base 0.55-0.7cm wide, cylindric to narrowly club-shaped, with a cortinate partial veil; pale pinkish vinaceous to pink, in lower part some areas more red from handling; longitudinally innately fibrillose to slightly striate, with white mycelium at the base, a few fibers remaining on mature stem where veil detaches. VEIL no ring, a few veil fibrils remaining on mature stem where veil detaches. ODOR and TASTE fungus-like, mild or astringent. FRUITING single, gregarious or cespitose in disturbed istes with introduced vegetation such as Eriobotrya japonica (Japanese plum), fruiting in October in Washington and December, January and March in California. SPORE COLOR dark yellow brown to orange-brown. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 7.0-9.0 x 4.0-5.6(6.0) um, slightly wider in face view, elliptic, smooth, thick-walled., without germ pore; basidia (2)4-spored; pleurocystidia none, cheilocystidia in clusters on gill edge, 33-52 x 5.5-9.5 um, irregularly cylindric, widest at apex; clamp connections present. REMARKS Tubaria punicea is similar but occurs in hollowed bases of Arbutus in natural habitats. SOURCES Matheny(6).

 

AUTHORITIES AND SYNONYMS FOR DESCRIPTIONS

Bolbitius vitellinus (Pers.) Fr. Epicrisis Systematis Mycologici: 254. 1838

Callistosporium luteo-olivaceum (Berk. & Curt) Singer Lloydia 89: 117. 1946; = Callistosporium luteofuscum Singer; = Callistosporium elaeodes Bon; = Callistosporium xanthophyllum Bon; = Callistosporium favrei Singer; = Callistosporium graminicolor Lennox; = Callistosporium psilocybe Murrill & Singer in Singer

Cantharellula umbonata (Fr.) Singer Ann. Mycol. 34: 331. 1936; Cantharellus umbonatus (Gmelin:Fr.) Fr.; Clitocybe umbonata (Gmelin:Fr.) Konrad; Hygrophoropsis umbonata (Gmelin:Fr.) Kühner & Romagn.

Cantharocybe gruberi (A.H. Sm.) H.E. Bigelow & A.H. Sm. Mycologia 65: 486. 1973; Clitocybe gruberi A.H. Sm.; Laccaria gruberi Singer

Catathelasma imperiale (Fr.) Singer Rev. Mycol. 5: 9. 1940

Catathelasma ventricosum (Peck) Singer

Clitocybula abundans (Peck) Singer Sydowia 15: 53. (1961) 1962; Collybia abundans (Peck) Sacc.; Fayodia abundans (Peck) Singer

Clitocybula atrialba (Murrill) Singer Sydowia 15: 53. (1961) 1962; Clitocybe atrialba Murrill; Fayodia atrialba (Murrill) Singer

Clitocybula familia (Peck) Singer Sydowia 15: 53. (1961) 1962; Baeospora familia (Peck) Singer; Fayodia familia (Peck) Singer

Clitocybula lacerata (Scop.) Metrod Rev. Mycol. (Paris) 17: 87. 1952; Collybia lacerata (Scop.) Gillet; Fayodia lacerata (Scop.) Singer

Clitocybula oculata (Murrill) H.E. Bigelow Mycologia 65: 1114. 1973; Clitocybe oculata Murrill; Hydropus oculatus (Murrill) Singer

Cyphellostereum laeve (Fr.) Reid in Beihefte Nova Hedwigia 18: 337. 1965

Flammulina populicola Redhead & R.H. Petersen Mycotaxon 71: 288. 1999

Flammulina rossica Redhead & R.H. Petersen Mycotaxon 71: 290. 1999

Flammulina velutipes (Curt.ex.Fr.) Singer; Collybia velutipes (Curt. ex Fr.) P. Kumm.

Heliocybe sulcata (Berkeley) Redhead & Ginns Trans. mycol. Soc. Japan 26: 359. 1985; == Lentinus sulcatus Berkeley

Leucopaxillus albissimus (Peck) Singer

Leucopaxillus gentianeus (Quel.) Kotlaba; Leucopaxillus amarus (Alb. & Schwein. ex Fr.) Kuehner (misapplied name)

Leucopholiota decorosa (Peck) O.K. Miller, Volk & Bessette; Armillaria decorosa (Peck) A.H. Sm. & Walters

Macrocystidia cucumis (Pers. ex Fr.) Heim Treballs del Museu de Ciencies Naturals el Barcelona 15: 127. 1934.

Melanotus caricicola (Orton) Guzmán Mycotaxon 6: 468. 1978; == Psilocybe caricicola Orton

Melanotus horizontalis Bull.:Fr.; Melanotus textilis Redhead & Kroeger Mycologia 76(5): 868. 1984, Melanotus proteus (Kalchbr.) Singer

Mythicomyces corneipes (Fr.) Redhead & A.H. Sm. Can. J. Bot. 64: 643. 1986; Psilocybe corneipes (Fr.) Karsten

Naucoria escharioides (Fr. ex Fr.) P. Kumm.; Alnicola melinoides (Bull.:Fr.) Kühner

Omphaliaster asterosporus (J.E.Lange) Lamoure Svensk Bot. Tids. 65: 282. 1971; Omphalia asterospora Lange; Hygroaster asterosporus (J.E.Lange) Moser; Rhodocybe asterospora (J.E.Lange) M.Lange & Sivertsen

Omphaliaster borealis (M.Lange & Skifte) Lamoure Svensk Bot. Tids. 65. 281. 1971; Rhodocybe borealis M.Lange & Skifte; Clitocybe borealis (M.Lange & Skifte) Orton & Watling

Phaeolepiota aurea (Matt. ex Fr.) Maire ex Konr. & Maubl.; Pholiota aurea (Fr.) P. Kumm.; Togaria aurea (Fr.) W.G. Smith; Lepiota pyrenacea Quél.

Phaeomarasmius erinaceus (Fr.) Romagn. Rev. Mycol. 2 (N.S.): 195. 1937; Phaeomarasmius aridus (Pers.) Singer; Pholiota erinacea (Fr.) Rea; Naucoria badia Murrill; Crinipellis alnicola Murrill

Pseudobaeospora pillodii (Quél.) S. Wasser Flora Fungorum RSS Ucrainicae, Basid. Agar., Acad. Sci. RSS UCR., Kiev. p.220. 1980; Collybia pillodii Quél.

Pseudoclitocybe cyathiformis (Bull.:Fr.) Singer; Clitocybe cyathiformis (Fr.) P. Kumm.; Clitocybe poculum (Peck) Saccardo; Cantharellula cyathiformis (Fr.) Singer; Omphalia cyathiformis (Fr.) Kühner & Romagn.

Pseudoclitocybe oregonensis (Murrill) Singer Sydowia 15: 52. (1961) 1962; Clitocybe oregonensis Murrill; Cantharellula oregonensis (Murrill) Singer

Rozites caperata (Fr.) P. Karst. Current name: Cortinarius caperatus (Pers.) Fr., Epicr. syst. mycol. (Upsaliae): 256 (1838) [1836-1838].

Schizophyllum commune Fr. Syst. Myc. 1: 330. 1821

Stagnicola perplexa (Orton) Redhead & A.H. Sm. Can. J. Bot. 64: 645. 1986; Phaeocollybia perplexa Orton

Stereopsis humphreyi (Burt) Redhead & Reid Can. J. Bot. 61: 3088. 1983; == Craterellus humphreyi Burt

Tapinella atrotomentosa (Batsch) Šutara Ceska Mykol. 46(1-2): 50. 1992; Paxillus atrotomentosus Fr.

Tapinella panuoides (Batsch) E.-J. Gilbert Les Livres du Mycologue Tome I-IV, Tom. III: Les Bolets: 68. 1931; Paxillus panuoides Fr.

Tetrapyrgos subdendrophora (Redhead) Horak Sydowia 39: 103. 1986; Campanella subdendrophora Redhead

Tubaria confragosa (Fr.) Kühner

Tubaria furfuracea (Pers. ex Fr.) Gillet

 

GLOSSARY

abrupt - of the bulb at the base of a stem, flaring out suddenly from the stem thin, sterile margin

abruptly adnexed - see adnexed

adnate - referring to gills, attached to the stem without a notch, and usually implies broad attachment, the lower edge of the gill being attached at the line at which a straight gill edge would intersect the stem

adnexed - refers to gills that are narrowly attached to the stem: the gill edge curves gradually upward along the inner half of the gill and is attached to the stem by a narrow upper portion of the gill; if abruptly adnexed, gill edge curves abruptly upwards to stem but makes contact with stem in straight line (does not curve as in sinuate attachment)

agaric - mushroom with gills

amyloid - staining bluish to gray to black in Melzer's reagent

anastomose - join together to form a network

angular - 4 to 7 sided, with corners or angles

annulus - ring or collar of tissue on stem formed by ruptured of the veil that initially joins the stem to the cap edge

annular - pertaining to the annulus

apex, plural apices - top, highest part

apical - near top

apiculus - nipple-like projection; nipple-like projection on spore which corresponds to the area that was attached to the sterigma of the basidium

appressed - flattened down

appressed-fibrillose - with fibrils that are pressed down flat against surface

apud - indicates a name published by one author in the work of another

arched - forming an arch, curved or arc-like; of gills, means that the middle of the lower edge of the gill is higher than its ends, same as arcuate

atomate - a powdered surface consisting of minute shiny particles

bald - no warts or hairs, or raised scales, fibers or patches, same as glabrous and as used here equivalent to naked

basal - near the base

basidia - plural of basidium

basidiomycete - fungus belonging to Basidiomycetes

basidium, plural basidia - cell on which spores form in Basidiomycetes

bell-shaped - in the shape of a bell (like the Liberty bell), with rounded top and flaring lower edges

bolete - member of the Boletales, (related to Boletus, Suillus, Leccinum etc.) which have soft pores or gills easily detached from the underside of the cap

bracket - a fungus widely attached at right angle to a vertical surface of wood

breadth - of gills, height of gill from cap attachment to edge

brittle - breaking easily, rigid and breaking with a snap; of stem, forms a sharp non-fibrous edge when broken

broad - when used of gills, refers to the height (depth) of the gill, which may be narrow, moderately broad or broad

buff - a pale yellow toned with gray-brown, i.e. a dingy yellowish brown or very pale tan

bulb - a part shaped like the underground part of an onion or daffodil or similar plant

bulbous - having a bulb or bulging area; of stem, with an enlarged base

button - young fruiting body before it has opened up

cantharelloid - resembling the genus Cantharellus, with veins or folds not gills on the spore-bearing surface

capitate - with a head or cap, abruptly enlarged at top

cartilaginous - of tissue, tough, like cartilage, not fibrous; of stems: firm, tough and pliant (flexible), sometimes used even of fragile stems and implying brittle, not pliant

caulocystidium, plural caulocystidia - sterile cell located on the stem

cellular - composed of rounded cells, not threadlike ones

cespitose - growing in tufts or close clusters from a common base, but not grown together

cheilocystidium, plural cheilocystidia - sterile cell located on the edge of the gill

chlamydospores - thick-walled asexual spores formed by breaking up of hyphae

cilium, plural cilia - hair-like outgrowth

ciliate - having a fringe of hair-like ciliae; appearing fringed

cinnamon - a light brown with a little pink

clamp - clamp connection, a small tubular elbow-like bypass across the walls between fungal cells

clavate - like a caveman's club; when used of stems, implies base is thicker and stem tapers upward; when used of cystidia, implies part that extends outward beyond the hymenium is thicker, same as club-shaped

clay-colored - dull ochraceous-cinnamon brown

close - of gill spacing, nearly touching but with visible space between, intermediate between crowded and distant, the order being crowded, (subcrowded), (subclose), close, subdistant, distant

clustered - growing together, either very close or from a common base

collybioid - resembling in general form a mushroom of the genus Collybia in the former sense that included Rhodocollybia and Gymnopus, typically with expanded caps (convex to broadly convex to flat) often with downcurved to incurved margin, cartilaginous or brittle stems not more than two or three times in length the diameter of the caps, without annulus

compressed - of a stem, elliptical to flattened in cross section

concentric - having rings or circular zones

concolorous - having the same color

confluent - going towards the same point

conic - shaped like a cone

conical - shaped like a cone

conifer - cone-bearing tree

contorted - twisted out of normal shape

convex - regularly rounded, domed, like an inverted bowl

convoluted - intricately folded, twisted, or coiled

corrugated - shaped into alternating ridges and grooves

cortina - a web-like or silky veil extending from the cap margin to the stem in young mushrooms of certain species, soon disappearing or leaving remnants on stem or cap margin

cortinate - with a cortina, weblike

cracked - surface having split in some way

crowded - of gill spacing, very close, touching or with almost no space between, the order being crowded, (subcrowded), (subclose), close, subdistant, distant

cuticle - the cap skin or surface layer of cells; same as pellis, and thought by some to be incorrectly used in this situation as it refers in botany to the waxy surface of certain leaves

cylindric - of the same diameter throughout its length; of stem, terete (not compressed); of spores, according to one set of criteria ratio of length to width 2-3: less would be oblong, more would be bacciliform

cystidium, plural cystidia - a sterile cell frequently of distinctive shape, at any surface of a fruiting body, classified by 1) position: pileocystidium (cap), pleurocystidium (gill face), cheilocystidium (gill edge), caulocystidium (stem), 2) form: leptocystidium (smooth, thin-walled, without discernible contents), lamprocystidium (thick-walled), metuloid (thick-walled encrusted), 3) contents: chrysocystidium (like leptocystidium but with highly staining contents), gloeocystidium (thin-walled, usually irregular, contents colorless or yellowish and highly refractile) etc., 4) origin: pseudocystidia (derived from a conducting element, oily contents), macrocystidium (arising deep in the flesh of Lactarius or Russula), 5) often further described by shape

debarked - of dead wood without the bark, same as decorticated

decorticated - of dead wood without the bark

decurrent - refers to gills or pores that run down the stem, in the case of gills, the attachment at stem is wider than average height of gill

depressed - of cap, having the middle lower than the edge; of gills, sinuate; depressed adnate refers to an adnate gill with a portion of the gill lower than its outer edge

dextrinoid - staining yellowish brown or reddish brown in Melzer's reagent

dichotomous - repeatedly dividing or forking in pairs

differentiated - developed so as to be different from surrounding cells; of cystidia, distinguishable from surrounding cells

disc - center of the cap

distant - of gill spacing, meaning the gills are spaced far apart, the order being crowded, (subcrowded), (subclose), close, subdistant, distant

dry - surface not sticky or slimy or hygrophanous, feeling as if there is no moisture on surface

earth-brown - a vaguely defined color referring to the color of soil

elastic - springing back to its original shape

elliptic - like an oblong circle, referring to the outline (as opposed to the three dimensional shape) of a spore, according to one set of criteria, ratio of length to width is 1.15-1.60

elongate - of spores, same as oblong, at least according to one definition

embedded - of cells in the spore bearing surface, arising deep within that surface, or not protruding from it

equal - of a stem, the same diameter throughout its length, cylindric; of gill, broad (high) to same extent throughout length or alike in length

eroded - of the margins of cap or gills, developing irregular jagged edges as a result of deterioration, irregularly broken

even - of cap margin, means not wavy or lobed; of gill edges, means not toothed, eroded, fringed etc; of surface of cap, stem or spores means without striations, elevations or depressions

ex - from, first published validly by second author

expanding - of cap, spreading out as it develops

face - of gills, the side as opposed to the edge (margin)

farinaceous - of odor, with the smell of fresh ground meal from whole grain, especially wheat, same as mealy; of texture, mealy, with a loose powdery appearance

ferrous sulphate - a chemical used to test for color changes in certain fungal groups such as Russula, Pholiota and Ramaria

fibrillose - composed of delicate fibers (fibrils) which are long and evenly arranged on the surface

fibrillose-scaly - composed of fibrils and scales

fibril - thin thread-like fiber

fibrous - composed of tough, stringlike tissue

filamentous - composed of hyphae (threadlike cells); thin and threadlike in shape

flat-convex - convex in shape but somewhat flattened

flat-depressed - generally flattened but somewhat depressed toward the center of the cap

fleeting - quickly disappearing, used here as equivalent to evanescent or fugacious

flesh - the tissue of cap or stem, not including the surface, often referred to as the context, a term here used in discussing the microscopic examination

fleshy - soft as opposed to tough; having significant substance

flexuous - of the stem, or of cystidia, curved alternately in opposite directions

floccose - with easily removed cottony or woolly tufts; woolly or cottony; having the appearance of cotton flannel; with a soft cottony texture

fluted - of stem, with longitudinal ridges

forking - of gills, dividing into two or more branches as they go away from stem

free - refers to gills that are not attached to stem

fringed - with a border of parallel threads or fibers, so that the edge is somewhat jagged and not smooth

fruitbody - the whole reproductive structure of a mushroom including cap, stem, and spore-bearing surface

furfuraceous - scurfy, surface covered with branlike particles resembling scales, coarser than granular

fuscous - color of a very dark storm cloud: variously described as combinations of gray, brown, purple, or black

fusoid - somewhat spindle-shaped, almost spindle-shaped or fusiform

fusoid-ventricose - tapered toward both ends but distinctly enlarged in the middle

gelatinize - become gelatinous

gelatinous - jelly-like in consistency or appearance; applied to tissue whose hyphae become partially dissolved and glutinous in wet weather and when mounted in water under the microscope appear more transparent and wider, loosening from one another

glutinous - slimy, having a highly viscid gelatinous layer, more than viscid

greasy - slippery or oily but not viscid (sticky) or slimy, same as lubricous

gregarious - growing in close groups but not tufted or clustered

group - of fruitbodies, a cluster of fungi growing close to each other but not attached; when applied to the Latin name of a fungus, of taxonomically related similar species typified by a particular species, as in Inocybe lanuginosa group

guttulate - of spores, containing an oil droplet or droplets

habit - description of the way that fruitbodies grow in relation to each other; may also describe the general external and characteristic appearance of fruitbodies

habitat - the natural place of growth

hairy - covered by an arrangement of fibrils or mycelial strands resembling hairs

hardwood - any tree that is not a conifer

herbaceous - said of those flowering plants that die annually at least down to the roots (i.e. non-woody flowering plants)

hirsute - covered with long stiff hairs

hispid - covered with long rough hairs or bristles, coarser or stiffer than hirsute

hoary - covered with dense silky down; canescent; with a silvery sheen as if covered with frost

hollow - of stem, having the flesh empty of fibrils, as opposed to solid or stuffed

horny - hard and brittle in texture, homogeneous in texture and difficult to section

humus - decaying organic material in or on soil

hydnoid - with teeth on the spore-bearing surface

hygrophanous - cap surface changing color markedly as it dries, usually having a water-soaked appearance when wet and turning a lighter opaque color on drying, often with a clear demarcation

hymeniform - resembling a hymenium in form

hypha, plural hyphae - thread-like fungal cell

hyphal - pertaining to a hypha

inamyloid - remaining clear or becoming yellow in Melzer's reagent, not amyloid or dextrinoid

incrusted - covered with a thin, hard crust; of hyphae, with matter located on their outer wall; of cystidia, covered with crystalline or amorphous deposit, particularly at the top

incurved - of cap margin, curved inwards toward stem, but less than inrolled

innate - usually of fibrils of scales, meaning that they are not raised from the surface or readily removed from it

inrolled - of cap margin, rolled inwards so that the edge of the margin is actually points toward gills

insititious - of stem, devoid or any fibrils or hyphae at point of attachment to substrate

interveined - of gills, connected by "veins" (ridges) that run between gills

KOH - potassium hydroxide, an agent commonly used to revive dried mushroom material, or show chemical reactions on the surface of the mushroom, or chemical reactions under the microscope

lacerate - irregularly torn

lageniform - of cystidia, swollen at the base with the middle and top part tapered into a long beak, like a gourd, therefore gourd-like

lanceolate - like a lance, many times longer than broad, and tapering

lateral - of a stem, attached to the side of the cap

lecythiform - of cystidia, wide at base with middle tapered into narrow neck and top swollen into a head, like a bowling pin (lecythiform refers to a Greek stoppered bottle)

lens - a hand magnifying glass

lepiotoid - resembling the genus Lepiota

lobed - with rather large, rounded divisions on the margin

long-decurrent - with the gills extending a long way down the stem

lubricous - used sometimes to mean greasy or slippery but not viscid or slimy; sometimes used to mean slimy

marasmioid - resembling the genus Marasmius

margin - the edge of the cap or gills

marginate - having a distinct margin: when discussing gills the edge has a different color; when discussing the bulb on a stem indicates a flange (circular ridge) at the top of the bulb

median - of a ring, near the middle of stem

membranous - like a membrane or skinlike or somewhat like bathroom tissue

micaceous - like flecks of mica

mild - not with distinctly marked quality

mixed - referring to forests containing both conifer and broadleaved trees

monocot - flowering plant belonging to Monocotyledoneae, including grasses, rushes, sedges, lilies, palms

mottled - spotted, as in the uneven ripening of spores on gills in the genus Panaeolus

mycelial - consisting of mycelium

mycelium - network of fungal cells extending into the substrate and massing together to form fruitbody; basal mycelium may appear at the base of the stem in a form similar to what occurs in the substrate

mycenoid - resembling the genus Mycena, cap conic to bell-shaped, gills not usually decurrent, stem cartilaginous to fragile, without annulus

narrow - of gills, the opposite of broad, refers to the height of the gill, which may be narrow, moderately broad or broad

nodulose - of spores, covered with bumps

notched - refers to gills that are uncinate or sinuate (or sometimes also to gills that are abruptly adnexed), as if a wedge of gill had been removed near the stem: if the line of the bottom edge of the gill curves down sharply, gills are uncinate, if it curves gradually toward the stem reaching it more or less horizontally, gills are sinuate

oblong - of spores, elongated with approximately parallel sides; according to one set of criteria, ratio of length to width is 1.6-2: shorter would be elliptic and longer cylindric

oboval - oval with narrower end closer to the attachment

obtuse - blunt, not pointed

ocher - between warm buff and yellow, to brownish orange

ochraceous - ochre-yellowish, yellow-orange with a brownish tinge

olivaceous - olive gray-brown; with an olive shade

omphalinoid - resembling the traditional genus Omphalina, smaller mushroom with depressed cap center, decurrent gills, and cartilaginous stem

opaque - not transparent or translucent, often used of cap margin where gills do not show through as striations

oval - like the outline of an egg

ovate - similar to oval but some regard as more pointed at the narrower end

pallid - very pale in color, almost a dull whitish

papilla, plural papillae - small nipple-like protuberance

papillate - with small nipple-like protuberance(s)

parabolic - of cap, with the height greater than the width, the top rounded

partial veil - inner veil of tissue which joins the stem to the cap edge at first in some species of mushrooms, and often breaks to leave a ring (annulus) on stem and remnants hanging from the cap margin

PDAB - a solution of p-diaminobenzaldehyde in 70% ethanol

pedicellate - of cystidia, with a slender stalk

pellicle - an upper surface layer on cap surface that can undergo gelatinization, making the cap viscid (sticky) to the touch; often it can be peeled away from the cap, may be thought of as covering the cuticle; same as cuticle or as thinner and more definite

pers. comm. - personal communication

pileocystidium or pilocystidium (plural pileocystidia, pilocystidia) - cystidia occurring on surface of cap

pileus - cap of a mushroom

pleurocystidium (plural pleurocystidia) - a sterile cell (cystidium) located on the face (side) of a gill

pleurotoid - resembling in general form the genus Pleurotus, may be applied to any gilled mushroom either without a stem or with a stem attached in a lateral or off-center manner

pliant - being pliable without breaking, flexible, not rigid or firm

pruinose - looking finely powdered or finely granular

pseudocystidia (plural pseudocystidia) - cystidium-like cell derived from a conducting element, embedded or not projecting

pseudogills - gill-like structures on spore-bearing surface

punctate - marked with dots consisting of hollows, depressions, spots, raised-joined scales, or agglutinated fibrils, all very small

recurved - curved back: when used of cap margin or scales means curved back upward

refractive - of hyphal or cystidial contents, light-deflecting

repent - of hyphae, prostrate, lying flat

reviving - said of fruiting body which shrivels in dry weather or when dried and takes on its natural shape when wet

rhizomorph - cordlike strand of twisted hyphae present around base of stem, often dark colored

rhomboid - having or nearly having the shape of a rhombus; a parallelogram with angles that are not right angles, and unequal adjacent sides

ring - annulus, collar of tissue on stem formed by ruptured of the veil that initially joins the stem to the cap edge

rudimentary - underdeveloped, not mature

rust - fungus belonging to Uredinales, an order containing many fungi that cause diseases of cereal crops

saccharine - very sweet or sugarlike

scabrous - roughened by short projecting rigid scales

scale - piece of tissue on surface that is not especially elongated, differentiated from surface by color or by projecting from it

scalloped - edged with small rounded lobes

scaly - with scales

scattered - growing with other fruitbodies but at a greater distance from each other than would be considered gregarious

sclerotium - a knot or firm frequently rounded mass of hyphae, usually underground, sometimes giving rise to mycelium or a fruiting body

scurfy - surface covered with branlike particles resembling scales, same as furfuraceous

seceding - refers to gills that have separated in their attachment to the stem and have the appearance of being free, often leaving longitudinal lines on the stem where the gills were once connected

sensu - in the sense of

separable - said of stem or gill easily removed from cap

septate - partitioned with cross-walls

sequestrate - describes fruiting bodies that have evolved from those that forcibly discharge spores to a closed or underground form in which spores are retained until it decays or is eaten by an animal, the word 'sequestrate' referring to spores which have been sequestered (hidden).

serrate - saw-toothed to almost ragged

sessile - lacking a stem

sheathlike - of an annulus, clinging to the stem and opening upwards

short-decurrent - with the gills extending only a short distance down the stem

siderophilous - of basidia, with granules that darken when heated in acetocarmine

sinuate - of gill attachment, refers to gills with a lower edge that curves up close to the stem then curves back to reach the stem more or less horizontally

slimy - having a thick layer of slime, more than viscid

smooth - of a surface, without projections; of spores or cystidia, not spiny or warty or rough or ridged

smut - member of Ustilaginales, an order which includes fungi pathogenic to cereal crops

solid - not hollow; feeling hard

solitary - not growing in the immediate neighborhood of other individuals

spathulate - shaped like a spatula or spoon, oblong with a narrowing base

spermatic - resembling the odor of human sperm or semen

sphaeropedunculate - spherical with a short stem

spindle-shaped - narrowing evenly from middle to both ends

spine - long slender sharp projection

spore - reproductive cell or "seed" of a fungus, produced on specialized cells, which in gilled mushrooms are usually basidiospores on the gills

spore print or spore deposit - a visible deposit of spores in the natural situation or obtained by allowing a gilled mushroom to drop spores onto white paper for a few hours or overnight

stature - characteristic shape

stem - the column supporting the cap in most mushrooms, more correctly called the stipe

sterile - not producing spores

streaked - having faint lines or bands, used when appressed fibrils appear like bands or faint lines

striate - marked with lines usually radiating on cap and more prominent near margin when moist, or parallel vertical on stem

strigose - having long stiff hairs

stuffed - containing loose material in the interior, not hollow or solid

sub- - a prefix attached to many terms to mean near, nearly, more or less, somewhat, slightly; below or under

subdecurrent - of gills, meaning short decurrent or nearly decurrent or somewhat decurrent (i.e. intermediate between adnate and decurrent, when attachment extends slightly further down stem than when adnate)

subdistant - of gill spacing, intermediate between close and distant, the order being crowded, (subcrowded), (subclose), close, subdistant, distant

subgills - the short gills that do not span the entire distance from margin to stem, also called lamellulae

substrate - the material that a fungus is growing on and in

subviscid - slightly sticky, thinly viscid

superior - of an annulus, forming on the upper part of the stem

suprapellis - the outermost layer of the pellis

synonym - another name for the same species, especially an earlier or illegitimate name not currently used for the species

tan - leather-colored, similar to undressed leather

tawny - approximately the color of a lion, between yellow brown and rusty brown; used by some as more orange, fox-colored

terrestrial - appearing to grow from the ground, or on the ground, as opposed to growing on wood

thick - term used for width of stem, depth of cap flesh, or the distance between the faces of one gill

tibiiform - of cystidia, somewhat ventricose (wider in middle) with long narrow neck and apex swollen into a head, supposedly like the tibia bone

tier - in reference to subgills, group of subgills, interspersed with gills usually at regular intervals, each tier being of roughly a certain length

tissue - a group of hyphae which are similar in shape or form

tobacco-brown - the color of tobacco as it is found in a cigar or cigarette

tomentose - covered with soft hairs, often soft densely matted hairs, like a woollen blanket

tomentum - a covering of densely matted woolly hairs

toothed - serrate on the edges; toothlike on the edges; of gills, with toothlike edges or decurrent by a short tooth

tough - strong, able to resist stress

trama - the tissue under the surface cell layers of cap, stem, or gills, or between the tube wall layers of polypores, usually referring to the flesh (context) as seen through the compound microscope

translucent - transmitting light diffusely, semitransparent

troops - hundreds to even thousands of fruiting bodies growing within a few square yards

tufted - as used here, the same as cespitose; may also be used to mean a small cluster or stems clustered with a common base

type - the element on which the descriptive matter fulfilling the conditions of valid publication of a scientific name is based; in the case of mushroom species, the collection of fruiting bodies from which the original concept of the taxonomic group (e.g. family, genus, species, variety, etc.) is derived

um - abbreviation for micrometer (micron), which is a thousandth of a millimeter

umber - a deep dull dark brown, smoky brown; earth brown sometimes with a very slight reddish tinge

umbilicate - refers to a cap with a narrow, moderate to deep depression in center which may or may not have a small umbo in the bottom

umbo - a raised knob or mound at the center of the cap

umbonate - having a raised knob or mound at the center of the cap

uncinate - refers to gills with a lower edge that curves up as it comes close to the stem, then abruptly curved down to leave a "tooth" on stem, not proceeding further down stem than the imaginary line running straight along the lower gill edge to the stem, but sometimes used as equivalent to "decurrent with tooth"

undulating - wavy

uplifted - the margin of the cap turning upward

veil - referring either to the partial veil which joins the stem to the cap edge at first, and often breaks to leave a ring on stem and remnants hanging from the cap margin, or the universal veil which initially covers the whole fruiting body including the top of the cap, always breaking and sometimes leaving fragments on the cap or the stem, or a volva at the base of the stem

vein - thick blunt shallow fold on spore-bearing surface that may look somewhat gill-like if prominent; small folds on the faces of gills or between them; any vein-like structure

ventricose - wider in the middle

verrucose - with warts; or with outgrowths smaller than if warted but larger than if verruculose (as used here, warty includes verrucose and verruculose)

vinaceous - the color of red wine or red wine stains; a paler or grayish red; dull pinkish brown to dull grayish purple

violaceous - of some violet hue

virgate - markedly streaked or striate, usually with dark-colored groups of fibrils, giving the appearance of bearing many small twigs

viscid - sticky but not slimy or lubricous: the mushroom usually feels somewhat slimy or slippery when wet but when dry may need to be wetted slightly to feel sticky; sometimes used to include slimy

volva - the remains of the universal veil found at the base of the stem, usually in the form of a sac, collar or concentric rings

volvate - with a volva

wart - bumpy outgrowth found on caps, stems, and spores, which on caps and stems is generally somewhat wider than high

winy - the color of red wine or red wine stains; a paler or grayish red; dull pinkish brown to dull grayish purple; here used as equivalent to vinaceous

zonate - with circular bands or layers of differing colors or ornamentation

zoned - same as zonate

 

REFERENCES

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INDEX TO DESCRIBED SPECIES

(Note that Descriptions are arranged alphabetically.)

 

 GENUS AND SPECIES KEY ENTRIES
   
 BOLBITIUS Fr. 504, 856, 960
    B. vitellinus(Pers.) Fr.
 CALLISTOSPORIUM Singer 605, 711, 804, 821
    C. luteo-olivaceum (Berk. & Curt.) Singer 832
 CANTHARELLULA Singer  
    C. umbonata (Fr.) Singer 606, 736
 CANTHAROCYBE H.E. Bigelow & A.H.Sm.  
    C. gruberi (A.H.Sm.) H.E. Bigelow & A.H.Sm. 742
 CATATHELASMA Lovejoy 316
    C. imperiale (Fr.) Singer  
    C. ventricosum (Peck) Singer  
 CLEISTOCYBE Ammirati, A.D. Parker, & Matheny  
    C. gomphidioides (A.H. Sm.) Ammirati, A.D. Parker, & Matheny  
    C. vernalis Ammirati, A.D. Parker, & Matheny  
 CLITOCYBULA (Singer) Metrod 717, 740, 833
    C. abundans (Peck) Singer  
    C. atrialba (Murrill) Singer  
    C. familia (Peck) Singer  
    C. lacerata(Scop.) Metrod  
    C. oculata (Murrill) H.E. Bigelow  
 CYPHELLOSTEREUM D.A.Reid  
    C. laeve (Fr.) D.A. Reid 10
 FLAMMULINA P. Karst. 831, 910
    F. populicola Redhead & R.H. Petersen  
    F. rossica Redhead & R.H. Petersen  
    F. velutipes (Curt. ex Fr.) Singer  
 HELIOCYBE Redhead & Ginns  
    H. sulcata (Berkeley) Redhead & Ginns 702
 LEUCOPHOLIOTA (Romagn.) O.K. Miller, T.J. Volk & Bessette  
    L. decorosa (Peck) O.K. Miller, T.J. Volk & Bessette 352
 LEUCOPAXILLUS Boursier 740, 919
    L. albissimus (Peck) Singer  
    L. amarus (Alb. & Schwein. ex Fr.) Kühner (misapplied name - see L. gentianeus)  
    L. gentianeus (Quél.) Kotlaba  
 MACROCYSTIDIA Joss.  
    M. cucumis (Pers. ex Fr.) Heim 834, 844, 848, 861
 MELANOTUS Pat. 109
    M. caricicola (Orton) Guzmán 871, 875
    M. horizontalis Bull.:Fr.  
    M. textilis Redhead & Kroeger (see M. horizontalis)  
 MYTHICOMYCES Redhead & A.H.Sm.  
    M. corneipes (Fr.) Redhead & A.H. Sm. 876
 NAUCORIA (Fr.) P. Kumm. 354, 867, 872
    N. escharioides (Fr. ex Fr.) P. Kumm.  
 OMPHALIASTER Lamoure 712, 809
    O. asterosporus (J.E.Lange) Lamoure  
    O. borealis (M.Lange & Skifte) Lamoure  
 PHAEOLEPIOTA Maire ex Konrad & Maubl.  
    P. aurea (Matt. ex Fr.) Maire ex Konr.& Maubl. 305, 330
 PHAEOMARASMIUS Scherff. 110, 337, 858
    P. erinaceus (Fr.) Romagn.  
 PSEUDOBAEOSPORA Singer  
    P. pillodii (Quél.) S. Wasser 511
 PSEUDOCLITOCYBE (Singer) Singer  
    P. cyathiformis (Bull.:Fr.) Singer 609, 726, 744
    P. oregonensis (Murrill) Singer 609, 726, 745
 ROZITES P. Karst.  
    R. caperata (Fr.) P. Karst. 332
 SCHIZOPHYLLUM Fr.  
    S. commune Fr. 102
 STAGNICOLA Redhead & A.H.Sm.  
    S. perplexa (Orton) Redhead & A.H. Sm. 855, 864
 STEREOPSIS D.A. Reid  
    S. humphreyi (Burt) Redhead & D.A. Reid 9
 TAPINELLA J.-E. Gilbert  
    T. atrotomentosa (Batsch) Šutara  
    T. panuoides (Batsch) E.-J. Gilbert  
 TETRAPYRGOS E. Horak 116
    T. subdendrophora (Redhead) Horak  
 TUBARIA (W.G.Sm.) Gillet 322, 707, 863
    T. confragosa (Fr.) Kühner  
    T. furfuracea (Pers. ex Fr.) Gillet  
    T. punicea (A.H. Sm. & Hesler) Matheny, Ammirati, et P.-A. Moreau  
    T. vinicolor (Peck) Ammirati, Matheny, et Vellinga  

 

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