Trial field key to CLUB-SHAPED FUNGI in the Pacific Northwest

Prepared for the Pacific Northwest Key Council
By Ian Gibson, South Vancouver Island Mycological Society
Copyright © 2007, 2009 Pacific Northwest Key Council

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction

Key to species

Yellow to orange

Purple, pink, red

Green

White to whitish

Black

Brown

Stinkhorns, various colors

Glossary

References

Index

 

INTRODUCTION

This is a key to the Club Fungi of the Pacific Northwest (British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho). Club fungi as understood here include the upright, unbranched fungi that do not fit into other morphological groups1. There are not only clavate (club-shaped) fungi, but cylindric fungi, and upright fungi with differentiated heads. Both ascomycetes and basidiomycetes are included.

The species are divided into seven groups, the first six characterized by the color of the upper part of the fruitbody, and the last containing the stinkhorns, distinctive species which distinguish themselves immediately by their foul odor. Species that have more than one color are included in more than one color group. The key leads start at the following numbers.

Yellow to orange 101
Purple, pink, red 201
Green 301
White to whitish 401
Black 501
Brown 601
Stinkhorns, various colors 701

 

Thanks are due to Richard Sieger, who wrote the 1983 Trial Field Key to Geoglossaceae.


Footnote 1. This way of defining clubs places them in a fourteen part morphological classification of non-gilled fungi: 1) boletes, 2) polypores, 3) toothed fungi, 4) veined fungi, 5) cup fungi, 6) morels and false morels, 7) puffballs (and earthballs, earthstars), 8) truffles and false truffles (including the sequestrate fungi in general), 9) coral fungi, 10) club fungi, 11) jelly fungi, 12) crust and parchment fungi (including the jelly fungi that grow as crusts), 13) bird's nest fungi, and 14) other.


 

YELLOW, ORANGE PURPLE, PINK GREEN WHITE BLACK BROWN

 

BRYOGLOSSUM

gracile

CALOCERA

cornea

CLAVARIA

globospora

gracillima

maricola

CLAVARIADELPHUS

ligula

mucronatus

occidentalis

sachalinensis

subfastigiatus

truncatus

CLAVICEPS

purpurea

CLAVULINOPSIS

fusiformis

laeticolor

CORDYCEPS

gracilis

militaris

myrmecophila

ophioglossoides

washingtonensis

CUDONIA

circinans

CUDONIELLA

clavus

LEOTIA

lubrica

MITRULA

borealis

elegans

MUCRONELLA

pulchra

MULTICLAVULA

corynoides

mucida

sharpii

vernalis

NEOLECTA

vitellina

PODOSTROMA

alutaceum

SPATHULARIA

flavida

TYPHULA

abietina

megasperma

phacorrhiza

VIBRISSEA

truncorum

 

ALLOCLAVARIA

purpurea

CLAVARIA

rosea

MICROGLOSSUM

atropurpureum

 

LEOTIA

lubrica

viscosa

MICROGLOSSUM

olivaceum

 

ASTEROPHORA

parasitica

CLAVARIA

acuta

globospora

vermicularis

CLAVARIADELPHUS

mucronatus

CLAVICORONA

taxophila

CUDONIELLA

clavus

EOCRONARTIUM

muscicola

MUCRONELLA

bresadolae

calva

fusiformis

MULTICLAVULA

corynoides

mucida

sharpii

vernalis

ONYGENA

corvina

equina

PODOSTROMA

alutaceum

PTERULA

gracilis

STEREOPSIS

humphreyi

TYPHULA

abietina

cystidiophora

erumpens

erythropus

incarnata

ishikariensis

megasperma

mycophaga

phacorrhiza

sclerotioides

setipes

umbrina

 

CORDYCEPS

ophioglossoides

CLAVARIA

neonigrita

GEOGLOSSUM

fallax

glabrum

glutinosum

umbratile

MICROGLOSSUM

atropurpureum

SARCOLEOTIA

globosa

TRICHOGLOSSUM

hirsutum

velutipes

XYLARIA

bulbosa

cornu-damae

hypoxylon

 

ALLOCLAVARIA

purpurea

ARTOMYCES

cristatus

BRYOGLOSSUM

gracile

CLAVARIA

globospora

nebulosoides

CLAVARIADELPHUS

caespitosus

ligula

occidentalis

sachalinensis

subfastigiatus

truncatus

CORDYCEPS

capitata

gracilis

myrmecophila

ophioglossoides

CUDONIA

circinans

grisea

monticola

CUDONIELLA

clavus

GEOGLOSSUM

fallax

umbratile

HEYDERIA

abietis

LEOTIA

lubrica

MACROTYPHULA

fistulosa

juncea

MULTICLAVULA

corynoides

mucida

sharpii

vernalis

MICROGLOSSUM

atropurpureum

fumosum

olivaceum

MULTICLAVULA

mucida

vernalis

ONYGENA

corvina

equina

SARCOLEOTIA

globosa

SPATHULARIA

flavida

TYPHULA

abietina

idahoensis

megasperma

phacorrhiza

umbrina

VIBRISSEA

truncorum

XYLARIA

bulbosa






KEY TO SPECIES








YELLOW TO ORANGE



101a Firm-gelatinous consistency, slippery surface, bright yellow to yellow-orange, less than 1.5 cm tall, on or near wood

................................................................................Calocera cornea

SPOROCARP 0.2-0.7(2.0) cm x 1-2 mm, awl-shaped to cylindric, or forked, firm-gelatinous, yellow to orange-yellow, smooth, lubricous. FRUITING on dead barkless hardwood or conifer wood. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 7-10(12) x 3-4.5 um, 1-septate.Calocera cornea
Calocera cornea
Steve Trudell

101b Firm to fragile but not gelatinous, surface moist to dry (or if gelatinous and slippery then associated with pools of water or streams), various colors, sizes, and habitats

102a Bright yellow or bright orange fruitbody, without distinct head separated from stem, or head forming most of fruitbody

Note: In the Pacific Northwest, most of these will be Clavulinopsis laeticolor. Clavulinopsis fusiformis, Clavaria gracillima, and Neolecta vitellina could look similar, but suspect C. fusiformis if fruitbodies are tall or in tight bundles or taste bitter, suspect Clavaria gracillima if the upper tips are whitish (= Clavulinopsis luteoalba (Rea) Corner), and suspect Neolecta vitellina if fruitbodies are spatula-shaped or particularly irregular, or pale yellow in color. Microscopic confirmation is straightforward.

Mucronella pulchra differs markedly, consisting of tiny, yellow, hanging, waxy fruitbodies.

Clavulinopsis corniculata can occasionally be unbranched (forma simplex Donk). Its spores are 4.3-7.2 x 4.3-7.2 um (similar to C. fusiformis) but the unbranched form is slender, about 1.5-2.5 mm wide and it grows singly or in small groups, whereas C. fusiformis is 2-10 mm wide and grows gregariously or densely bundled. Clavulinopsis helvola (Pers. ex Fr.) R.H. Petersen may occur in the Pacific Northwest (for example a collection at Oregon State University as Clavulinopsis helvola) and has spores that are often angular and measure 4-7 x 3.6-6 um excluding warts that are 1-2 x 1-1.5 um.

102b Dull yellow to orange or yellow-brown to orange-brown, distinct or indistinct head

103a Common, up to 10 cm tall, may be in bundles, color yellow to orange-yellow, taste mild, basidiospores 4.3-7 x 3.7-5 um

................................................................................Clavulinopsis laeticolor

SPOROCARP 1.5-10 cm x 0.2-1.0 cm, usually about 3-4 cm tall, often somewhat flattened, fusiform (spindle-shaped), or with rounded blunt top, or branched once, lemon yellow to orange-yellow, finely wrinkled, smooth to bald. TASTE typically bitter but sometimes mild. FRUITING single, scattered, in groups or cespitose on the ground. CHEMICAL REACTIONS spore-bearing surface dingy greenish in FeSO4, yellow-green in KOH. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 4.3-7 x 3.7-5 um, ovate or rounded-triangular, smooth, slightly thick-walled, prominent apiculus. REMARKS also known as Ramariopsis laeticolor.Clavulinopsis laeticolor
Clavulinopsis laeticolor
Boleslaw Kuznik

103b Uncommon, up to 15 cm tall, often densely bundled, color yellow, taste typically bitter but sometimes mild, basidiospores 4.8-7.5(9.2) x 4.5-7.2(9.2) um

................................................................................Clavulinopsis fusiformis

SPOROCARP 1.0-15 cm x 0.2-1.0 cm, usually simple club, rarely branched once or twice near top, often more or less flattened, solid becoming hollow, often densely bundled but only rarely significantly joined together above the surface of the ground, tip usually sharp to narrowly rounded; bright yellow, top usually darker in the reddish or brownish shades especially when old, flesh yellow; base whitish, bald, minutely lined. TASTE typically bitter but sometimes mild. FRUITING densely bundled, gregarious, often in troops, on soil, usually in open areas with grasses. CHEMICAL REACTIONS spore-bearing surface gray-green in FeSO4, and orange in KOH (i.e. no effect). MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 4.8-7.5(9.2) x 4.5-7.2(9.2) um, round to very broadly ovate, smooth, slightly thick-walled, with stout conical apiculus. REMARKS also known as Ramariopsis fusiformis.Clavulinopsis fusiformis
Clavulinopsis fusiformis
A and O Ceska

103c Upper tip may be whitish, (basidiospores 6.0-9.2(11.9) x 2.5-4.5(5.3) um)

................................................................................Clavaria gracillima

SPOROCARP 1-8 cm x 1-3 mm, slender, slightly waxy-fleshy in consistency, usually hollow through much of the club portion, top sharp to rounded, apricot to pale pinkish orange, the stem somewhat distinct in its clearer colors, top colored the same or slightly lighter than the spore-bearing part, not turning color when old or bruised, stem often with a very small, white, somewhat bristly patch at very base. TASTE none. FRUITING single, gregarious, or nearly cespitose in 2s and 3s but not bundled, on leaf or needle litter. CHEMICAL REACTIONS no color reaction with FeSO4 or KOH. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 6.0-9.2(11.9) x 2.5-4.5(5.3) um, ovate to elliptic, smooth, thin-walled to slightly thick-walled, small abrupt lateral apiculus; basidia 1-4-spored. REMARKS Clavaria luteoalba and Clavulinopsis luteoalba are synonyms.

103d Pale yellow, may be irregular in shape, (ascospores 5.5-9 x 3-4 um in 8-spored asci)

................................................................................Neolecta vitellina

SPOROCARP 3-3.5 cm, irregularly clavate, lanceolate, or spathulate, usually narrowed in upper part, stuffed or hollow, head 0.3-0.9 cm wide, luteous to pale luteous, confluent with stem along an uneven border, smooth, wrinkled or somewhat pleated; stem 0.2-0.4 cm wide in upper part, narrowing below and rooting, frequently rotted off, white to straw or pale luteous, more or less bald, downy, or tomentose. FRUITING on needle beds and moss carpets usually on ravine or hill slopes, August to October. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores 5.5-9 x 3-4 um, usually 7 x 3.5 um, kidney-shaped, elliptic or ovoid, smooth, inamyloid, non-septate, asci 8-spored, 53-75 um long, paraphyses lacking, phialoconidia regularly associated. REMARKS Description is largely derived from Redhead (1977a). Neolecta vitellina has often been mistaken for Neolecta irregularis of eastern North America and Japan which is wider, more brightly colored, with spores 5.5-10 x 3.5-5 um, usually 8 x 4 um, and asci 100-135 um long, phialoconidia absent.Neolecta vitellina
Neolecta vitellina
Michael Beug

103e Yellow, hanging, waxy fruitbodies, 1-5 mm long and 0.1-0.3 mm wide, densely gregarious on wood

................................................................................Mucronella pulchra

SPOROCARP Spines tapering downward from basal attachment, at first discrete, then more or less connected by a subiculum, whitish to orange, when dry pale orange to reddish. FRUITING on wood. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 4-7 x 3.5-6 um. REMARKS Recorded in British Columbia based on Corner's Supplement (1970). Mucronella flava Corner is also yellow: it has not been recorded from the Pacific Northwest but has narrower spores 4-6 x 2.5-3 um. Mucronella pulchra
Mucronella pulchra
A and O Ceska

104a (102b) Fruitbody with a flattened paddle-like head that extends down opposite sides of stem, common

................................................................................Spathularia flavida

SPOROCARP 1-8 cm high, spore-bearing upper part flattened laterally, spatula-like or oval or fan-like, running down opposite sides of stem, up to 3 cm wide, pale when young becoming pale yellow to yellow, buff, or brownish, sometimes lobed or contorted or with a notched top, the head forming a half to two thirds the height of the fruitbody; stem 0.2-1.0 cm wide, variable in shape but often thicker at base, white to colored like upper part but usually paler, smooth to finely mealy but not velvety. FRUITING scattered to gregarious or even clustered, on humus or rotten wood under conifers or occasionally hardwoods. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores 30-95 x 1.5-3 um, variable in size, needle-like, rounded at one end, smooth, with zero to several septa, colorless under microscope but often yellow-brown in mass, the wall with a gelatinous layer swelling to 1.5-3 um thick; one-celled conidia 1-2 x 1-1.5 um may also be present or even replace the ascospores in the asci; paraphyses strongly curved or coiled or straight, colorless.Spathularia flavida
Spathularia flavida
Rich Mably

104b Fruitbody NOT with a flattened paddle-like head that extends down opposite sides of stem

105a Distinct head by structure or color

105b Head not clearly separated from stem, and tapering down into stem

106a Dull yellow to dull orange-brown, roughly cylindric fruitbody widening somewhat upwards, or strap-like (laterally flattened), 2-25 cm tall, (Clavariadelphus, staining green with iron salts)

106b Various colors; threadlike-cylindric or less than 2 cm tall, or with pimples or pits visible under hand lens; if club-shaped then yellow-cream, if strap-like then gregarious on decaying needles and decaying male cones of Pinus ponderosa)

107a Truncate

................................................................................Clavariadelphus truncatus

SPOROCARP 5-15 cm high, up to 1.5 cm wide basally, widening upward to 3.5 cm or wider, club-shaped, then top-shaped or with a depressed or perforated top; sides of fruitbody pinkish cinnamon to orange-brown or yellow-brown, the top usually brighter and yellower at least when young, sides and top smooth to wrinkled, where cut or bruised staining slowly brown; flesh white to ocher, on exposure staining slowly brown, soft becoming spongy; stem base round in cross-section, smooth, white to pallid where covered, otherwise cream color to buff or pale orange; mycelial hyphae loosely interwoven or aggregated into white to pallid rhizomorphic strands up to 1 mm wide. TASTE sweet (Methven 1990), mild to sweetish, or bittersweet, (Arora), not distinct (Castellano). FRUITING scattered to gregarious on soil and duff, under mixed conifers, July through November. SPORE DEPOSIT white, gradually yellowing during storage. CHEMICAL REACTIONS KOH cherry red to fire engine red reaction; tissue dark green in FeCl3. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 9.5-13.5 x 5.5-7 um, broadly elliptic, broadly ovate or almond-shaped, smooth, inamyloid, pale yellow in KOH. REMARKS The top is sterile, like that in C. mucronatus, whereas most Clavariadelphus species are fertile at the top. None of the Clavariadelphus species listed here for the Pacific Northwest has the cherry red to fire-engine red reaction to KOH. C. caespitosus has grayish red to dull red or cinnamon buff fruitbody with top somewhat sharp to narrowly blunt, may taste slightly bitter, and often grows in cespitose clusters. C. occidentalis has pale yellow to pinkish buff or grayish orange fruitbody with top somewhat sharp, blunt or broadly rounded. Clavariadelphus subfastigiatus has fruitbody that is pallid flesh-color to light cinnamon, with top that is blunt or broadly rounded, bitter taste, and green reaction of surface to KOH.Clavariadelphus truncatus
Clavariadelphus truncatus
Michael Beug

107b Not truncate

108a Sharp nipple in center of flattened or rounded top of fruitbodies

................................................................................Clavariadelphus mucronatus

SPOROCARP 2-8 cm high, 2-3 mm wide basally, widening upward to 5-20 mm, club-shaped to top-shaped, irregularly laterally flattened when mature, top at first blunt or broadly rounded, finally more or less truncate, typically mucronate (with a short point from a flatter surface) throughout development, at first white to pallid color, sides darkening to ochraceous buff or pinkish buff, top remaining pallid, when cut or bruised the surface of fruitbody staining slowly brown; sides smooth, becoming longitudinally wrinkled; flesh solid becoming spongy, white to pallid, on exposure staining slowly brown; stem base round in cross-section, powdery to downy, whitish to ochraceous buff; mycelial hyphae loosely interwoven or aggregated into rhizomorphic strands up to 1 mm wide, binding the substrate, whitish. TASTE not distinctive. FRUITING gregarious, terrestrial, on conifer debris and needles. SPORE DEPOSIT white, pale yellow, pale orange, or buff. CHEMICAL REACTIONS no reaction in KOH, tissue dark green in FeCl3. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 10.5-14.5 x 3.5-4.5 um, narrowly elliptic, boletoid or sway-backed in profile, smooth, inamyloid, pale yellow in KOH. REMARKS The spore-bearing surface is on the sides and the top is sterile.Clavariadelphus mucronatus
Clavariadelphus mucronatus
Michael Beug

108b Without nipple

109a Arising from the surface of a cottony mycelial mat which permeates and binds the substrate

109b Fruitbody arising from beneath the surface of the substrate, often deeply inserted, and mycelial hyphae scant

110a Spores 18-24 x 4-6 um

................................................................................Clavariadelphus sachalinensis

SPOROCARP 2-7 cm tall, 1-4 mm wide basally, widening upward to 3-18 mm, at first more or less cylindric, then club-shaped or wider in middle or even top-shaped, top of fruitbody somewhat sharp, blunt, or broadly rounded, at times forked or lobed when mature, fruitbody at first pale yellow becoming pinkish cinnamon to ochraceous cinnamon, finally pale dull brown, staining slowly brown where damaged (or occasionally green at top), smooth, becoming longitudinally wrinkled; flesh white to pallid, slowly staining brown when exposed, solid becoming spongy; stem round in cross-section, downy to tomentose, pale at first then grayish orange to pinkish cinnamon; mycelial hyphae loosely interwoven or aggregated into rhizomorphic strands up to 1 mm wide, binding the substrate, whitish. TASTE not distinctive. FRUITING scattered to gregarious on soil or duff under conifers, June through October. SPORE DEPOSIT whitish to buff. CHEMICAL REACTIONS no reaction to KOH, tissue dark green in FeCl3. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 18-24 x 4-6 um, narrowly elliptic, boletoid or sway-backed in profile, smooth, inamyloid, pale yellow in KOH; basidia 65-105 x 8-12.5 um. REMARKS Clavariadelphus ligula cannot be separated reliably in the field, but has smaller spores and basidia.Clavariadelphus sachalinensis
Clavariadelphus sachalinensis
Steve Trudell

110b Spores 12-16.5 x 3.5-4.5 um

................................................................................Clavariadelphus ligula

SPOROCARP 2-10 cm high and 2-8 mm wide at base, widening upward to 5-12(22) mm, cylindric to flat-cylindric or club-shaped, the top somewhat sharp, blunt, or broadly rounded, rarely forked, fruitbody at first pale yellow becoming pinkish cinnamon to ochraceous cinnamon, finally pale dull brown, staining slowly brown where damaged (or occasionally green at top), smooth to slightly wrinkled; flesh white to pallid, slowly staining brown when exposed, solid becoming spongy; stem round in cross-section, powdery, downy, pale at first, then brownish orange to light brown; mycelial hyphae loosely interwoven or aggregated into rhizomorphic strands up to 1 mm wide, penetrating the substrate. TASTE not distinctive or slightly sweet, (Methven 1990), mild or bitter (Arora). FRUITING scattered to gregarious in duff under conifers. SPORE DEPOSIT whitish to buff. CHEMICAL REACTIONS no reaction to KOH, tissue green with FeCl3. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 12-16.5 x 3.5-4.5 um, narrowly ellipsoid, boletoid or sway-backed in profile, smooth, thin-walled, inamyloid, colorless to pale yellow in KOH; basidia 48-85 x 8-11 um. REMARKS The species name 'ligula' does not agree with 'Clavariadelphus' because it is not an adjective but a feminine noun meaning 'strap' or 'small tongue'.Clavariadelphus ligula
Clavariadelphus ligula
Michael Beug

111a (109b) Fruitbody pallid flesh-color to light cinnamon, forest green staining reaction with KOH, (spores 8-10.5 x 5-6 um)

................................................................................Clavariadelphus subfastigiatus

SPOROCARP 4-10.5 cm tall, 6-12 mm wide at base, widening upward to 20 mm, cylindric to somewhat wider in middle or somewhat club-shaped, sometimes flattened, blunt at top or broadly rounded; pallid flesh-color to light cinnamon, becoming finely wrinkled, when cut or bruised staining slowly brown; flesh white to pallid, staining slowly brown on exposure, solid becoming spongy; stem base round in cross-section, smooth, white to pallid where covered, otherwise pale yellow, pale orange or buff; mycelial hyphae lacking. TASTE bitter. FRUITING scattered to gregarious or bundled in clusters of 6-20, on well-decayed humus of coniferous woods. SPORE DEPOSIT white. CHEMICAL REACTIONS surface stains forest green (or yellow green) with KOH, surface stains forest green to dark green with FeCl3. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 8-10 x 5-6 um, broadly elliptic, broadly ovate or almond-shaped, smooth, inamyloid, pale yellow in KOH. REMARKS Clavariadelphus subfastigiatus is distinguished most easily from close species by the green reaction of its surface to KOH. Clavariadelphus caespitosus has grayish red to dull red or cinnamon buff fruitbody with somewhat sharp top, lack of staining reaction with KOH, cespitose growth, and slightly larger spores. C. occidentalis has light yellow to grayish orange fruitbody, lack of staining reaction with KOH, and larger spores. C. truncatus has pinkish cinnamon to orange-brown or yellow-brown fruitbody with top yellower and brighter, the top blunt becoming truncate, excavated, perforated, or even umbonate, red reaction of surface to KOH, usually sweet or mild taste, and larger spores.

111b Differently colored, no forest green KOH staining

112a Grayish red to dull red or cinnamon buff initially becoming browner, gregarious, densely gregarious or in cespitose clusters (spores 8-11 x 4.5-6.5 um)

................................................................................Clavariadelphus caespitosus

SPOROCARP up to 3-15 cm high, 0.3-1.5(2.0) cm wide at top, at first nearly cylindric, then narrowly club-shaped or spindle-shaped, top somewhat sharp to narrowly blunt; at first grayish red to dull red or cinnamon buff, finally more brown, where cut or bruised staining slowly brown; smooth, becoming longitudinally wrinkled; flesh white to pallid, on exposure staining slowly brown, solid becoming spongy; stem base round in cross-section, powdery, pale to pinkish. TASTE not distinctive or slightly bitter. FRUITING gregarious, densely gregarious or in cespitose clusters, on ground, in duff, in coniferous or mixed forest. SPORE DEPOSIT white. CHEMICAL REACTIONS KOH negative; FeSO4 or FeCl3 green. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 8-11 x 4.5-6.5 um, broadly ovate to almond-shaped, smooth, inamyloid, pale yellow in KOH. REMARKS Clavariadelphus subfastigiatus has pallid flesh-color to light cinnamon fruitbody with blunt tops, forest green staining reaction with KOH, scattered to gregarious growth, and slightly smaller spores. C. occidentalis has light yellow to grayish orange fruitbody, and larger spores 10.5-14 x 6-7.5 um. C. truncatus has pinkish cinnamon to orange-brown or yellow-brown fruitbody with top yellower and brighter, the top blunt becoming truncate, excavated, perforated, or even umbonate, red reaction of surface to KOH, usually sweet or mild taste, and larger spores.Clavariadelphus caespitosus
Clavariadelphus caespitosus
Michael Wood (MykoWeb)

112b Light yellow initially becoming pinkish buff to grayish orange, single to gregarious, infrequently in cespitose clusters - usually 2 or 3 fruitbodies in a cluster, (spores 9-13.5 x 5-6.5 um)

................................................................................Clavariadelphus occidentalis

SPOROCARP 5-25 cm high, 0.5-1.5 cm wide basally, 1-3.5 cm wide at top, initially nearly cylindric to somewhat spindle-shaped, becoming club-shaped, finally irregularly laterally flattened, top somewhat sharp, blunt, or narrowly rounded, fruitbody initially light yellow, pinkish buff at maturity, finally grayish orange, top the same color, where cut or bruised the surface staining slowly brown; smooth becoming longitudinally wrinkled; flesh white to pallid, on exposure staining slowly brown, solid becoming spongy; stem base round in cross-section, smooth, powdery, white to pallid where covered, otherwise pale yellow to buff; mycelial hyphae interwoven or aggregated into rhizomorphic strands up to 1 mm wide, white to pallid. TASTE not distinct or bitter (Castellano), not distinct (Methven 1990). FRUITING single to gregarious or in cespitose clusters of 2 or 3, on soil or duff in forests, mostly September through February but also in May. SPORE DEPOSIT white to pale yellow, (Castellano), white (Methven 1990). CHEMICAL REACTIONS tissue dark green in FeCl3; no reaction in KOH. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 9-13.5 x 5-6.5 um, broadly ovate to almond-shaped, smooth, inamyloid, pale yellow in KOH. REMARKS Clavariadelphus subfastigiatus has pallid flesh-color to light cinnamon fruitbody, forest green staining reaction with KOH, and smaller spores (8-10.5 x 5-6 um). C. caespitosus has grayish red to dull red or cinnamon buff fruitbody with somewhat sharp top, cespitose growth, and smaller spores. C. truncatus has pinkish cinnamon to orange-brown or yellow-brown fruitbody with top yellower and brighter, the top blunt becoming truncate, excavated, perforated, or even umbonate, red reaction of surface to KOH, sweet taste, and similar sized spores. Small immature fruitbodies of C. occidentalis might be confused with C. ligula or C. sachalinensis, but both have different spores which are narrowly elliptic to boletoid in side view (rather than broadly ovate to almond-shaped in side view for C. occidentalis). Clavariadelphus occidentalis (along with other taxa that include C. caespitosus and C. subfastigiatus), has passed under the name Clavariadelphus pistillaris which is found in eastern North America and Europe.Clavariadelphus occidentalis
Clavariadelphus occidentalis
Kit Scates Barnhart

113a (106b) Flattened cylindric (strap-like), 7-10 cm tall, 0.2-0.6 cm wide, often twisted or longitudinally furrowed, orange-yellow to orange-buff, gregarious on decaying needles and decaying male cones of Pinus ponderosa

................................................................................Clavaria maricola

SPOROCARP 3-10 cm tall, 0.2-0.6 cm wide, club-shaped, more or less laterally flattened, solid, colored shades of yellow, orange, buff, or gray-brown, longitudinally wrinkled; flesh white; stem base smooth, colored as the rest of the fruitbody, mycelial hyphae lacking. FRUITING gregarious on decaying needles, and, mostly, on decaying male cones of Pinus ponderosa (Western Yellow Pine). MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores (7.7)8.5-10.7 x (4.1)4.4-5.6 um, elliptic to nearly cylindric, smooth. REMARKS Clavariadelphus sachalinensis and Clavariadelphus ligula are duller in color, wider, have white mycelium at base of stem which binds the substrate, and have larger spores.

113b Not with these characters

114a Slender, yellow-cream club-shaped fruitbody, up to 13.5 cm tall, up to 3.2 mm wide, pallid yellow stem, gregarious, (nearly round spores) (for description see 418a)

................................................................................Clavaria globospora

114b Not with these characters

115a Thread-like cylindric, up to 6 cm high, up to 4 mm wide, growing from sclerotium, or growing on blue-green algae

115b Pimpled or pitted surface on cap (use hand lens)

116a Growing on blue-green algae

116b Thread-like cylindric, up to 6 cm high, up to 4 mm wide, growing from sclerotium

117a Usually on wood, occasionally on soil, white to yellowish or even pinkish, (spores 4.5-7.7 x 1.8-3.2 um, basidia with 4-6 sterigmata) (for description see 416a)

................................................................................Multiclavula mucida

117b On soil, pale yellow to straw or pinkish shades, (spores 5.6-8.2 x 2.1-3.5 um, basidia often with more than 4 sterigmata) (for description see 416b)

................................................................................Multiclavula corynoides

117c On soil, cream to pinkish cream or straw orange, (spores 6-12 x 2.5-3.5 um, basidia 4-spored) (for description see 416c)

................................................................................Multiclavula vernalis

117d On soil, light tan, often branched, (spores 7.5-9 x 2.5-3.5 um, basidia 4-spored) (for description see 416d)

118a (116b) Under 1 cm high, yellowish, arising from sclerotium under the bark of conifer twigs (for description see 432b)

118b Over 1 cm high, growing from sclerotium usually on dead leaves, stems, and grasses

119a Spores 11-15 x 4.5-5.5 um, 2-6(10) cm x 0.05-0.1 cm, cream to yellow-brown, relatively common (for description see 428a)

119b Spores 14-16.5 x 7-8.3 um, 2.5-4.0 cm high x 0.03-0.35 cm wide, pale yellowish brownish, rare (for description see 428b)

120a (115b) Not attached at lower end to insect or truffle, and whitish to yellowish fruitbody cylindric to club-shaped, 2-4 cm x 0.5-1.0 cm (for description see 125a)

120b Lower end of fruitbody attached to insect or truffle, or not having the characters above

121a Lower end of fruitbody attached to truffle

................................................................................Cordyceps ophioglossoides

SPOROCARP 2-10 cm high, 0.3-1.3 cm wide in expanded upper part, club-shaped, simple or rarely branched, typically with an elongated spore-bearing head, up to 2.5 cm high, somewhat enlarged from sterile stem but not conspicuously, and roughly 1/3 to 1/2 of height of fruitbody, head yellow to red-brown or olive-brown or olive-black, punctate, stem 1-6 cm x 0.2-0.8 cm, yellow to brown-yellow or olive or dark brown, attached to Elaphomyces truffle indirectly by long, yellowish, cord-like strands. FRUITING single or a few together, associated with various Elaphomyces species, including E. granulatus and E. muricatus. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores thread-like, multiseptate, breaking up into single-celled, cylindric, truncate part-spores 2-5 x 1.5-2 um, colorless, asci in perithecia, 8-spored before they break into part-spores. REMARKS Cordyceps capitata is also attached to a truffle, but has a distinct head.Cordyceps ophioglossoides
Cordyceps ophioglossoides
Buck McAdoo

121b Lower end of fruitbody attached to Lepidoptera larva

122a Head orange to red, fairly common

................................................................................Cordyceps militaris

SPOROCARP 2-8 cm tall, cylindric to spindle-shaped or club-shaped, often with a longitudinal furrow, 2-6 mm wide in upper part which is orange, orange-red, orange-yellow, or orange-buff, finely roughened or pimpled by the slightly protruding perithecia, the head constituting roughly a third to a half the length, not clearly demarcated by shape from the sterile stem which is narrower (2-5 mm) and usually paler (pale orange to ocher, sometimes mottled with orange), smooth, often curved. FRUITING single to gregarious or clustered on buried pupae (or less commonly caterpillars) of Lepidoptera (both moths and butterflies). MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores 300-500 x 1-1.5 um, thread-like and many cells long, breaking into part-spores 3.5-6 x 1-1.5 um, barrel-shaped, smooth, asci 8-spored (before they break into part-spores), very long, about 4 um wide, borne in perithecia.Cordyceps militaris
Cordyceps militaris
Michael Beug

122b Head yellow, rarely collected

................................................................................Cordyceps washingtonensis

SPOROCARP 1.5-3.0 cm high, 2-6 mm wide, fusoid-cylindric (elongate - spindle-shaped) to narrowly club-shaped, yellow in upper part, stem whitish. FRUITING from buried caterpillars of Lepidoptera. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores 80-110 x 1-1.5 um, not breaking into segments, narrowly cylindric-clavate, narrowed in lower part, asci 300-418 x 3-3.5 um, cylindric clavate, borne in perithecia.

123a (105a) Pimpled surface on cap (use hand lens)

123b Surface of cap not pimpled, lower end of fruitbody not attached to insect or truffle

124a Not attached at lower end to insect or truffle, and (1) whitish to yellowish fruitbody cylindric to club-shaped, 2-4 cm x 0.5-1.0 cm, or (2) less than 2 cm high, spherical head less than 3 mm across, on sclerotium that fell from grasses

124b Lower end of fruitbody attached to insect or truffle or not having the characters above

125a Whitish to yellowish fruitbody cylindric to club-shaped, 2-4 cm x 0.5-1.0 cm, head not much differentiated

................................................................................Podostroma alutaceum

SPOROCARP 1-5 cm tall and 0.5-1.0 cm wide, cylindric to club-shaped, spore-bearing tissue in upper 3/4 of fruitbody, not distinctly demarcated by shape but different in color when mature, the spore-bearing upper area off-white when immature becoming yellow-orange when mature, the openings of the immersed perithecia about 0.1 mm across, imparting a brown color, surface dry, stem usually whitish or at least paler, flesh tough, white. FRUITING single to clustered, primarily in coniferous forests in the litter, associated with dead wood and possibly with the roots of trees. MICROSTRUCTURES part ascospores 3-5.5 x 2.5-4 um, nearly round to elliptic, colorless, 1-septate, disarticulating along septum into 16 single-celled irregularly round part-spores, smooth to slightly punctate; asci 8-spored then 16-spored, borne in perithecia; no paraphyses.Podostroma alutaceum
Podostroma alutaceum
Michael Beug

125b Fruitbody less than 2 cm high, more or less spherical head less than 3 mm across, on damp sclerotium that formed the previous year in the panicles of various grasses and fell to the ground

................................................................................Claviceps purpurea

SPOROCARP divided into head and stem, fertile head spherical to flattened, 1.5-3 mm, cream, ocher, orange-yellow, or pale purple, with fine dark punctation, stem 5-15 mm x 1-1.5 mm, cylindric, curving, reddish brown to pale purple, smooth, attached by a white feltwork to sclerotium on the ground, single to a few per sclerotium; sclerotium elongate, blackish, with a hard white interior, more or less cylindric with rounded ends, but usually with slight longitudinal grooves and ridges. FRUITING singly or in small clusters on damp sclerotia that formed the previous year in the panicles of various grasses. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores 100-120 x 1 um, thread-like, smooth, colorless, multiseptate when mature after expulsion, asci 8-spored, 160 x 5 um, with parallel spores, borne in perithecia, paraphyses absent. REMARKS Claviceps purpurea is more commonly seen as the sclerotium projecting from the flowering parts of grasses before it falls to the ground. This species infects rye: if the sclerotia are eaten by cattle, or if ergot-containing rye bread is eaten by humans, a form of poisoning results called ergotism or St. Anthony's fire (hallucinations, burning feelings, gangrene). Claviceps was the original source of LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), the potent psychedelic drug.Claviceps purpurea
Claviceps purpurea
Michael Beug

126a (124b) Ocher to ochraceous salmon head on very thin stem colored like head or paler, growing from buried ant carcass, usually around ant nests

................................................................................Cordyceps myrmecophila

SPOROCARP 0.8-5(10) cm tall, with thin stem and small ovoid head 2-8 mm wide, ochraceous to ochraceous-salmon, irregularly to slightly longitudinally ridged, stem 0.8-9.5 cm long and 0.5-1(2) mm wide, more or less equal, colored like the head or paler (pale yellow, sometimes white near base, or entirely white). FRUITING scattered to gregarious on ant carcasses that are often buried, usually one fruitbody per ant, usually around ant nests in the woods. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores colorless, thread-like, colorless, smooth, multiseptate, breaking into one-celled segments, 8-10 x 1.5 um, asci 480-720 x 4-6 um, narrowly cylindric, borne in perithecia. REMARKS also known as Cordyceps forquignonii Quél.

126b Yellow brown head on thicker stem, growing from Lepidoptera larva or truffle (see both 127a and 127b if lower attachment undetected)

127a Attached at lower end to truffle

................................................................................Cordyceps capitata

SPOROCARP 2-8(12) cm tall, cap 0.5-2.0 cm high and wide, nearly spherical to convex, dark red-brown to brown, yellow-brown, dark olive-brown, or even blackish, roughened or finely pimpled, flesh white, stem distinct, stem 1.5-8 cm x 0.2-1.5 cm, sometimes slightly flattened, often curved, occasionally forked with two caps, yellow to yellow-brown or yellow-olive, sometimes darker (olive to olive-black) when old, base often whitish, fibrillose, fibrillose-scaly, or smooth. FRUITING single to clustered on ground among moss and needle litter, arising from underground deer truffles (Elaphomyces species). MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores thread-like, smooth, colorless under microscope, multiseptate, usually breaking up when mature into smooth, colorless, one-celled segments averaging (8)12-27(32) x 1.5-3 um, asci borne in perithecia, 8-spored before they break into segments, no paraphyses. REMARKS Cortinarius ophioglossoides is also attached to a truffle but head is not clearly demarcated from stem.Cordyceps capitata
Cordyceps capitata
Steve Trudell

127b Attached at lower end to buried Lepidoptera caterpillar

................................................................................Cordyceps gracilis

SPOROCARP 3-5 cm tall, head ovoid to nearly spherical, 0.4-1.0 cm high, 0.3-0.6 cm across, orange-brown to chestnut brown, appearing smooth, sometimes furrowed and with inconspicuous darker punctation from the opening of the perithecia, stem 2.5-4.5 cm x 0.2-0.4 cm, pale orange-brown to yellow or whitish, darker toward the base, with fine scales, the stem arising directly from the dead caterpillar. FRUITING on buried larva of Lepidoptera, usually Hepialus. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores cylindric, smooth, colorless, part-spores 5-9 x 1.5-2 um, lined up end to end making chain-like formations; asci borne in perithecia, very long, with 8 spores before they break into part-spores, no paraphyses observed.

128a (123b) Very near or in running water of mountain streams, often submerged, head yellowish or orange to pinkish buff, somewhat gelatinous, convex doorknob-like, wider than it is high

................................................................................Vibrissea truncorum

SPOROCARP 3-10 mm high, cap 3-6 mm across, hemispheric-convex, ovoid, or lens-shaped, margin rounded; cap color yellow, orange, reddish-orange, pinkish buff, yellowish buff, rarely pallid, consistency fleshy to somewhat gelatinous, stem 1-2 mm wide, up to 1.5 cm long, white to bluish-gray, or brownish, rather darker in lower part, stem sometimes with some fine blackish hairs or scales. FRUITING single, gregarious, or in clusters of 2 or 3 each, on wholly or partly submerged sticks, root remains, leaves etc,, in streams, mostly at higher altitudes, also in ditches among Sphagnum and other very wet areas. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores up to 250 um x 1 um, thread-like, parallel in the ascus, multiseptate; asci 8-spored, up to 200-325 um long and 5-6 um wide; paraphyses occasionally forked, the tips somewhat clavate.Vibrissea truncorum
Vibrissea truncorum
John Davis

128b Not near or in running water of mountain streams or head otherwise

129a Growing on moss in arctic and alpine environments

................................................................................Bryoglossum gracile

SPOROCARP 1-3(5) cm tall, with stem and cap, cap 2-6 mm x 1.5-7 mm, typically 1/4 to 1/3 the height of the fruitbody, irregular, varying from nearly flat to downcurved or capitate (with a head), folded, convoluted, ovoid, ellipsoid, or cylindric, the margin distinct or indistinct, cap surface wrinkled, smooth, or convoluted, bright orange or bright yellow to pale orange, orange-tan, or ochraceous, underside of cap seldom visible unless margin distinct; stem up to 1 mm wide, creamy white to tinged the color of spore-bearing surface, but typically paler, with nearly colorless minute scales and hairs. FRUITING associated with mosses in arctic or alpine environments, August through October. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores (8)9-13(16) x 2-3 um, fusiform (spindle-shaped) to cylindric but tapered, minutely warty, colorless, without septa or 1-septate; paraphyses straight, not or only slightly enlarged at tip, (Castellano et al.), spores 11-13 x 3-5.5 um, (Breitenbach et al. 1984). REMARKS Bryoglossum gracile is also known as Mitrula gracilis. Mitrula elegans fruits April to September on organic material in very wet habitats. The stem of Mitrula elegans lacks scales, but is moderately covered with matted hyphal hairs in lower part. Heyderia abietis is smaller and slighter; has a pale brown to pink buff, smooth head, and pale to dark brown stem; and fruits on conifer needles in late summer and fall.

129b Growing in shallow pools or wet paths or ditches or boggy areas, on wet decaying wood, or other wet decaying plant debris

130a Fruitbody pale yellowish ocher to cream or dull brown with convex cap resembling that of a gilled mushroom (without gills) or a shallow cup, wider than it is tall, with margin relatively sharp rather than rounded

................................................................................Cudoniella clavus

SPOROCARP Cap 3-6(10) mm across, concave becoming convex, cream to pale yellowish ocher or pale dull brown, sometimes flushed with violet tint, surface moist, smooth, and bald; stem 1.0-2.0 cm x 1 mm, darker at base, smooth or under hand lens slightly tomentose. FRUITING single to gregarious on rotting barkless twigs, leaves, and stems, especially those covered by water, as in ditches, wheel ruts, and boggy places; spring to summer. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores 10-17 x 3-5 um, oblong-fusiform, often narrower at one end. REMARKS The name is 'clavus' not 'clava' because 'clavus' is a masculine Latin noun meaning 'nail'.Cudoniella clavus
Cudoniella clavus
Michael Wood (MykoWeb)

130b Fruitbody with bright yellow, orange-yellow, or pale yellow head taller than it is wide, and whitish stem

131a Fairly common, April to September, (spores 11-17.5 x (1.5)2-2.5(3) um)

................................................................................Mitrula elegans

SPOROCARP 2-10 cm high, cap 0.15-1.5 cm wide, 0.6-2.0 cm high, round to cylindric, spindle-shaped, brain-like, club-shaped, pear-shaped or lobed, bright orange to bright yellow, becoming ochraceous orange when old or pinkish when submerged in acidic water, smooth to wrinkled, stem 0.15-0.3 cm wide in upper part, slightly enlarged in upper or lower part, white to pale translucent gray or faintly pinkish, shiny, bald and slightly lubricous in upper part, with fine matted hairs on lower part. FRUITING gregarious, single to cespitose, in shallow water, on decaying wet needles, scales, twigs, logs, leaves, decaying material of other plants and mosses, algal flats, or mud, April to September. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores 11-17.5 x (1.5)2-2.5(3) um, flexible, narrowly cylindric or clavate, occasionally fusoid-cylindric (elongate - spindle-shaped), one-celled or two-celled, flexible, lacking a gelatinous sheath.Mitrula elegans
Mitrula elegans
Boleslaw Kuznik

131b Rarely found, July to September, (spores 10.5-18 x (2.5)3-4(5) um)

................................................................................Mitrula borealis

SPOROCARP 1.5-4.5 cm high, cap 0.2-1.2 cm wide, taller than it is wide, fleshy, ovoid to irregularly pear-shaped, cylindric or club-shaped; luteous to yellow-luteous, smooth to wrinkled, stem 0.1-0.3 cm wide in upper part, occasionally enlarged lower down, colorless to white, occasionally with red-brown stains, bald and slightly lubricous in upper part, with fine matted hairs on lower part. FRUITING gregarious, single to somewhat cespitose, in shallow water, on decaying needles, twigs, cones, or leaves or decaying material of other plants and mosses, July to September. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores 10.5-18 x (2.5)3-4(5) um, elliptic to ovoid or broadly cylindric, one- or two-celled, inflexible, usually with a gelatinous sheath. REMARKS Redhead, who described the species in 1977, did not find Pacific Northwest collections, but one is from western Montana near the Idaho border and another from Alaska.

 




PURPLE, PINK, RED



201a Slender, cylindric, spindle-shaped, or somewhat flattened, pink to red to purplish to brownish fruitbodies with inconspicuous stem, sometimes densely clustered

201b Fruitbody with widened flattened head; dark brown, purplish brown or black; stem smooth or minutely scaly, fruiting singly or in groups, uncommon (for description see 507a)

................................................................................Microglossum atropurpureum

202a Purplish to brownish fruitbodies, unbranched, common

................................................................................Alloclavaria purpurea

SPOROCARP 3-12 cm high, 2-6 mm wide, slender spindle-shaped, somewhat flattened, hollow, often longitudinally grooved, purple, lavender, amethyst, smoky purple, pinky-buff, or pale brown; flesh brittle, white or at least paler than exterior; base paler or light cream, white-hairy, no distinct stem. FRUITING generally cespitose, up to 20 in a tuft, sometimes gregarious or single, among grass or on bare soil, generally under conifers. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 5.5-9 x 3-5 um, elliptic to oblong, smooth; cystidia abundant. Alloclavaria purpurea
Alloclavaria purpurea
Ben Woo

202b Pink to reddish pink fruitbodies, sometimes branched or flattened near end, rare

................................................................................Clavaria rosea

SPOROCARP 2-6 cm high, 1-5 mm wide, slender cylindric to spindle-shaped, unbranched or sometimes flattened and branched once near end or toothed like a cockscomb; pink to reddish pink, discoloring yellowish at the top; flesh brittle, pink to white; stem short, pallid. FRUITING single or small groups amongst grass or in woods. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 5-8 x 2.5-4 microns, elliptic, smooth. REMARKS reported from eastern Washington. Clavaria rosea
Clavaria rosea
Michael Beug



GREEN



301a Non-gelatinous fruitbody, club-shaped and sometimes twisted and contorted, flattened wider upper fertile part that is demarcated by color from stem, upper part olivaceous to brown, stem yellowish buff to gray brown

................................................................................Microglossum olivaceum

SPOROCARP 1-8 cm high, club-shaped, sometimes twisted and contorted, fertile upper part 0.3-1.0 cm wide, 1/3 to 1/2 of the length of the fruitbody, flattened, olivaceous brown, often with yellow or buff tint, drying reddish brown to black, continuous with stem but sharply demarcated by color, smooth, with a central groove, stem 0.1-0.4 cm wide, round in cross-section, olivaceous to brown (drying dark brown to black), smooth, fibrous, solid. FRUITING single, scattered, or cespitose on soil. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores 10-18(20) x 3.5-5 um, subfusoid (somewhat spindle-shaped), cymbiform (boat-shaped) or allantoid (like curved sausage), non-septate, finally becoming 3-septate; paraphyses somewhat enlarged at top, projecting beyond the asci, straight, colorless in lower part, colorless or greenish in upper part, often with greenish or brownish amorphous matter. REMARKS Microglossum fumosum lacks greenish tint and has different paraphyses. Microglossum viride is found as close as California: it is green when fresh with stem usually furfuraceous, whereas M. olivaceum is predominantly brown to olivaceous with stem smooth.

301b Gelatinous, usually viscid fruitbody, head distinct, nodulose or lobed or wrinkled; head ochraceous or dark green, stem ochraceous, yellow, orange, or white

302a Head ochraceous (sometimes with a greenish tint), stem of similar color

................................................................................Leotia lubrica

SPOROCARP 2-7 cm or more high, more or less viscid-gelatinous or under dry conditions appearing somewhat fleshy, color ochraceous-yellow to buff or cinnamon, often with a greenish or olive tint; cap well differentiated, 1/6 to 1/4 the height of the fruitbody, 0.8-4 cm across, convex to more or less spherical, smooth or somewhat, knobby, furrowed, or wrinkled, margin usually incurved, often lobed or wavy, underside sterile; flesh gelatinous at least in central core; stem 2-8 cm x 0.3-1.0 cm, equal or widening somewhat downward, round in cross-section or somewhat flattened, hollow or filled with a gel, colored like cap or sometimes yellower, with minute scales or furfuraceous or smooth, sometimes longitudinally furrowed or pitted, sometimes with innate greenish granules. FRUITING usually densely cespitose, or gregarious to scattered, on rich humus or sandy soil, rarely on rotten wood. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores 16-28 x 4-6 um, cylindric to fusiform, straight or curved, ends rounded, smooth, colorless, at first 0-septate, finally 5-7-septate; paraphyses colorless, with tips enlarged, the tips agglutinated by amorphous matter. REMARKS Greenish-tinged forms approach L. viscosa, and the two may intergrade, according to Arora.Leotia lubrica
Leotia lubrica
John Davis

302b Head dark green and the stem and lower surface of the cap white, yellow, or orange

................................................................................Leotia viscosa

SPOROCARP 3-9 cm high, viscid-gelatinous or under dry conditions appearing more fleshy; cap 0.5-1.0 cm high, 0.5-3 cm across, olive-green to dark green, convex to more or less spherical, smooth or somewhat knobby, furrowed, or wrinkled, margin usually incurved, often lobed or wavy, underside sterile and whitish; flesh gelatinous at least in central core; stem 2-9 cm x 0.3-1 cm, equal or widening somewhat downward, round in cross-section or somewhat flattened, hollow or filled with a gel, white, less often with an ochraceous or yellow or orange tinge, smooth or often with minute green dots or scales. FRUITING cespitose or scattered or single, on soil or sometimes on rotten wood. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores 16-28 x 4-6 um, cylindric to subfusiform (somewhat spindle-shaped), straight or slightly curved, ends rounded, smooth, colorless, at first 0-septate, finally 5- or more septate; paraphyses somewhat enlarged at the tips, green in upper part, usually somewhat agglutinated with green amorphous matter.




WHITE TO WHITISH



401a White part is powder dusted on black tough strap-like or antler-like fruitbody growing on wood, common (for description see 501a)

................................................................................Xylaria hypoxylon

Note that other tough to hard, blackish to brownish Xylaria species on wood, much less common in the Pacific Northwest, may similarly appear whitish at some stages: see 511b.

401b White in most of fruitbody

402a Growing on rotting dead mushrooms; small whitish caps which become brown and powdery; gills poorly formed

................................................................................Asterophora lycoperdoides

SPOROCARP cap 1-2(3) cm across, spherical to hemispheric or broadly convex, margin inrolled for a long time; whitish and floury-fibrillose when young, soon becoming brown and covered with cinnamon-colored powder (chlamydospores), whitish gills distant, adnate, narrow, thickish, often poorly developed, sometimes rudimentary or lacking; flesh thin, whitish; stem 1-3 cm x 1-8 mm, cylindric to club-shaped, often curved, soon hollow, whitish, brownish when old, cottony to appressed-fibrillose. ODOR and TASTE farinaceous. FRUITING in gregarious clusters on rotting Russula and Lactarius. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 3.2-6 x 2.0-4.2 um, elliptic, smooth, colorless, but not formed in many fruitbodies; chlamydospores prominent on upper surface, 12-20 x 10-20 um excluding spines, oval to nearly round, verrucose to bluntly spiny, light brownish, thick-walled. REMARKS Asterophora parasitica, which also grows on rotting Russula and Lactarius, has non-powdery, dirty white silky cap and smooth, elliptic chlamydospores from well-formed gills (therefore not included in this key of non-gilled club fungi).Asterophora lycoperdoides
Asterophora lycoperdoides
Steve Trudell

402b Not growing on dead mushrooms

403a Growing on dead animal material

403b Not growing on dead animal material

404a On feathers, animal hairs, owl pellets, cylindric

................................................................................Onygena corvina

SPOROCARP Fruitbody divided into head and stem, head rounded, 1-2 mm, ocher to light brown, rough-furfuraceous, stem 4-15(25) mm x 1-2 mm, cylindric, thickened toward base, white, more or less smooth. FRUITING single to clustered, on feathers, animal hair, owl pellets, summer to fall. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores 6-8 x 2.5-3 um, cylindric-elliptic, sometimes curved, smooth, light brown, asci spherical, 8-spored, paraphyses not observed.Onygena corvina
Onygena corvina
Paul Kroeger

404b On rotting horns of sheep and cattle or remains of hooves, head spherical

................................................................................Onygena equina

SPOROCARP Fruitbody divided into head and stem, head rounded, 2-4 mm, whitish to cream, then brownish, warty when young, then smooth, stem 3-6(10) mm x 2 mm, cylindric, white to brownish, smooth. FRUITING single to cespitose or clustered, on rotting horns of cattle and sheep, as well as remains of hooves, spring to fall. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores 8-9 x 4.5-5.5 um, broadly elliptic, smooth, light brown, asci spherical, 8-spored, paraphyses not observed.

405a (403b) Awl-shaped conical, waxy-fragile spines hanging down from rotten wood

405b Growing erect

406a 1-5 mm long, without distinct stem, (spores 5.5-6 x 4-6 um)

................................................................................Mucronella bresadolae

SPOROCARP Single or densely grouped, hanging, awl-shaped spines 1-6 mm long and 0.2-0.8 mm wide, each spine often somewhat curved, ending in a sharp conical point, white, sometimes yellowish at base, smooth, flesh waxy-fragile, soft, white, no stem. FRUITING on rotten wood and bark or old polypores. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 5-8.5 x 4-6.3 um, nearly round, colorless, inamyloid or pale blue amyloid, cystidia-like cells between the basidia.Mucronella bresadolae
Mucronella bresadolae
Boleslaw Kuznik

406b 1-5 mm long, with a short stem, (spores 5.7-8.2 x 5-6.6 um)

................................................................................Mucronella fusiformis

SPOROCARP Hanging, awl-shaped or spindle-shaped spines 3-5 mm long and about 0.3 mm wide, whitish, may be yellowish toward base, soft; short stem with downy surface. FRUITING in groups on rotten conifer wood. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 5.7-8.2 x 5-6.6 um, obovate to nearly round.Mucronella fusiformis
Mucronella fusiformis
Kit Scates Barnhart

406c Less than 1 mm long (longer in type variety not yet recorded from Pacific Northwest), (spores 4.5-6 x 3-4 um)

................................................................................Mucronella calva var. aggregata

SPOROCARP Densely cespitose, hanging, awl-shaped spines 0.4-0.6 mm long and 0.1-0.2 mm wide, each spine ending in a sharp conical point, white, but translucent when wet, smooth to slightly granular, flesh wax-like, soft, no stem. FRUITING on rotten conifer wood. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 4.5-6 x 3-4 um, oval, smooth, colorless, without droplets, cystidia not seen.

407a (405b) More than 3 mm in width at widest point

407b Less than 3 mm in width at widest point

408a Fragile, tall and relatively slender, 6-15 cm x 3-5 mm, cylindric, white discoloring yellowish from the top down, growing in clusters or groups

................................................................................Clavaria vermicularis

SPOROCARP 3-15 cm tall, 0.3-0.5 cm wide, occasionally forked once, often curved, cylindric, then elongate spindle-shaped, becoming flattened, sharp becoming blunt, solid then generally hollow, white, often yellowish toward tip, pale yellowish when old, becoming grooved, soon withering, flesh very fragile, brittle, white, stem indistinct. FRUITING densely cespitose in tufts of 20-50, occasionally in tufts of 3-6 or gregarious, rarely single, among grass or on soil in fields and woods. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 5-7 x 3-4 um, elliptic (var. sphaerospora 3-6 um in diameter), smooth, thin-walled, cystidia none.Clavaria vermicularis
Clavaria vermicularis
Michael Beug

408b Not having these characters

409a Club-shaped when young becoming obconic or trumpet-shaped with cup-like top, on a basal mat on conifer debris, under yew or other conifers, 5-30 mm high, 3-9 mm wide at widest point

................................................................................Clavicorona taxophila

SPOROCARP 5-30 mm high, mostly 14-18 mm, 3-9 mm wide at top, 1-2 mm wide at base, club-shaped when young, becoming obconic or trumpet-shaped with wide, flat to slightly concave top with thin margin, smooth with scattered white hairs at the base, white when fresh, drying more yellowish, spore-bearing surface on sides of the head, flesh white, waxy, soft. FRUITING gregarious, usually single, occasionally paired, on duff usually under conifers, often Taxus brevifolia (Pacific yew), the fruit bodies attached to twigs and needles in the duff on the ground, also on hardwood leaves under Taxus, or on bare ground. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 3.0-4.0(4.5) x (2.0)2.5-3.0(3.2) um, nearly round, appearing smooth, weakly amyloid (light blue green), white, thin-walled; gloeocystidia 4.5 um wide, usually not projecting but occasionally projecting up to 10 um, with yellowish refractive contents or empty, cylindric.Clavicorona taxophila
Clavicorona taxophila
Rich Mably

409b Not having these characters

410a Funnel-shaped to horizontal kidney-shaped, thin-fleshed cap, often with convoluted margins, upright central to lateral stem

................................................................................Stereopsis humphreyi

SPOROCARP Cap single or rarely 2 or 3 per stem, 0.6-2.9 cm wide, becoming kidney-shaped to funnel-shaped, cleft on one side to the stem, often with markedly wavy margins, membranous and soft, dull white on upper surface, dry, silky when young, nearly smooth to wrinkled, later most becoming obscurely zoned-ridged and often minutely cottony-scaly or rough towards stem; spore-bearing surface on the underside of cap decurrent, nearly smooth but sometimes when old with low radiating wrinkles or more prominent furrows, creamy white, demarcated from stem; stem 1-3 cm x 1-3 mm, stuffed to hollow, tough, pliant, white (but when old age faintly cinnamon), velvety, a few bald except at base, base with hairs. FRUITING gregarious on mossy needle beds, cones, twigs, fern fronds, and mosses, in coniferous forest. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 6.5-9 x 3.5-5.5 microns, narrowly to broadly oval to elliptic, smooth, inamyloid. REMARKS This is anomalous among the "club fungi", but nevertheless fits the definition used here (upright, unbranched fungi that do not fit into other morphological groups).

410b Not having these characters

411a Fruitbody yellowish ocher to cream or dull brown with convex cap resembling that of a gilled mushroom (without gills) or a shallow cup, wider than it is tall; growing in wet paths or ditches or other very wet places, on wet decaying wood, or other wet decaying plant debris (for description see 130a)

411b Not having these characters

412a Fruitbody 8 cm x 1.0-1.5 cm with nipple-like point in center of top (for description see 108a)

412b Without nipple-like point in center of top

413a Cylindric to club-shaped, 2-4 cm x 5-10 mm, whitish to yellowish, tough, upper part minutely roughened with small openings (use hand lens), (for description see 125a)

Note that a very pale young Spathularia flavida could key out here and is a much more common species. For a description see 104a.

413b Slender, 3-30 cm high, usually 5-10 mm at widest point, typically ocher-yellow to ocher-brown, hollow

................................................................................Macrotyphula fistulosa

SPOROCARP 3-30 cm high, 0.2-1.0(1.3) cm wide, erect, narrowly club-shaped, stiff, tip sharp to blunt, often contorted in lower part, upper fertile part about 2/3 of the height, becoming hollow, color ocher-yellow to reddish-ocher-brown or becoming date brown, flesh firm, yellowish, stem base tapered and sometimes downy, often rooting or lying down flat. FRUITING single to gregarious on dead sticks and branches. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 10-15 x 5.5-8 um, elliptic, smooth, inamyloid, colorless; cystidia not seen. REMARKS Macrotyphula juncea is very thin (up to 0.2 cm thick) with spores 6-12 x 3.5-5 um, and occurs on humus, rotting twigs, leaf litter, etc.Macrotyphula fistulosa
Macrotyphula fistulosa
Sharon Godkin

414a (407b) Very slender, 3-15 cm high, up to 2 mm wide, leather-colored to yellowish buff or pallid

................................................................................Macrotyphula juncea

SPOROCARP Very thin, 3-15 cm high when mature, 0.5-2 mm wide, solid becoming hollow, erect but often becoming bent and twisted, tip sharp or when old sometimes blunt, leather-colored to yellowish buff or orange brownish or pallid, smooth, sterile stem 1.0-2.5 cm long, not distinctly demarcated from fertile part, somewhat darker in color, sometimes with lateral thorn-like outgrowths, base with white appressed hyphae; flesh very thin, firm and tough when young. FRUITING scattered to gregarious on humus, leaf remains, needles, twigs, plant stems, bud scales, etc., in damp places, fall. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 6-12 x 3.5-5.5 um, elliptic or almond-shaped, smooth, inamyloid, colorless; basidia 1-4-spored. REMARKS Typhula phacorrhiza has a sclerotium (like other Typhula species) and has larger spores. Macrotyphula fistulosa is larger, usually 5-10 mm wide at widest point, has spores 10-15 x 5.5-8 um, and grows on dead sticks and branches. A tall example of Eocronartium muscicola could key out here but would be growing on moss (see 418a).Macrotyphula juncea
Macrotyphula juncea
Kit Scates Barnhart

414b Less slender in relation to height or not as tall

415a Growing on blue-green algae

415b Not growing on blue-green algae

416a Usually on wood, occasionally on soil, white to yellowish or even pinkish, (spores 4.5-7.7 x 1.8-3.2 um, basidia with 4-6 sterigmata)

................................................................................Multiclavula mucida

SPOROCARP 3-20 mm high, 1-2 mm wide, mostly simple, but sometimes forked into 2-6 linear curved ascending branches, or incised or minutely crested at the top, solid, cylindric to spindle-shaped, tip sharp or blunt, delicate but waxy-tough, not breaking on bending, smooth or longitudinally wrinkled, when fresh white, pale cream, yellowish, or even pinkish, the upper part becoming darker or more pigmented or tipped whitish, fruitbody narrowing into indistinct stem. FRUITING in groups but not clusters on wet, algae-covered, rotting wood, according to some authors sometimes also on algae-covered soil. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 4.5-7.7 x 1.8-3.2 um, smooth, colorless; basidia 4-spored; cystidia none.Multiclavula mucida
Cudoniella clavus
Fred Stevens (MykoWeb)

416b On soil, pale yellow to straw or pinkish shades, (spores 5.6-8.2 x 2.1-3.5 um, basidia often with more than 4 sterigmata)

................................................................................Multiclavula corynoides

SPOROCARP 1-2.5cm high, often somewhat spathulate or laterally compressed toward the top, simple, lobed or branched to somewhat lacerate; pale yellowish to straw or pinkish shades, somewhat translucent, at least toward the base. FRUITING associated with algae on soil. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 5.6-8.2 x 2.1-3.5 um, smooth; basidia 4-5-6-spored. REMARKS The distinctions between this species and Multiclavula vernalis are inconsistently made by different authors, and here we follow Petersen. Note that Petersen does not make a distinction based on color or branching of the fruitbody but instead emphasizes the number of sterigmata on the basidia. He lists M. corynoides for BC, WA, and ID (as well as ON, NY, and Europe). Multiclavula corynoides was thought by Corner to be only the better developed state of Multiclavula vernalis.

416c On soil, cream to pinkish cream or straw orange, (spores 6-12 x 2.5-3.5 um, basidia 4-spored)

................................................................................Multiclavula vernalis

SPOROCARP up to 2cm tall, unbranched, club-shaped; creamy to fleshy cream or straw-orange when fresh, dull ochraceous orange when dry. FRUITING on the ground, associated with algae or moss protonemata. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 8-12 x 2.5-3.5 microns in description but 6-12 um long in key, elliptic to narrowly oval, smooth, thin-walled, without droplets; basidia strictly 4-spored (rarely less). REMARKS Multiclavula vernalis is yet to be confirmed from the Pacific Northwest using the concepts of Petersen (see remarks under M. corynoides). There are collections at the University of British Columbia and Oregon State University, but it is not known what concepts were used.Multiclavula vernalis
Multiclavula vernalis
Andrew Parker

416d On soil, light tan, often branched, (spores 7.5-9 x 2.5-3.5 um, basidia 4-spored)

................................................................................Multiclavula sharpii

SPOROCARP 10-30 mm x 1-2.5 mm, somewhat compressed laterally, usually lacerated to imperfectly palmately branched, tip expanded; light tan when fresh, drying dingy cream or pinkish buff. FRUITING gregarious, sometimes crowded, associated with algae or moss protonemata, on clay soil. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 7.5-9 x 2.5-3.5 um, smooth; basidia 4-spored. REMARKS described from Prince George, BC.

417a (415b) Slender white to pallid club 0.4-2(6)cm tall, up to 1 mm at widest point, waxy, tough to somewhat fleshy, growing on moss

................................................................................Eocronartium muscicola

SPOROCARP 0.4-2(6) cm tall, 0.03-0.1 cm wide, club-shaped or thread-like, tough to somewhat fleshy; pallid or white; waxy. FRUITING parasitic on the gametophytes of mosses belonging to the families Leskeaceae and Hypnaceae. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 22-25 x 5-6.5 microns, nearly cylindric or fusiform, curved basidia becoming transversely 2-4-septate.

417b Larger, differently colored, different in consistency, or growing on other habitats

418a Slender yellow-cream club up to 13.5 cm tall, up to 3 mm at widest point, pallid yellow stem 1-2 cm long not attached to sclerotium, gregarious, (spores nearly round)

................................................................................Clavaria globospora

SPOROCARP up to 13.5 cm tall, up to 3.2 mm wide at widest point, top rounded, club round in cross-section, minutely plushy, yellow-cream to dull ochraceous, top sometimes slightly greenish, stem 1-2 cm long, distinct from the spore-bearing part, brittle, pale ochraceous or white at the base, yellow ocher above that, shining-silky, with fine bristles at base. FRUITING single, gregarious or scattered, under conifers. SPORE DEPOSIT white. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores (5.6)6.0-6.8(7.3) x (4.9)5.1-5.7(6.2) um, nearly round to very broadly ovate, smooth, colorless. REMARKS Clavaria americana is a synonym.

418b Not having these characters

419a Needle-like fruitbody with little or no stem, 1-11 mm high, 0.1-0.3 mm wide, not attached to sclerotium, (spores 9-16 x 4-7 um on 2-spored basidia)

................................................................................Pterula gracilis

SPOROCARP 1-11 mm high, 0.1-0.3 mm wide, white, needle-like, without stem or with indistinct stem 0.1-0.5 mm long, superficial on a slight mycelial patch, the base often slightly dilated and slightly downy. FRUITING more or less gregarious or subfasciculate (almost bundled), on dead stems and leaves of Juncus, Carex, Cladium, Typha, Eupatorium, grasses etc., in swampy places. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 9-16 x 4-7 um, elliptic-oblong, smooth, white; basidia 2-spored, 20-30 x 7-9 um; cystidia frequent, 25-40 x 5-8 um.

419b Not having these characters 420

420a 10-80 mm high, 1-3(5) mm wide, fruiting on bare soil, among grass, or in flower pots, not attached to sclerotium, (spores 7-10 x 5-9 um on 2-4-spored basidia)

................................................................................Clavaria acuta

10-80 mm high, 1-3(5) mm wide, vermiform (worm-like) to slenderly club-shaped, rounded in cross-section to slightly compressed, blunt to pointed, white when young (then ocherish-grayish), smooth, fragile, stem 5-20 mm long, often translucent. FRUITING single, in pairs or trios or less commonly in clusters, on bare soil, among grass, or in flower pots. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 7-10 x 5-9 um, broadly oval, smooth, inamyloid, colorless, basidia 2-4-spored with medallion clamp connection at their bases. REMARKS Clavaria vermicularis is usually larger, grows in clusters, has the stem the same color as the club, has narrower spores, and lacks the medallion clamp connections at the bases of the basidia.Clavaria acuta
Clavaria acuta
Steve Trudell

420b Not having these characters, usually attached at lower end to a sclerotium (Typhula)

421a Growing on leaves and stems of grasses and winter cereals, sclerotium forming with mycelium often near or under snow

421b Not having these characters

422a Whitish then pink, stem whitish then dingy, arising from sclerotium that is pinkish orange then tawny to dark reddish brown

................................................................................Typhula incarnata

SPOROCARP 3.4-30 mm high, but typically less than 10 mm high, single or in small groups from the sclerotium, head 1-20 mm x 0.4-2 mm, thread-like, cylindric, elliptic-oblong when short, becoming hollow, sharp then blunt, color whitish then flesh color or rose-pink, stem 5-20 x 0.5-1 mm, translucent white or whitish cream, then grayish or dingy brownish, downy, sclerotium 0.5-4.5 mm x 0.5-2 mm, nearly spherical, more or less flattened, smooth, drying or aging rough, sometimes irregular, pinkish orange when mature, then tawny to reddish brown or dark brown. FRUITING on dead culms and leaves of cereals and grasses, and on herbaceous stems and leaves, sclerotia in spring usually in snow cover conditions, fruitbodies in fall. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 4-15 x 2-8 um, elliptic or ovoid, smooth, white; basidia 4-spored. REMARKS This species causes the disease variously called speckled snow mold, gray snow mold, snow scald, or Typhula blight (also caused by T. idahoensis and T. ishikariensis), which can attack cereals and grasses. The name "speckled snow mold" comes from the appearance when snow is melting: patches of "mold" (mycelium) speckled with sclerotia. Typhula incarnata is also found causing a root and crown rot of wheat and barley in the absence of snow cover. Typhula phacorrhiza does not have a distinct head, and is yellowish in color. Typhula idahoensis and T. ishikariensis have different color of fruitbody and sclerotium. None of these species are characterized by the occasional digitate (finger-like) or radiate cells in the rind of the sclerotium that are found in T. incarnata if several fragments are examined.

422b White or white-grayish or brownish fruitbody, arising from amber to blackish sclerotium

423a White or white-grayish fruitbody

................................................................................Typhula ishikariensis

SPOROCARP 3-20 mm high, (0.3)0.5-1(3) mm wide, 1-3 from each sclerotium, spindle-shaped (occasionally flattened), powdery white to watery gray or light brown, head about half to two thirds of height of fruitbody, stem thread-like, darker than the fertile part; sclerotium (0.3)0.5-1.5(2) mm in diameter, spherical to nearly spherical or slightly flattened, light brown to black, surface smooth to rough. FRUITING develops only after prolonged snow cover, it is the dominant Typhula species in Washington on winter cereals grown in formerly forested areas, it also attacks clovers, turf grasses, and several legumes and broadleaved weeds. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 7.3-9.8 x 2.6-3.7 um, digitate cells rare in rind of sclerotia, (Bruehl (1975), who says these measurements are smaller than those made by other workers). REMARKS Typhula incarnata causes the same kind of disease, but sclerotia easily distinguished by color.

423b Brownish fruitbody

................................................................................Typhula idahoensis

SPOROCARP 5-10 mm high, 1 to several per sclerotium, or arising directly from the mycelium or from stolons from the mycelium and growing on the ground, club-shaped, bright warm brown to vinaceous brown, dark fawn, or gray-brown, the head paler than the stem, head 4-7 mm x 0.5-1.5 mm, elongate-fusiform, often thickened at top, or cylindric; stem 2-5 mm x 0.1-0.5 mm, bald or downy at base; sclerotium 0.5-2 mm x 0.5-0.9 mm, spherical or nearly so, flat below, convex above, chestnut-brown to blackish, bald, shining then dull. FRUITING rarely attacks species other than winter cereals and grasses; sclerotia form with the snow melt, fruitbodies grow in fall. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 8-13.5 x 4-8 um, ovate-elliptic; basidia 4-6-8-spored, 27-32 x 6-8 um, (Corner (1950)), spores 6.5-9.6 x 2.4-3.3 um, (Bruehl (1975), who says these measurements are smaller than for other authors).

424a (421b) Over 1 cm tall

424b Under 1 cm tall

425a Growing on turnips or iris

................................................................................Typhula umbrina

SPOROCARP 8-15 mm tall, consisting of stem and head; head 3-8 mm x 0.8-1.5 mm, cylindric to somewhat club-shaped, blunt (top fertile), solid, white or avellaneous (grayish brown), stem 3-4 mm x 0.2-0.5 mm, rufescent-brown to dark brown, base often blackish, downy especially at base; sclerotium 0.5-4 mm wide, convex-flat, dark brown to chestnut, drying blackish, smooth or slightly rough. FRUITING described from turnip in BC and leaves and rhizomes of Iris in Ontario. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 11.5-15.5 x 4-8 um, ovate.

425b Not growing on turnips or iris debris

426a Growing on soil among moss, (cystidia present in spore-bearing surface)

................................................................................Typhula cystidiophora

SPOROCARP Head 2-5 cm x 0.1-0.15 cm, cylindric, blunt, soft, fleshy, somewhat fragile, white or pale yellowish, stem 20-25 mm x 0.5-1 mm, tough, colored as head, downy, arising from fuscous depressed-spherical sclerotium on the ground. FRUITING somewhat gregarious, on the soil among moss in coniferous forest. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 5-6.5 x 2.5-3 um, narrowly elliptic, smooth, white or tinged ochraceous; basidia 4-spored, 45-50 x 4-5 um; cystidia abundant, 50-75 x 8-12 um. REMARKS Cystidia in the spore-bearing surface (over the upper part of the fruitbody) are unusual in Typhula although several species have cystidia on the stem.

426b Growing on leaves, sticks, stems

427a Club-shaped white head

427b Head scarcely differentiated from stem, fruitbody yellowish

428a Stem and sclerotium red-brown

................................................................................Typhula erythropus

SPOROCARP 5-30 mm, with head a quarter to a half of the height; head 0.3-1 mm wide, cylindric to club-shaped, soft, blunt, white; stem 1-20 mm x 0.1-0.3 mm, cartilaginous, red-brown, darker toward base, with fine bristles, arising at base from oval red-brown sclerotium which is imbedded in substrate, usually only 1 fruitbody per sclerotium, rarely 2-3. FRUITING on petioles and veins of the previous year's fallen hardwood leaves, sticks, stems, fern petioles. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 5-7 x 2.5-3 um, elliptic, smooth, weakly amyloid.Typhula erythropus
Typhula erythropus
Steve Trudell

428b Stem white, sclerotium pale ochraceous to blackish

................................................................................Typhula sclerotioides

SPOROCARP up to 30 mm tall but variable, cartilaginous, gelatinous, when dry horny and hard; head 1.5-10 mm x 0.2-0.8 mm (one third to one half the length of the fruitbody), awl-shaped then nearly club-shaped and blunt, waxy, white to somewhat translucent then pallid yellowish; stem 5-25 mm x 0.1-0.4 mm wide, very variable in length, cylindric, colored as head (sometimes brownish at base), downy or appearing bald, arising singly from irregularly rounded to lens-shaped sclerotium (on top of substrate) which is 0.5-5 mm wide, very variable in size, almost spherical, becoming flattened or concave on one side, pale ochraceous then brownish and finally blackish, smooth. FRUITING on dead herbaceous stems and leaves, and on fallen leaves and small twigs of trees. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 6-9.5 x 2-3.5(4) um, (but with other authors varying to 5-9.5 x 2-4.5 um), (Corner), 8.5-11 x 3.5-4 um, (Breitenbach et al.), cylindric to slightly allantoid (curved sausage-shaped), smooth, inamyloid, colorless.

429a (427b) Not uncommon; spores narrow, 11-16 x 4.5-5.5 um

................................................................................Typhula phacorrhiza

SPOROCARP 20-100(140) mm x 0.5-1 mm, slightly clavate toward top, white then cream to honey-yellow to pale ochraceous-brown, elastic and tough, upper 2/3 smooth and fertile except sharp tip which is sterile, head scarcely distinguishable from stem; stem 0.3-1 mm wide, very variable in height, somewhat darker in color than head, sparsely downy, at least near base; arising from lens-shaped sclerotium 1-6(8) mm x 1.5-3.5 mm, sometimes lobed and irregular, pallid then tawny, russet or orange-brown to dark brown, fruitbodies single or occasionally 2-3 per sclerotium. FRUITING gregarious and cespitose, on decomposing fallen leaves of various hardwoods, petioles, herbaceous stems and grasses. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 11-15 x 4.5-5.5 um, cylindric-elliptic, smooth, inamyloid, colorless, (Breitenbach), 14-16 x 4.5-5.5 um (Berthier). REMARKS Macrotyphula juncea does not produce sclerotia and has smaller spores. Typhula erythropus is found in similar habitats but is shorter with a distinct club and is white rather than honey-yellow. Typhula incarnata has a more distinct head and a pinkish fruitbody.

429b Rare, spores less narrow, 14-16.5 x 7-8.3 um

................................................................................Typhula megasperma

SPOROCARP 25-40 mm high, head up to 18 mm high and 0.3-3.5 mm wide, cylindric; pale yellowish brownish (unclear whether the color in Corner (1970) refers to fruitbody or stem, but Berthier says fruitbody is yellowish), bald except for hairs at the junction with the sclerotium; stem up to 25 mm long and 0.2-0.3 mm wide; sclerotium 0.1-0.15 cm wide, nearly spherical, drying compressed and wrinkled, dark fuscous brown (blackish). FRUITING the type was on debris in conifer forest. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores similar to those of T. phacorrhiza but larger, 17-18 x 7.75-8.25 um compared with 14-16 x 4.5-5.5 for T. phacorrhiza, (Berthier). REMARKS The type, collected by R. Bandoni at Vancouver BC, was initially described by Corner (1970) as a collection of T. phacorrhiza, but there are other microscopic differences besides the spore size.

430a (424b) Slender white to translucent fruitbodies with stem slightly narrower than head, growing from light ochraceous to black sclerotium on dead stems and leaves or small twigs (For description see 428b)

430b Not with these characters

431a Slender club-shaped or capitate fruitbody with downy stem that is somewhat darker than the head and longer, growing on decomposing fallen hardwood leaves, can occur without sclerotium

................................................................................Typhula setipes

SPOROCARP up to 2-3 mm tall, capitate or clavate, head 0.5-1 mm x 0.2-0.4 mm, whitish to cream, smooth, stem cylindric, longer than head, somewhat darker than head, brownish toward the base, downy, base sometimes thickened and anchored to substrate with fine hyphae, without recognizable sclerotium, or sometimes arising from sclerotium. FRUITING gregarious, scattered, on decomposing fallen leaves of various hardwoods. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 7-8 x 3-3.5 um, elliptic, smooth, inamyloid, colorless; can occur with and without clamp connections.

431b Not having these characters

432a Growing on dead mushroom (Lycoperdon), spindle-shaped white head and thread-like cinnamon-tawny stem, arising from nearly spherical rusty chestnut sclerotium

................................................................................Typhula mycophaga

SPOROCARP 4-12 mm high, slender, arising from superficial sclerotium, head 1-3 mm x 0.2-0.3 mm, more or less elongate-fusoid (spindle-shaped), sometimes sterile at tip, white, stem often very long, when dried 0.07-0.15 mm wide, cinnamon-fulvous, dark on lower part but progressively lighter up to the upper part which is the same color as the head, sclerotium nearly spherical, 1 mm wide, rusty chestnut. FRUITING on several senescent fruitbodies of Lycoperdon pyriforme on moss. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 5.5-6 x 3-3.2 um, inamyloid; projections on superficial hyphae of stem; clamp connections absent.

432b Arising from a dark sclerotium under bark of twigs

433a White head, downy stem, arising from a dark sclerotium under the bark of hardwood twigs

................................................................................Typhula erumpens

SPOROCARP up to 0.4 cm high, white, head up to 0.3 cm long, 0.07 cm wide, nearly cylindric to clavate or spathulate, finally hollow, stem 0.5-1.5 mm x 0.2-0.3 mm, downy, arising from sclerotium 1-3.5 mm wide, 0.5 mm thick, blackish brown, 1 to 5 fruitbodies per sclerotium. FRUITING emerging from the bark of twigs of Salix (willow) in BC, on twigs of Alnus hirsuta (Manchurian alder) in Russia. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 8.5-11(12.5) x 3.3-4.2 um

433b Yellowish or brownish stem (drying white), arising from a brownish sclerotium under the bark of conifer twigs

................................................................................Typhula abietina

SPOROCARP 2-5.5 mm high and up to 0.5 cm at widest point, head 1.0-1.5 mm x 0.4-0.5 mm, obovoid or flattened-spathulate, yellowish then straw color, also described as brownish drying white, stem 1-4 mm x 0.2-0.35 mm, thread-like, bald, arising from sclerotium under the bark of twigs, 0.2-0.5 cm wide, flattened, irregularly lobed, brownish, smooth. FRUITING on conifer twigs of Pinus (pine) and Abies (fir). MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 7-11 x 4-6 um, white, smooth.




BLACK



501a Tough strap-like or antler-like fruitbody dusted with white powder in upper part, growing on wood; common

................................................................................Xylaria hypoxylon

SPOROCARP 2-8 cm high, slender, cylindric or narrowly club-shaped when young, becoming flattened and branched (antler-like), upper part of fruitbody (occasionally overall) white and powdery from conidia, eventually black and minutely roughened under hand lens; flesh very tough, white or pallid; stem black and appearing somewhat hairy. FRUITING single to gregarious or cespitose on rotting logs, stumps, and sticks, conidial stage throughout the year, ascus stage late winter or early spring. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores 10-15 x 4-6 um, bean-shaped, smooth with longitudinal germination cleft, brown to blackish under microscope, asexual spores (conidia) elliptic or elongate, smooth, colorless under microscope, asci in perithecia, paraphyses present.Xylaria hypoxylon
Xylaria hypoxylon
Cy and Mary Hampson

501b Not having these characters

502a Head flattened laterally (enlarged distinctly or not distinctly)

502b Head spherical to club-shaped

503a Surface of fruitbody, especially stem, very velvety (Trichoglossum)

503b Surface of fruitbody glutinous or smooth or slightly velvety

504a Common, 8-spored asci with spores that are either regularly 15-septate or many 15-septate

................................................................................Trichoglossum hirsutum

SPOROCARP 3-8 cm high, black or brownish black; fertile upper part 0.5-0.75 cm wide, up to 2 cm high, 1/8 to 1/2 but usually not more than 1/5 the length of the fruitbody, generally flattened, lanceolate to spearhead-shaped to ellipsoid or somewhat spherical, usually rather sharply demarcated from stem but sometimes more like a club-shaped expansion, velvety (hairy from bristles called setae), flesh thin, tough, usually brownish, stem up to 6 cm long and 0.2-0.3 cm thick, equal, round in cross-section, velvety from setae. FRUITING single or gregarious on rotten wood, on humus, on soil, or in Sphagnum. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores 80-195 x 5-7 um, cylindric-clavate, broadest above the middle, tapering each way to the blunt ends, brown, 15-septate at maturity in one variety, varying numbers of septa in varieties but at least a fifth with 15 or more septa, spores parallel in the ascus; asci 8-spored; paraphyses brown, cylindric, usually strongly curved, or coiled at the slightly thickened tips.Trichoglossum hirsutum
Trichoglossum hirsutum
Michael Beug

504b Uncommon, 4-spored asci and spores very variable in septation with few or none 15-septate

................................................................................Trichoglossum velutipes

SPOROCARP 2-10 cm high, black or brownish black; fertile upper part 0.2-1.2 cm wide, 0.3-1.0 cm high, 1/8-1/3 the length of the fruitbody; lanceolate to spearhead-shaped to ellipsoid or somewhat spherical, usually flattened, usually rather sharply demarcated from stem but sometimes more like a club-shaped expansion, velvety (hairy from bristles called setae), stem 0.15-0.3 cm wide, slender, round in cross-section, black, velvety from setae. FRUITING scattered to crowded or even cespitose, on rotten wood, on humus, or on soil. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores (90)110-145(160) x 6-7 um, clavate, smoky brown, narrowed each way from above the middle, (0)7-11(13)-septate, mostly 9-septate, parallel in the ascus; asci 4-spored, 180-200 x 16-20 um; paraphyses brown, cylindric, expanding slightly upward, curved to coiled.

505a (503b) Surface of fruitbody glutinous

................................................................................Geoglossum glutinosum

SPOROCARP 1.5-8 cm high, club-shaped, black, very viscid, becoming gelatinous when wet, fertile upper part 0.3-1.0 cm wide, 1.5-2.5 cm long, 1/3- 2/3 the length of the fruitbody, flattened, club-shaped, oblong or ellipsoid; spore-bearing upper part 0.3-1.0 cm wide and 1.5-2.5 cm long, tip blunt, head often flattened or slightly twisted, but not otherwise sharply differentiated from stem; flesh tough, not gelatinous, usually brownish; stem 4-6 cm x 0.2-0.4 cm wide, round in cross-section or slightly flattened, brown to brownish black, smooth, viscid. FRUITING single to scattered or cespitose on soil, humus, moss, or on rotten wood, usually in the woods. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores (55)60-90(100) x 4-6 um, nearly cylindric, slightly narrowing toward one or both ends, straight to slightly curved, brown, 0-7-septate, many collections mostly 3-septate, others mostly 7-septate; asci 8-spored; paraphyses straight to somewhat curved, with the terminal cells pear-shaped, broadly obovoid or nearly spherical, colorless in lower part, light to dark brown in upper part or entirely dark brown.

505b Surface of fruitbody smooth or slightly velvety but not glutinous

506a Usually brown (rarely black) fruitbody, (spores brown to colorless under microscope, (45)66-90(110) x 5-6 um, one-celled to 13-septate)

................................................................................Geoglossum fallax

SPOROCARP 1-8.5 cm high, club-shaped, entirely tawny-brown to umber brown or blackish brown, rarely black, fertile upper part about 0.2-1.0 cm wide, 0.8-1.5 cm long, 1/5 to 1/2 the total length of the fruitbody, lanceolate, blunt, slightly flattened, often white-powdery from white spores, stem 0.1-0.2 cm wide in lower part, up to 0.4 cm wide in upper part, round in cross-section, finely scaly especially in upper part. FRUITING single on soil, humus, or rotting logs, in woods or on slopes of ravines. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores 65-105 x 5-7 um, clavate-cylindric, straight, or curved, at first 0-septate, then 3-septate and finally 7-12-septate, colorless and brown, spores of both colors discharged, colorless ones non-septate, brown ones 0-13-septate; asci 8-spored; paraphyses 5-6 um thick, colorless and brown, usually strongly curved, or coiled in upper part, the tip abruptly ellipsoid to round.Geoglossum fallax
Geoglossum fallax
Michael Wood (MykoWeb)

506b Not with these characters

507a Dark brown, purplish brown or black fruitbody, (spores colorless under microscope, 20-44 x 4-6 um, one-celled)

................................................................................Microglossum atropurpureum

SPOROCARP 1-7 cm high, club-shaped, compressed (flattened somewhat); spore-bearing portion 0.2-1.5 cm wide, 1/3 to 1/2 the length, dark brown, purplish black or black, stem 0.2-0.8 cm wide, round in cross-section, brownish black or black, smooth or minutely scaly. FRUITING on soil. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores (16)20-44(52) x 4-6 um, nearly cylindric, or allantoid (curved sausage-shaped), one-celled, paraphyses not or slightly projecting beyond the asci, straight or slightly curved above, colorless, not or slightly enlarged at the tips. REMARKS Microglossum fumosum has yellowish brown to umber fruitbody. Microglossum olivaceum has predominantly brown to olivaceous fruitbody and spores mostly less than 20 um long. Geoglossum species have brown spores under microscope (G. fallax may have many colorless spores, but is brown in color), and generally spores multiseptate as well as longer. Trichoglossum hirsutum and T. velutipes have setae (bristles). Mains (1955) includes here under Microglossum atropurpureum three species of Durand that are treated as separate species of Corynetes by Seaver (1951). According to Mains, Durand separates Corynetes purpurascens from C. atropurpureus on the basis of having a more distinctly purplish tint when fresh and more abruptly thickened tips to the paraphyses, and Durand separates C. robustus from C. atropurpureus on the basis of lack of an epithecium and paraphyses slightly thickened and curved at the tips. With regard to another close species Seaver (1951) gives the paraphyses of Corynetes arenarius as conspicuously brown, as opposed to colorless or only slightly purple-tinted at tips for the other three. According to Alan Silverside at the University of Paisley, they have in Britain the same 4 species as given by Seaver under Corynetes, but the names will need to be different. It is not clear which of the members of the Microglossum atropurpureum complex are found in the Pacific Northwest. Breitenbach gives Corynetes atropurpureus (Batsch ex Fr.) Durand as synonym of Thuemenidium atropurpureum (Batsch) Kuntze. The description here is derived from Mains (1955).

507b Not with these characters

508a Black fruitbody, (spores brown under microscope, (45)55-78(90) x 6-8 um; paraphyses straight or somewhat curved in upper part, closely septate in upper part where the cells may be enlarged with constrictions at the septa)

................................................................................Geoglossum glabrum

SPOROCARP 1.5-10 cm high, club-shaped, black; spore-bearing upper part 0.3-0.8 cm wide, 1/3 to 1/2 of the length of the fruitbody, flattened, stem 0.1-0.4 cm thick, round in cross-section, smooth. FRUITING scattered to crowded, on soil or also in Sphagnum or other mosses MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores (45)55-78(90) x 6-8 um, straight or somewhat curved, dark brown, mostly 7-septate in type variety, but variably septate in another variety, asci 8-spored, 150-190 x 20 um, clavate; paraphyses exceeding asci, straight or somewhat curved above, colorless or light brown in lower part, light to dark brown and closely septate in upper part, the upper cells various enlarged in different varieties and more or less constricted at the septa. REMARKS This is the Mains (1954) concept. There is considerable confusion about this name. Geoglossum fallax is brown, rarely black, and has different paraphyses. Geoglossum simile of eastern North America is separated by its paraphyses which are "closely and abundantly septate above, with the upper cells not or slightly enlarged, constricted at septa to form many oblong, ellipsoid or obovoid 2-celled segments" (Mains 1954).

508b Dark brown to black fruitbody, (spores brown under microscope, 30-90 x 4.5-6.5 um, paraphyses that are straight or strongly curved in upper part, sparsely or moderately septate, not constricted at septa, the paraphyses not closely septate in upper part, ( = G. nigritum (Pers.) Cooke)

................................................................................Geoglossum umbratile

SPOROCARP Up to 7 cm high, variable in size, club-shaped, spore-bearing upper part 0.1-0.5 cm wide, 1/3 or 1/2 the length of the fruitbody, somewhat flattened, dark brown to black, stem 0.05-0.2 cm wide, slender, round in cross-section, dark brown to black, sometimes somewhat viscid, bald, minutely downy or with fine particles or fine scales. FRUITING scattered or in small groups, type variety very variable in habitats, occurring among Sphagnum and other mosses, on soil in well drained areas and on wet soil by streams and in bogs, var. heterosporum on a conifer log. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores (40)60-78(90) x 4.5-6.5 um, straight or somewhat curved, dark brown; asci mostly 8-spored, rarely less (except in variety heterosporum described from Michigan which also has somewhat shorter spores); paraphyses colorless to brown, longer than asci, "straight or strongly curved above, cylindric, not or slightly enlarged at apex, the terminal cell cylindric, narrowly obovoid or clavate," (Mains 1954). REMARKS Geoglossum simile (of eastern North America) and G. glabrum, "differ in having paraphyses that are closely septate above with the cells variously enlarged and more or less constricted at the septa", (Mains 1954). Geoglossum fallax is brown, rarely black, and has different paraphyses. The name Geoglossum nigritum is considered to have been misapplied.Geoglossum umbratile
Geoglossum umbratile
A and O Ceska

509a (502b) Nearly spherical, dark brown to black head; comparatively long brownish stem; growing typically with moss

................................................................................Sarcoleotia globosa

SPOROCARP up to 25 mm tall with stem, the head 1.5-3.5 mm tall and 1.5-8 mm across, somewhat spherical, larger specimens somewhat flattened or depressed at center of disc, the margin of the spore-bearing area at first curved down and in and touching the stem, when old expanding to leave a gap between the stem and the margin, so that it can be hemispheric, spore-bearing upper surface deep brown to black, the underside grayish brown, stem 3-23 mm x 0.5-2 mm, round in cross-section to flattened with a longitudinal depression on one or two sides, dark grayish brown or light brown, with a paler base, bald or with fine scales. FRUITING gregarious or occasionally single, usually in disturbed habitats or in open plant communities, typically with moss, August and September. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores (18)20-34(36) x 3-5 um, clavate, slightly curved or straight, smooth, colorless, with 0-1(3) septa, paraphyses about 2 um wide, the tips slightly enlarged to 3-3.5 um, curved or hooked, with colorless or light brown walls.

509b Head club-shaped or cylindric

510a Slender, black, club-shaped fruitbodies, without pimples or pits on surface (use hand lens), (spores spiny, nearly round)

................................................................................Clavaria neonigrita

SPOROCARP up to 5.3 cm high, up to 0.8 cm wide at top, narrowly club-shaped when young, becoming club-shaped and finally often obclavate with the top very slightly expanded; top subturbinate (somewhat top-shaped), olive brown in lower part because of spore deposit, becoming blackish upwards, top dusky purplish gray to black, smooth when young to irregularly longitudinally wrinkled when older, stem 0.1-0.15 cm wide, clove brown, lighter at point of insertion and there finely bristly. FRUITING single to gregarious in groups of 2-15, on rotting debris in low conifer forest. SPORE DEPOSIT honey yellow to whitish. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 5.1-5.6 x 4.3-4.8 um, nearly round to very broadly ovate, with short, closely set sharp spines, inamyloid.

510b Pimpled or pitted rough surface (use hand lens)

511a Club-shaped fruitbody with upper part yellow to red-brown to black, and stem yellow to brown, attached by yellowish strands to underground Elaphomyces truffle (for description see 121a)

511b Cylindric to club-shaped, black to brownish or with covering of white powder, may be wrinkled, white to yellow interior

512a Cylindric to club-shaped, black fruitbodies at first covered with a whitish layer, tips may be flattened, flesh white, single or several arising from common base, stem may be absent or may be reddish

................................................................................Xylaria cornu-damae

SPOROCARP 3-7(14) cm x 0.2-0.7(1.0) cm including rooting bases where present, cylindric to club-shaped, round in cross-section to highly flattened near tips, single or several arising from common base, tips sharp or occasionally rounded, fruitbody at first white (appearing white-washed), becoming black, but usually still with traces of the white layer, interior white, surface longitudinally wrinkled and roughened from protruding perithecia, the openings umbilicate or slightly papillate; long, short or obsolete stems arising directly from substrate or from reddish felty bases or long rooting bases. FRUITING on hardwood. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores (16)17.5-22(25) x 4.5-6(6.5) um, elliptic-inequilateral to navicular (boat-shaped) or crescentic, smooth, brown to dark brown, with short, straight germ slit, immature spores have a cellular appendage; asci with long stem.Xylaria cornu-damae
Xylaria cornu-damae
Michael Beug

512b Club-shaped, brownish to blackish fruitbodies with brownish flakes or scales, tips whitish to yellow, flesh yellowish, and conspicuous reddish base, fruitbody single or sparingly branched

................................................................................Xylaria bulbosa

SPOROCARP up to 6 cm long and 2.5 cm wide, but more commonly 2-4 cm long and 0.3-0.5 cm wide, cylindric to club-shaped to flattened-irregular, unbranched or sparingly branched, usually with abrupt sharp tips, fruitbody brownish when young, becoming blackish when old, but usually with brownish flakes or scales, tips whitish to yellow; surface fairly wrinkled to nearly flat, always roughened to some extent by protruding ostiolar papillae, flesh light yellowish to intense yellow, stem short, obsolete, arising from conspicuous reddish felty base. FRUITING on hardwood and conifer wood. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores (8)9-11(12) x 4.5-5.5(6) um, elliptic-inequilateral, smooth, dark brown, one-celled, long, straight germ slit sometimes less than full-length of the spore, immature colorless spores with cellular appendage; asci long-stemmed.

Note that other Xylaria species could occur in the Pacific Northwest such as Xylaria polymorpha, which is 0.5-3 cm thick with a short black stem, and has longer spores 20-32 x 5-10(12) um, or Xylaria longipes, with long sterile stem and spores 13-16 x 5-7.5 um, both widely distributed in North America.




BROWN



Many of the fungi colored brown have alternate colors in the other sections, and the key will refer to those sections when appropriate.

601a Well-defined head (cap) convex with margin incurved toward stem, in most fruitbodies folded or lobed, margin incurved

601b Head some other shape

602a Flesh gelatinous (for description see 302a)

602b Flesh not gelatinous

603a Cream-buff to yellowish or brownish, usually fruiting in fall

................................................................................Cudonia circinans

SPOROCARP 2-6 cm high, fleshy to cartilaginous in consistency, drying more leathery, cap 0.5-2 cm wide, 1/6 to 1/4 of the height of the fruitbody, convex, sometimes with a shallow central depression, sometimes convoluted, margin strongly rolled under, thin, and often wavy, cap color cream buff, pinkish buff, cinnamon buff, vinaceous buff, yellowish, pale brown, or darker, cap surface wrinkled or smooth, dry, underside sterile, often with veins that extend up from stem; flesh thin; stem 1.5-7 cm x 0.15-0.5 cm at top, 0.2-1.2 lower down, sometimes flattened, stuffed to hollow, brown (usually darker than cap), sometimes tinted with reddish brown or lilac, usually with fine particles, often longitudinally striate or ridged, sometimes rather flattened. FRUITING scattered to gregarious or clustered in humus or needle litter, on soil, or on rotting wood; under conifers or less often hardwoods; more common in fall. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores (28)32-40(46) x 2 um, needle-like, broadest above the middle or at the distal end, smooth, colorless, 0-septate or sometimes several-septate, paraphyses strongly curved or hooked, colorless, conidia may occur on spores, 3-4 x 2 um, the conidia sometimes replacing spores in the asci.Cudonia circinans
Cudonia circinans
Michael Beug

603b Pinkish cinnamon, gray or grayish brown, growing in spring or summer

604a Pinkish-cinnamon head and non-gelatinous flesh, grayish brown stem, growth usually in spring and summer

................................................................................Cudonia monticola

SPOROCARP 3-10 cm high, fleshy-leathery, cap 1-3 cm across, convex, irregularly hemispheric, laterally flattened, or lobed, pinkish cinnamon, pinkish buff or grayish brown, surface wrinkled, stem 0.5-0.7 cm thick in lower part, somewhat narrower in upper part, becoming hollow, color pale brown to gray-purple-brown, bald. FRUITING single, gregarious or cespitose, on conifer needles and debris, on soil, or on rotting wood, usually in spring and summer. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores (15)18-24(28) x 2 um, needle-like, 0-septate or rarely 1-septate; paraphyses strongly curved to hooked in upper part, colorless. REMARKS Cudonia monticola is also known as Pachycudonia monticola (Mains) S. Imai. Cudonia circinans is similar and pale brownish to buff, often with a rosy tint, or yellowish, but is more common in the fall and has longer spores (30-45 x 2 um). Cudonia grisea is smaller and has dark gray cap and fuscous stem. Leotia lubrica is gelatinous and more brightly colored. Helvella species lack the solid fibrous stem, instead having a stem that breaks cleanly and crisply; margin in Helvella is also fairly straight but in Cudonia monticola margin is strongly gathered and rolled under.Cudonia monticola
Cudonia monticola
Michael Beug

604b Gray to dark grayish brown fruitbody with smooth cap, growth usually in spring

................................................................................Cudonia grisea

SPOROCARP 1.5-5 cm high, fleshy; cap 0.5-1.5 cm wide, convex, drab, dark gray, dark grayish brown, or fuscous, smooth, stem 0.3-0.8 cm wide in lower part, narrower in upper part, fuscous, smooth. FRUITING gregarious on rotten conifer wood (Mains 1956), under conifers, usually in spring, (Arora). MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores 18-22(24) x 1.5-2 um, needle-like, 0-septate or rarely 1-septate; paraphyses strongly curved in upper part, colorless. REMARKS Cudonia circinans is more common in fall, and has pale brownish to buff colors and longer spores.

605a (601b) Fruitbody with a flattened paddle-like head that extends down opposite sides of stem, pale to yellow, buff, or brownish, common (for description see 104a)

605b Shape, color, or habitat different

606a Roundish to cylindric, well-demarcated head that is light brown to pinkish buff, slender stem that is light to dark brown, growth on conifer needles

................................................................................Heyderia abietis

SPOROCARP 0.3-4(5) cm high, head 0.5-7 mm wide and 1-7 mm high, cylindric to hemispheric, light brown to pinkish buff or ocher, sharply distinct from stem, smooth, flesh thin, stem 0.5-3(4) cm long and 1-4(7) mm wide, equal or tapered slightly, light to dark brown, usually darker than head, smooth or slightly powdery in upper part, often with brown covering of fine hairs in lower part. FRUITING scattered to densely gregarious in needle duff under conifers, spring, summer and fall. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores 10-15 x 1.7-2.5 um, elongate, straight or slightly curved, smooth, colorless, not septate; paraphyses clavate, colorless.Heyderia abietis
Heyderia abietis
Steve Trudell

606b Shape, color, or habitat different

607a Growth on sticks in running water; convex knob-like cap that is somewhat gelatinous and pinkish buff to yellowish or orange; stem whitish to grayish or brownish (for description see 128a)

607b Habitat or coloring different

608a Growing in wet ditches or other wet or boggy areas, on wet decaying wood or other wet decaying plant debris; fruitbody yellowish ocher to cream or dull brown with convex head resembling cap of a gilled mushroom (without gills) or a shallow cup, wider than it is tall (for description see 130a)

608b Shape, color, or habitat different

609a Fruitbody up to 2 cm high, with nearly spherical, orange to yellow brown head, pale brownish yellow stem, associated with mosses in arctic and alpine environments (for description see 129a)

609b Shape, color, or habitat different

610a Nearly spherical, dark brown to black head; comparatively long brownish stem; growing typically with moss (for description see 509a)

610b Shape, color, or habitat different

611a Upside down cone-shaped with cup-shaped top that develops marginal fringe of 5-10 triangular teeth, color gray brown to yellow brown or with vinaceous or purplish tinge, growing on rotting conifer logs

................................................................................Artomyces cristatus

SPOROCARP 0.7-2.5 cm high, 0.2-0.5 cm wide at top, like a long inverted cone but solid, narrowing evenly downward to the slender curved inserted base, truncate-flattened or slightly concave at the top, cinnamon drab, vinaceous, buff, or purplish gray, bald, margin at the top even then crested with 5-10 slender flat triangular teeth or processes 1-2(6) mm x 0.5-0.75 mm, forming a marginal fringe round the top of the fruitbody, occasionally with 2-4 short branches from the margin, spore-bearing surface extending down the sides, not ridged, flesh pliable and slightly tough, colored as surface but paler, stem up to 0.5 cm long, indistinct, colored as the rest of the fruitbody, bald or slightly hairy at the base. FRUITING on partly decayed conifer logs. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores (5.0)6.0-7.0(8.0) x 2.0-2.5 um, elongate, somewhat allantoid (curved), smooth or slightly asperulous, white, amyloid, basidia 2-4-spored, gloeocystidia frequent, projecting up to 20 um beyond basidia, leptocystidia frequent, rarely projecting.

611b Shape or color different

612a Roughly cylindric fruitbody widening somewhat upwards, or strap-like (laterally flattened), dull yellow-brown or dull orange-brown, (Clavariadelphus)

612b Shape or color different

613a Slender, spindle-shaped, somewhat flattened, purplish to brownish fruitbodies, often densely clustered; common (for description see 201a)

613b Not with these characters

614a Slender cylindric fruitbody that is dark brown to fawn, 4.5-8 cm x 1.5-2 mm stem minutely pruinose (appearing powdery) and not attached to sclerotium; rare

................................................................................Clavaria nebulosoides

SPOROCARP 4.5-8 cm high, 0.15-0.2 cm wide, cylindric, fleshy, dark brown to fawn, stem 1.5-3 cm long, minutely pruinose (appearing powdery). FRUITING on mosses in coniferous forest. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 5-7.5 x 2.2-3.5 um, elliptic, smooth; cystidia fairly abundant, lanceolate with long slender stem. REMARKS similar to Alloclavaria purpurea but with different color, smaller spores, and lanceolate cystidia, and perhaps not cespitose.

614b Not with these characters

615a Slender club-shaped fruitbody that is yellow-cream up to 13.5 cm tall, up to 0.32 cm wide, with distinct pallid yellow stem 1-2 cm long, (nearly round spores) (for description see 418a)

615b Not with these characters

616a Surface of upper part pimpled or pitted (use hand lens)

616b Not with these characters

617a Club-shaped, brownish to blackish, hard fruitbody with brownish flakes or scales, tips whitish to yellow, flesh yellowish, and conspicuous reddish base (for description see 512b)

617b Attached at lower end to insect or truffle (Cordyceps)

618a With distinct head

618b Without distinct head

619a (616b) Growing on dead animal material (Onygena)

619b Not growing on dead animal material

620a Very slender, 3-30 cm high, 5-10 mm at widest point, typically ocher-yellow to ocher-brown, hollow (for description see 413b)

620b Not with these characters

621a Slender, width less than 3 mm at widest part (Macrotyphula, Typhula, Multiclavula, etc.)

621b Not with these characters

622a Club-shaped fruitbody that is yellowish brown to cinnamon brown to darker brown, with laterally flattened upper part not much different from stem, similarly colored stem that has fine particles at first

................................................................................Microglossum fumosum

SPOROCARP 2-8 cm high, club-shaped, robust, light yellowish brown, ochraceous tawny, cinnamon brown, dark buff, umber, usually drying dark brown; spore-bearing upper part 0.3-1.5 cm wide, 0.75-3 cm long, about 1/3-1/2 the length of the fruitbody, more or less flattened, obovate, ellipsoid, or oblong, rounded above, longitudinally furrowed, little distinct from the stem, stem 1-3 cm x 0.2-0.5 cm wide, round in cross-section or slightly flattened, with fine particles at first, becoming smooth. FRUITING scattered to cespitose on soil and rotting wood. MICROSTRUCTURES ascospores (16)20-40(48) x 4-5 um, cylindric or slightly narrowed toward ends, straight or curved, colorless, smooth, at first without septa, finally 7-15-septate; paraphyses not or slightly projecting beyond the asci, strongly curved to hooked, colorless. REMARKS Microglossum olivaceum has predominantly brown to olivaceous fruitbody and spores mostly less than 20 um long. Microglossum atropurpureum has dark brown, purplish brown or black fruitbody.

622b Head flattened laterally (enlarged distinctly or not distinctly)

623a Olivaceous to brown fruitbody that is club-shaped and sometimes twisted and contorted, flattened wider upper fertile part that is demarcated by color from stem, yellowish buff to gray brown smooth stem (for description see 301a)

623b Not with these characters (Geoglossum, Microglossum atropurpureum)




STINKHORNS



701a Orange to red latticed ball, not a club fungus

................................................................................Clathrus ruber

SPOROCARP develops from egg-like structure up to 6 cm wide, matures forming spherical or ovoid pink to red or orange latticed framework with large polygonal or elongated open windows, about 12 cm x 9 cm, inner surfaces covered with foul olive brown slime. FRUITING single or in groups or clustered in woods, in grasslands, or in greenhouses, spring to late summer. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 5-6 x 1.5-2.5 um, oblong, smooth.

701b Cylindric with differentiated head

702a Top of fruitbody with short, thick arms

................................................................................Lysurus cruciatus

SPOROCARP develops from ovoid egg-like structure up to 5 cm in diameter, becoming 6-12(16) cm high, with stem branched at top to form 4-7 (usually 5) short arms, arms initially curved toward each other then separating to more or less erect, each 1-2.5(4) cm long, 3-sided, hollow, outer surfaces pallid to brownish, pinkish, orange, or red, inner surfaces covered with foul olive to olive brown spore slime; skin of the young egg white, splitting to form loose volva stem base; stem 6-10 cm x 1-2 cm, usually narrowing downward, fragile, hollow, minutely chambered, white, or tinged yellowish or pinkish in upper part. FRUITING single or in groups or clusters in lawns, gardens, under trees, or on rotten wood. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 3-4.5 x 1-2 um, elliptic to long-elliptic.Lysurus cruciatus
Lysurus cruciatus
Michael Beug

702b Top of fruitbody not with arms but may have lattice-like structure

703a Top of fruitbody has a latticed ball

................................................................................Lysurus periphragmoides

SPOROCARP develops from spherical to ovoid egg-like structure up to 5 cm wide and up to 4 cm, which ruptures as the fruitbody grows to form a volva at the stem base; mature fruitbody 6-16 cm high, with small latticed head 1.5-3.5 cm across, spherical to somewhat flattened, with about 20-100 mostly pentagonal to rectangular windows, the latticework deep pink to red to orange, yellowish, or white, spore mass mucilaginous, dark olive to olive brown, forming on the inside surfaces of the lattice and extending out through the windows, foul-smelling at maturity; stem 5-13 cm x 0.8-3 cm, hollow, spongy, with similar range of colors to head. FRUITING single to gregarious, occasionally two from same volva, lawns, gardens, cultivated soil, mulch, open woods, on rotten wood. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 3.5-4.5 x 1.5-2.5 um, elliptic to oblong, smooth, inamyloid.Lysurus periphragmoides
Lysurus periphragmoides
Ron Meyers

703b Top of fruitbody differentiated but not into a latticed ball

704a White net-like skirt extending outward from below head

................................................................................Dictyophora duplicata

SPOROCARP develops from egg-like structure into roughly cylindric fruitbody up to 25 cm tall with stem up to 6 cm wide, with oval to conic or bell-shaped head 5-7 cm high and 3.5-5 cm across covered with dark olive foul-smelling slime, the head pitted and with a white-rimmed opening at the top, the stem 3.5-6 cm wide, roughened, white and surrounded at the top by a white, net-like, flaring veil 3-6 cm long, that emerges from beneath the head. FRUITING single or in groups on ground in forests or gardens. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 3.5-4.5 x 1-2 um, elliptic, smooth, colorless.

704b White net-like skirt not present

705a Mature fruitbody without a well-differentiated head

................................................................................Mutinus caninus

SPOROCARP develops from egg-like structure 2-4 cm x 1-2.5 cm, ovoid or pear-shaped; mature fruitbody 5-10 cm tall and 0.5-1.2 cm wide, erect or curved slightly, roughly cylindric or wider near top, without a differentiated cap but with a blunt often perforated tip, fertile upper 2-3 cm bright orange-red or red or pink or white, but at first with foul, slimy or mucilaginous, olive or olive-brown spore slime, stem more or less equal, hollow, spongy, colored like upper part or paler toward the base; volva at base white, lobed. FRUITING single to gregarious or clustered on ground and rotten wood in gardens or woods. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 3-7 x 1.5-2.5 um, elliptic or oblong, smooth.Mutinus caninus
Mutinus caninus
Michael Beug

705b Mature fruitbody with a well-differentiated head

706a Head reticulate (like a network on the surface with pits between ridges); outer covering may be pale pinkish or pale purplish or whitish; relatively common, fruiting in a variety of habitats

................................................................................Phallus impudicus

SPOROCARP develops from egg-like structure just underground, 4-6 cm x 3-5 cm, spherical or elongated, the outer covering pinkish or purple or whitish, rupturing as stem elongates over 1 or 2 hours, forming a roughly cylindric fruitbody up to 25 cm tall, head 1.5-4 cm across, with whitish, reticulate (pitted and ridged) surface that becomes coated with olive to olive brown slime, the slime foul-smelling when fruitbody mature, a hole at the top sometimes covered by a fragment from outer covering, stem up to 3 cm wide, equal or widest in middle, hollow, surface sponge-like, white or lower part pinkish, volva at stem base is pale pinkish or pale purple or whitish, also a thin veil not extending appreciably below margin of fertile head. FRUITING in groups or clusters in grass, sandy or cultivated soil, on compost, under trees or shrubs; spring to late fall. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 3-5 x 1.5-2.5 um, elliptic or oblong, smooth. Phallus impudicus
Phallus impudicus
Kit Scates Barnhart

706b Head covered with intricate network of gill-like plates and tubercular (bump-like) processes; outer covering whitish but discoloring brownish where handled; rare, fruiting in sandy soil

................................................................................Itajahya rosea

SPOROCARP begins as an underground egg-like form that is spherical to obovoid, 2.5-8 cm in diameter, discoloring brownish where handled; the fruitbody ruptures from the egg, extending itself in about 6 hours, the cap in the form of a cylindric hood attached by its upper edge at the prominent collar at the top of the stem, and initially covering the opening at the stem's upper end, the hood covered on the outside with an intricate network of gill-like plates and tubercular (bump-like) processes between which the spore mass is conspicuous, olivaceous, mucilaginous, and foul-smelling, the lower margin of the hood free but initially covered by the spore mass; eventually the cap curves upward and falls to the ground, revealing the funnel-shaped entrance to the top of the stem with its very prominent collar; stem 6.5-17 cm long and 2.5-4.5 cm wide below the cap, cylindric or widening downward, spongy, hollow, may be white or pink, volva at base. FRUITING in sandy places. MICROSTRUCTURES basidiospores 3-4 x 2-2.5 um, broadly ovoid or elliptic, smooth. REMARKS rare, but recorded from WA (L. Norvell, pers. comm.)

GLOSSARY

asperulous - of spores, appearing roughened with tiny points or small warts

avellaneous - dull grayish brown, hazel-brown, or light gray yellow-brown, or closer to drab, or gray tinged with pink, or pinkish buff

boletoid - of spores, resembling spores of boletes, which are typically long and narrowly elliptic or spindle-shaped in face view and inequilateral in profile

cespitose - growing in tufts or close clusters from a common base, but not grown together

chlamydospore - an asexual, thick-walled spore formed by breaking up of hyphae

conidium (plural conidia) - an asexual, thin-walled spore, typically borne terminally on specialized hyphae

epithecium - tissue at the surface of an apothecium formed by the branching of the ends of the paraphyses above the asci

furfuraceous - scurfy, surface covered with bran-like particles resembling scales, coarser than granular

fuscous - color of a very dark storm cloud: variously described as combinations of gray, brown, purple, or black

fusiform - spindle-shaped, fairly slender and narrowing from middle to both ends

gloeocystidium (plural gloeocystidia) - thin-walled cystidium with contents colorless or yellowish and highly refractile

lanceolate - like a lance, many times longer than broad, and tapering

leptocystidium (plural leptocystidia) - smooth thin-walled cystidium

obovate - ovate with the larger end in the opposite direction to the usual

obclavate - club-shaped (clavate) in the opposite direction to that expected

panicle - loose branching cluster of flowers, as in grasses

perithecium (plural perithecia) - a nearly spherical, ovoid, pear-shaped or beaked (flask-like) body bearing asci in the interior, with or without paraphyses, with an opening, characteristic of the pyrenomycetes such as Cordyceps, Xylaria, Claviceps, and Podostroma

phialoconidium (plural phialoconidia) - conidium that develops on a phialide, which is a cell that develops one or more locations from which a succession of phialoconidia develops toward the base without increase in length of the phialide itself

protonema (plural protonemata) - branched filament or plate-like growth on which the conspicuous part of the moss plant is produced

sclerotium (plural sclerotia) - a knot or firm frequently rounded mass of hyphae, usually underground, sometimes giving rise to mycelium or a fruitbody

senescent - deteriorated with age; becoming old

spathulate - shaped like a spatula or spoon, rounded elongate with rounded or blunt tip and with a narrowing or stalk-like base

tomentose - covered with soft hairs, often soft densely matted hairs, like a woollen blanket

 

REFERENCES

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INDEX

 

 GENUS AND SPECIES KEY ENTRIES
   
 ALLOCLAVARIA Dentinger and D.J. McLaughlin  
    A. purpurea (Fr.) Dentinger & D.J. McLaughlin 201a, 613a
        = Clavaria purpurea Fr.  
 ARTOMYCES Jülich  
    A. cristatus (Kauffman) J>ülich 611a
        = Clavicorona cristata (Kauffman) Doty  
 ASTEROPHORA Ditmar  
    A. lycoperdoides Ditmar 402a
        = Nyctalis lycoperdoides (Pers.) Konrad & Maubl.  
 BRYOGLOSSUM Redhead  
    B. gracile (P. Karst.) Redhead 129a, 609a
        = Mitrula gracilis P. Karst.  
 CALOCERA (Fr.) Fr.  
    C. cornea (Batsch: Fr.) Fr. 101a
 CLATHRUS (Fr.) Fr.  
    C. ruber P. Micheli 701a
 CLAVARIA Fr.  
    C. acuta Fr. 114a, 420a
    C. globospora Kauffman 114a, 418a, 615a
        = Clavaria americana R.H. Petersen  
    C. gracillima Peck 102a, 103c
        = Clavulinopsis gracillima (Peck) R.H. Petersen  
        = Clavulinopsis luteoalba (Rea) Corner  
    C. maricola Kauffman 113a
        = Clavulinopsis maricola (Kauffman) R.H. Petersen  
    C. nebulosoides Kauffman 614a
    C. neonigrita R.H. Petersen 510a
    C. rosea Fr. 202b
    C. vermicularis Fr. 408a
 CLAVARIADELPHUS Donk  
    C. caespitosus Methven 112a
    C. ligula (Fr.) Donk 110b
    C. mucronatus V.L. Wells & Kempton 108a, 412a
    C. occidentalis Methven 112b
    C. sachalinensis (S. Imai) Corner 110a
    C. subfastigiatus V.L. Wells & Kempton 111a
    C. truncatus (Quel.) Donk 107a
 CLAVICEPS Tul.  
    C. purpurea (Fr.) Tul. 125b
 CLAVICORONA Doty  
    C. taxophila (Thom) Doty 409a
 CLAVULINOPSIS Overeem  
    Clavulinopsis fusiformis (Fr.) Corner 102a, 103b
        = R. fusiformis (Sowerby ex Fr.) R.H. Petersen  
    Clavulinopsis laeticolor (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) R.H. Petersen 102a, 103a
        = R. laeticolor (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) R.H. Petersen  
 CORDYCEPS (Fr.) Link  
    C. capitata (Holmsk.) Link 127a
    C. gracilis (Grev.) Durieu & Mont. 127b
    C. militaris (L.: Fr.) Link 122a
    C. myrmecophila Ces. 126a
    C. ophioglossoides (Ehrh.: Fr.) Link 121a, 511a
    C. washingtonensis Mains 122b
 CUDONIA Fr.  
    C. circinans (Pers.) Fr. 603a
    C. grisea Mains 604b
    C. monticola Mains 604a
        = Pachycudonia monticola (Mains) S. Imai  
 CUDONIELLA Sacc.  
    C. clavus (Alb. & Schwein. ex Fr.) Dennis 130a, 411a, 608a
 DICTYOPHORA Desv.  
    D. duplicata (Bosc) E. Fisch. 704a
 EOCRONARTIUM G.F. Atk.  
    E. muscicola (Pers.) Fitzp. 414a, 417a
 GEOGLOSSUM Pers.  
    G. fallax E.J. Durand 506a
    G. glabrum Pers. 508a
    G. glutinosum Pers. ex Fr. 505a
    G. umbratile Sacc. 508b
        = Geoglossum nigritum (Pers.) Cooke  
 HEYDERIA Link  
    H. abietis (Fr.) Link 606a
        = Mitrula abietis Fr.  
 ITAJAHYA A. Møller  
    I. rosea (Delile) E. Fisch. 706b
        = Itajahya galericulata A. Moeller  
 LEOTIA Pers.  
    L. lubrica (Scop.) Pers. 302a, 602a
    L. viscosa Fr. 302b
 LYSURUS Fr.  
    L. cruciatus (Lepr. & Mont.) Henn. 702a
        = Lysurus gardneri sensu Ramsbottom, sensu Palmer  
        = Lysurus borealis (Burt) Henn.  
    L. periphragmoides (Klotzsch) Dring 703a
        = Simblum periphragmoides Klotzsch  
        = Simblum texense (G.F. Atk.) Long  
 MACROTYPHULA R.H. Petersen  
    M. fistulosa (Fr.) R.H. Petersen 413b, 620a
    M. juncea (Alb. & Schwein.) Berthier 414a
 MICROGLOSSUM Gillet  
    M. atropurpureum (Batsch ex Fr.) P. Karst. 201b, 507a
        = Geoglossum atropurpureum Fr.  
        = Corynetes atropurpureus (Pers.) E.J. Durand  
        = Corynetes purpurascens (Pers.) E.J. Durand  
    M. fumosum (Peck) E.J. Durand 622a
    M. olivaceum (Pers. ex Fr.) Gillet 301a, 623a
        = Geoglossum olivaceum Fr.  
 MITRULA Fr.  
    M. borealis Redhead 131b
    M. elegans (Berk.) Fr. 131a
 MUCRONELLA Fr.  
    M. bresadolae (Quél.) Corner 406a
        = Mucronella alba Lloyd  
    M. calva Fr. 406c
    M. fusiformis (Kauffman) K.A. Harrison 406b
    M. pulchra Corner 103e
 MULTICLAVULA R.H. Petersen  
    M. corynoides (Peck) R.H. Petersen 117b, 416b
        = Clavaria corynoides Peck  
    M. mucida (Fr.) R.H. Petersen 117a, 416a
        = Lentaria mucida (Fr.) Corner  
    M. sharpii R.H. Petersen 117d, 416d
    M. vernalis (Schwein.) R.H. Petersen 117c, 416c
        = Clavulinopsis vernalis (Schwein.) Corner  
 MUTINUS Fr.  
    M. caninus (Huds.) Fr. 705a
 NEOLECTA Speg.  
    N. vitellina (Bres.) Korf & J.K. Rogers 102a, 103d
        = Geoglossum vitellinum Bres.  
        = Mitrula vitellina (Bres.) Sacc.  
        = Microglossum vitellinum (Bres.) Boud.  
        = Spragueola vitellina (Bres.) Nannf.  
 ONYGENA Pers.  
    O. corvina Alb. & Schwein. ex Fr. 404a
    O. equina (Willd.) Pers. ex Fr. 404b
 PHALLUS Junius ex L.  
    P. impudicus L. 706a
 PODOSTROMA P. Karst.  
    P. alutaceum (Pers.: Fr.) G.F. Atk. 120a, 125a, 413a
 PTERULA Fr.  
    P. gracilis (Berk. & Desm.) Corner 419a
 SARCOLEOTIA S. Ito & S. Imai  
    S. globosa (Sommerf.: Fr.) Korf 509a
 SPATHULARIA Pers.  
    S. flavida Fr. 104a
 STEREOPSIS D.A. Reid  
    S. humphreyi (Burt) Redhead & D.A. Reid 410a
 TRICHOGLOSSUM Boud.  
    T. hirsutum (Pers.) Boud. 504a
    T. velutipes (Peck) E.J. Durand 504b
 TYPHULA (Pers.) Fr.  
    T. abietina (Fuckel) Corner 118a, 433b
    T. cystidiophora Kauffman 426a
    T. erumpens Corner 433a
    T. erythropus Fr. 428a
    T. idahoensis Remsberg 423b
    T. incarnata Lasch ex Fr. 422a
    T. ishikariensis S. Imai 423a
    T. megasperma Berthier 119b, 429b
    T. mycophaga Berthier & Redhead 432a
    T. phacorrhiza Fr. 119a, 429a
    T. sclerotioides (Pers.) Fr. 428b, 429a
    T. setipes (Grev.) Berthier 431a
    T. umbrina Remsberg 425a
 VIBRISSEA Fr.  
    V. truncorum (Alb. & Schwein.) Fr. 128a, 607a
 XYLARIA Hill ex Schrank  
    X. bulbosa (Pers.) Berk. & Broome 512b, 617a
    X. cornu-damae (Schwein.) Fr. 512a
    X. hypoxylon (L.) Grev. 401a, 501a

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