Key to species of LACTARIUS in the Pacific Northwest

A macroscopic field key to species reported from Washington, Oregon, and Idaho
with some reports from Western Montana and Southern British Columbia
Prepared for the Pacific Northwest Key Council
by Coleman S. Leuthy, Puget Sound Mycological Society, 1981, revised 1997
Copyright © Pacific Northwest Key Council 1981, 1997, 2004
Photo copyright held by each photographer
Do not copy photos without permission

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction

Importance and Edibility

Notes about this Key

Key to the Series

Series 100   Cap white to off-white (milk white or whey-like, unchanging), pink, lavender, purple, gray

Series 200   Cap yellow or tan to biscuit brown (milk white or whey-like, unchanging)

Series 300   Cap orange (milk white or whey-like, unchanging)

Series 400   Cap red, red-brown, to dark maroon (milk white or whey-like, unchanging)

Series 500   Cap brown to blackish (milk white or whey-like, unchanging)

Series 600   Cap with green tones (milk white or whey-like, unchanging)

Series 700   The Changing Milk-caps (milk white then flesh or milk changing color)

Series 800   The Delicious Milk-caps (milk colored at first)

Appendix 1   Subgenera (Hesler & Smith)

Appendix 2   Species and Varieties included in this Key

Appendix 3   Excluded Species Names

Glossary

Index to Handbooks and References

Index of Included Species

 

INTRODUCTION

Lactarius is a genus segregated with Russula from the rest of the gilled mushrooms into the family Russulaceae mostly because of the occurrence of clusters of roundish cells in the cap and stem tissues. These cells cause the tissues to be more or less brittle, which is more true in Russula than Lactarius. The Lactarii are mushrooms with no veil structures and are greatly variable. The cap may be from 0.5 to over 20 cm; ranging from white through a wide color range; often convex to deeply depressed with uplifted margin; zoned or not; and with dry, viscid, glabrous, hairy, or other surface. The odor is usually not distinctive but some have been described as aromatic, fragrant, fruity, spicy, alkali, nauseous, spermatic, or fetid. They differ from Russula in having a latex (milk), lactiferous ducts, and rarely having rounded cell clusters in the gills (Singer). The milk is white or colored and if white may change to a color quickly, tardily, or remain unchanged. The flesh tissue may also change color quickly or only after an hour or so. The gills are attached to subdecurrent (often decurrent in caps with uplifted margins), and are usually close to crowded. The stem is central; rounded; equal or tapering above or below; of similar color to the cap or lighter; dry or viscid; smooth, fibrillose, or scrobiculate; and solid, stuffed, or hollow. Spores are usually ellipsoid, rarely globose, and usually with lines, warts, and/or bands forming a scant to prominent network that reacts positively with Melzer's solution. The mushrooms grow mostly from soil and duff, but a few grow from wood.

This key is prepared primarily from the information presented in North American Species of Lactarius by L.R. Hesler and Alexander H. Smith, 1979. Smith indicates there is still a great deal of work to be done in clarifying the original European types and descriptions, in systematic field and microscopic work, macrochemical tests, and in identifying chemical components contained in the mushrooms, esp. toxins, before many of the species entities will be clear or the various species complexes can be adequately sorted. This field key, then, may serve as a starting point in identifying our Pacific Northwest species.

 

IMPORTANCE AND EDIBILITY

Various species are used in enormous quantities as food throughout the northern hemisphere, especially in eastern Europe and Russia; they could be used for drug production if we learn to grow them in a controlled way; and most important, the fungus plant forms connections with the roots of trees (Singer). The benefit here is perhaps enormous but hard to measure, as at least some trees and plants grow very poorly without the help of the fungus plants in the soil.

L. deliciosus, L. rubrilacteus, L. subpurpureus, L. chelidonium, L. indigo, L. volemus, L. hygrophoroides, and L. corrugis are eaten by many people and are considered reasonably safe (Smith '79). In Russia, Singer (1949) indicates L. resimus and L. scrobiculatus are the highest priced Lactarii in the markets. In 1989 L. necator, similar to our L. olivaceoumbrinus, was abundant in markets in Moscow and Noasibirsk in central Siberia.

Species with colored latex from the first (without changing from white) are edible and reported to be good, i.e. L. deliciosus and L. rubrilacteus. However, I have always found them to taste like conifer needles, especially when raw.

L. barrowsii and L. indigo are edible and good but not reported from the northwest. The rest of the edible species are mediocre and generally worthless. Some species are poisonous and cause at least serious upset and unrest.

Do not eat species of Lactarius that have a strong bitter or peppery taste. Do not eat any that stain lilac (Miller, Mushrooms of NA p.52). Avoid all species where the latex changes to yellow (Miller p.55). Avoid peppery Lactarii, as they are not safe for experimentation (McKenny & Stuntz p.98).

Many of the mild tasting species are reported in various handbooks as being edible, but I have not tried cooking any of them. There are usually more esculent, better known, and more abundant mushrooms available in the wood during the collecting season.

 

NOTES ABOUT THIS KEY

Previously I prepared a skeletal trial key (Fall '78) derived from a variety of handbooks, local knowledge, and my experience which included thirty species. Now with the North American monograph, this key contains fifty-one species and fifteen varieties.

In collecting and taking field observations, use fresh (young and older mature specimens) in the field or at home before drying. Important macroscopic observations include:

  1. Color and nature of milk (latex) and flesh as to a) initial color, b) color change in a few to five (15-30+) minutes, or longer, c) whether the latex changes color on white paper - frequently to yellow or or greenish as used by Hesler & Smith, (I think this should be standardized by using Whatman #1 or #2 filter paper), and d) whether the milk is abundant, scanty, or whey-like. Drier specimens may be reluctant to exude the latex. To best observe the latex, one or several of these tricks may help:
    1. break off a section of the cap.
    2. cut off a section of the cap margin.
    3. with a knife cut (nick) the gills, especially near the stem.
    4. cut (nick) the stem near the gills.
    5. slice off at an angle a portion of the stem base.
  2. Taste: Chew with front teeth and use the tip of your tongue to taste a small amount of clean tissue from the margin of a cap. Determine if it is mild, bitter (astringent), hot or peppery (acrid), or very hot like triple Tabasco.
  3. Odor: Smell the gills. Only a few species have significant odors. However, several have obvious odors when dried, which usually become soon evident after picking.
  4. Color of cap, stem, and gills.
  5. Size: You mostly need to know if it is larger and heavy-firm or smaller and more fragile. A range of specific dimensions in centimeters may be helpful.
  6. Shape: When mature is the shape a) convex (umbrella-like) and with or without an incurved to inrolled margin, b) flat or plane, c) centrally depressed, or d) funnel-shaped and usually with uplifted margin?
  7. Surface of cap and stem:
    1. cap zonate, i.e. having concentric rings varying in color shades or texture.
    2. hairy, especially on the margin.
    3. scrobiculate spots on the stem, i.e. "wetted" slightly depressed areas.
    4. dry or viscid (sticky to slimy). If there is a question, moisten your lips and gently bring them in contact with the cap surface to see if it is sticky or tacky, or look for forest debris or dirt glued to the surface.
  8. Flesh in cap and stem: Note the color and if it is firm to hard and brittle or more soft and/or pliable or fragile.
  9. Spore colors are white to cream buff or to yellow. A thin spore deposit may be white but more yellow if thicker. Also, in some groups, the fresh spore print may be white, then become yellowish upon drying or aging.
  10. Macrochemical tests: Small pieces of cap, stem, and gill tissues may be tested with a variety of chemicals. Those reported as useful with Lactarius are:
    1. Ammonium hydroxide (NH40H), 20%
    2. Analine, pure or 50% in water AVOID CONTACT WITH SKIN.
    3. Ferrous sulfate (FeS04),10% freshly prepared (may last a week or so)
    4. Formaldehyde, 40% (formalin)
    5. Guiacol, watery - almost saturated
    6. Phenol, 2%
    7. Potassium hydroxide (KOH), 3% for tissues, 30% for latex - VERY DANGEROUS

            We may also find helpful chemicals being used on other genera, such as PDAB, etc.

Some further notes on the descriptions:

  1. There are some blanks, i.e. odor:_____, where there was no information; you may write in your own opinion.
  2. I have often written sizes as "stem to 1.5 x 6 cm", indicating only the average larger dimensions.
  3. Color interpretations are most difficult. Smith, and I presume Hesler, used Ridgway (expensive and not available). Interpreting their colors into basic color expressions leaves much to be desired. Also, for instance, I've discovered that Dr. Smith and Dr. Stuntz have quite different color senses. Well, good luck, as the expression goes, and when I see some of the species, undoubtedly it will be necessary to make many changes.
  4. States where Hesler and Smith have cited collections are listed under FRUITING.

 

KEY TO THE SERIES

       
A. Milk colored at first - red, orange,
or yellow to muddy brown
Series 800, THE DELICIOUS MILK-CAPS
       
B. Milk white at first then the milk or flesh changing color within a few minutes Series 700, THE CHANGING MILK-CAPS
       
C. Milk white to whey-like at first.
Neither the milk nor the flesh changing color within a few minutes.
A delayed change may occur.
Series 100 through 600
       
  Select the best color group that represents the primary or basic color of the cap. The color selection should be made from caps that are neither too young nor past maturity, nor too dry. Sometimes it is hard to decide whether the color is white or yellow, tan or brown, yellow or orange, orange or red, or red or brown. In these cases you may have to try the next closest series. However, many of the species which do not fit easily into a color series are cross-referenced and will key out in two or even three series.
  a. White to off-white including tones of pink, lavender, purple, and gray Series 100
  b Yellow and tans to biscuit brown Series 200
  c Orange Series 300
  d Red and red brown to dark maroon Series 400
  e Brown to blackish including some,especially small, with olive tones or casts Series 500
  f Green tones as the primary or secondary color, especially in caps that range brown blackish or to tan. Usually a husky firm mushroom to 10 or 15 cm and with a peppery taste Series 600, THE SORDID MILK-CAPS

 

 

SERIES 100: CAP COLOR WHITE TO OFF WHITE AND INCLUDING THOSE WITH TONES OF PINK, LAVENDER PURPLE, AND GRAY.

 

101a Cap with lavender to purple and/or gray tones

101b Cap mostly without lavender, gray, or purple tints, but may have pink tinges

102a Cap viscid at least when young and in moist atmosphere

102b Cap moist or dry but not viscid

103a Odor fragrant (coconut) shortly after picking and especially upon drying; cap lavender tints in gray or yellow gray or brownish base color, 2-6 cm

................................................................................Lactarius glyciosmus

H&Sm 404, L&H 206.

CAP light brown to gray with lavender to purplish tints, 2-6(9) cm, convex with inrolled margin becoming plane with slight depression to slightly raised margins, dry with appressed fibrils and if zoned then obscurely; flesh pale buff, thin to 0.6 cm in larger cap. MILK white, drying yellowish in droplets, stains white paper yellow. ODOR fragrant of coconut. TASTE slowly slightly peppery, mild in older caps. GILLS light pink cinnamon to darker, sub- to decurrent, close or crowded. SPORES pale cream, 6-8 x 5-6 μm or larger; reticulum of crooked bands and lines, some free warts, only a very loose reticulum formed, prominences to 0.8 μm. STEM color of cap or paler, to 5 (10) x 1.5 cm, about equal, dry, almost glabrous. CHEMICAL Cuticle yellow in KOH, milk KOH negative. FRUITING scattered to gregarious; under birch, alder forest, often with conifers; Canada and northern US; AK, CO, ID. It seems to be abundant in Seattle associated with planted birches in swampy areas of the Arboretum and mossy lawns.Lactarius glyciosmus
Lactarius glyciosmus
Steve Trudell

103b Odor not distinctive, cap brown-gray to gray and fading, 2-4 cm

................................................................................Lactarius lepidotus

H&Sm 408.

CAP dull brown-gray to gray fading, 2-4 cm, plano-depressed, the incurved margin expanding to form a shallowly depressed center with wavy margin; dry to moist, not polished, semi-hygrophanous; flesh as surface. MILK white, unchanging. ODOR not distinctive. TASTE mild. GILLS grayish pink to darker, adnate, close. SPORES (color)______, 7-9 x 5.5-6 μm, ellipsoid; reticulum of intersecting ridges to form a very broken network, isolated warts, prominences to 0.5 μm. STEM grayish pink, to 3 x 0.4 cm, unpolished, fragile, stuffed. FRUITING on soil under alder; Castle Pk., Mt. Rainier, WA; rare or not well known. Only two collections cited.

104a (102a) Gills spotting dingy brown where injured within 15 min., stem dry, cap to 8 cm, semi-hygrophanous

................................................................................Lactarius vietus

H&Sm 385.

CAP violet brown-gray to dark violet-brown with gray-brown tones, some whitish variants; 3-8 cm, convex depressed and finally a shallow funnel; moist to slightly viscid, glabrous, semi-hygro-phanous. MILK white changing or drying olive-gray, staining gills olive-gray to grayish-brown. ODOR slight. TASTE peppery. GILLS pale dingy pinkish buff, adnate to decurrent, close, 3-4 series of secondary gills. STEM lighter than cap, not darkening below; 3-6 x 0.8-1.8cm, equal dry, glabrous, fragile. SPORES white to cream, 7.5-9 x 6-7.5 μm, ellipsoid to subglose; reticulations of short bands and lines, some isolated warts forming barely a partial reticulum, prominences to 0.4 μm. FRUITING gregarious to cespitose in small clusters or solitary; northern US & Canada, widely found in areas of birch, often on decaying conifer & hardwood; AK, CO, ID.

104b Gills not spotting appreciably, stem viscid but soon dry, cap to 15 or 18 cm

 

105a Cap lavender-gray, then pale light blue-gray-ash or brown gray, cap thinly viscid then dry, milk white to light creamy white and unchanging

................................................................................Lactarius circellatus var. borealis

H&Sm 378, (L&H 212-pyrogalus).

CAP lilac-drab to lavender-gray, drying pale light blue-grayish to brown-gray; 4-15 cm, convex to plano-convex; margin inrolled, lifting to plano-depressed or to a broad shallow funnel; thin viscid then dry, zones may be present formed of violaceous-drab watery spots, glabrous; flesh drab under cuticle, otherwise whitish. MILK white to creamy white, unchanging. ODOR______. TASTE burning peppery to bitter or only very peppery. GILLS pale pink-buff to pink-orangish yellow or with faint lilac tints; adnate, close, not spotting. SPORES dull white to cream, 7-9 x 5-6.5 μm, broad ellipsoid; reticulum of zebra-like banding with long and short bands and some warts, prominences to 0.5 μm. STEM lilac-gray, lighter than cap; 3-8 x 2-4cm, equal or tapered toward base; thinly slimy, soon dry, not spotted; flesh pallid, soon hollow. FRUITING gregarious under conifers and often birch; PNW to AK: AK, ID, OR, WA.

105b Cap soon yellow-brown, then cinnamon to tan, slimy viscid, milk drying olive-buff

106a (101b) Cap margin eroded and rimose (cracked); cap glabrous and dry; stem hard, non-brittle, solid; taste mild, sometimes and slowly peppery to hot

................................................................................Lactarius pallidiolivaceus

CAP nearly white, later olive-buff to paler and with darker or paler areas; 4-7 cm, irregular, convex to often shallowly depressed and more so in age; surface dry, dull, glabrous, or slightly velvety (10X); margin irregular, eroded and wrinkled; flesh white at first. MILK white, scanty, stains cap flesh red then pinkish gray, gills and stem light yellow to a light pinkish gray (avellaneous as Smith uses Ridgway, or is it light yellowish gray to yellowish brown?). ODOR not distinctive. TASTE mild. GILLS white later yellow to yellowish buff to buff orange, edges same color as sides; sub-distant, thin, fragile; numerous secondary gills. SPORES color______, 7.5-9 μm, globose or nearly so; broken partial reticulum, prominences to 1.0 μm. STEM white, 3-5 x 1-2 cm, tapering toward base, glabrous, tough, hard; flesh white at first. FRUITING gregarious on soil; Ponderosa pine; CA, OR.

106b Cap margin hairy to bearded, cap hairy and viscid; stem soft to medium, somewhat brittle, taste peppery

107a Gills at maturity a dingy pinkish lavender; cap a large (7-20 cm) open funnel; with willows and poplars (cottonwood, aspen)

................................................................................Lactarius controversus

H&Sm 248, McIlvaine 164.

CAP very white when young, may become smoky-lavender with perhaps brown or pinkish tinges; 7-20 cm or larger in a good growing season, convex depressed becoming a large open funnel of about 45; viscid but soon dry, covered with flattened fibrils; margin inrolled with short hairy fuzz at first and may have very narrow zones- white and "wet-white"; flesh white, firm. MILK white. ODOR mild or light and pleasant. TASTE becoming burning peppery or bitter then slowly peppery. GILLS light pink to dirty purplish, sometimes with a light brownish tint in age; adnate to subdecurrent, close, narrow, some forking near stem. SPORES cream to light pinkish brown; 6-7.5 x 4.5-5 μm, ellipsoid; an incomplete to partial reticulum with many free ends, separate parts and warts, prominences to 0.5 μm. STEM white; 2.5-5(8) x 1.5-2.5(5) cm, equal or tapering toward base, when wet somewhat tacky, soon dry, sometimes spotted. FRUITING on soil under willows and poplars (cottonwood and aspen in PNW), more common east of the Cascades, widely distributed; AK, CO, ID, NM, OR, WA, not uncommon in Washington.Lactarius controversus
Lactarius controversus
Ben Woo

107b Gills white or somewhat pinkish

108a Cap 4-14+ cm, white becoming tan to clay in age; flesh white, stem dull white; gills creamy white; under conifers; spores 8-11 x 6-8 μm

................................................................................Lactarius pseudodeceptivus

CAP white, soon pink-yellow near margin, finally dull cinnamon in center; 6-14cm, shallowly depressed with arched and incurved margin then expanding to funnel shape; surface slimy if wet but quickly dry and of matted fibers which form a thick layer; margin cottony of thin hairs when young; flesh thick, hard, white and only slowly discoloring to tan. MILK white, abundant. ODOR slight. TASTE strongly peppery. GILLS creamy white to brown in old specimens, brown where in contact with milk; adnate to decurrent in age, close, narrow, many forked near stem. SPORES white; 8-11 x 6-8 μm, ellipsoid; a well formed reticulum with some isolated warts and free branch ends, prominences to 0.4 μm. STEM dull white, uneven but not spotted; 4-7 x 2-3 cm; solid, hard; flesh white. FRUITING scattered to gregarious under conifers; OR, WA.

108b Cap 4-10 cm, pinkish to white and remaining so or darkening to orangish or red to red-brown; flesh pinkish; usually near birch; spores mostly smaller than above.

................................................................................The L. torminosus - L. pubescens complex see 109

H&Sm 273-285, M 50, SmWM 243, SmII 240, Mc 100, L&H 210.

What we in the PNW have been calling L. torminosus has been researched by Hesler & Smith. Now, from the PNW they cite and include L. torminosus, an S.F. Gray (1821) species with two varieties; L. pubescens, a Fries (1838) species with two varieties; and L. subvillosus, a new species (H&Sm '79). They state single character differences and sort them as follows:

a. Spores 7.5-9.5(10.5) x 6-7.5(8) μm (L. torminosus)

a. Spores 5.5-7.5(8) x 3-6.5(7) μm (L. pubescens and L. subvillosus)

b. Latex staining white paper yellow

b. Latex not staining white paper yellow

c. Cap zonate, viscid, margin fibrillose to wooly becoming naked and nearly glabrous in age

c. Cap not zonate and not with the above combination of characteristics

d. Latex staining white paper yellow

d. Latex not staining as in above choice; gills and stem near its top soon pinkish (not becoming ochraceous)

* If there are only single character differences, then the following macroscopic sorting may not be very easy. However, the important features to look at are the color of the cap in young and old ones; taste of the cap flesh; color and color changes of the milk; whether there is a staining reaction caused by the milk on white paper, in KOH, or on the flesh of the cap; the size of the spores; and the nature of the cap margin of young specimens.

109a Cap zonate, "light pinkish cinnamon alternating with pinkish buff to pallid"; found with redwoods and other conifers

................................................................................Lactarius subvillosus

H&Sm 278.

CAP pink-cinnamon to pink-buff to pallid, light and darker; zones alternating; 5-10 cm, convex depressed becoming funnel shaped or with arched margins; viscid, glabrous with cottony inrolled margin becoming matted fibrillose and finally inconspicuous; flesh pallid, hard. MILK white, not changing but gills slowly staining dingy yellowish. ODOR not distinctive. TASTE fast and very peppery. GILLS pale pink-buff then pink-buff; subdecurrent, crowded. SPORES (color)______; 6-7.5 x 4.5-6 μm, ellipsoid; reticulum broken to partial network with isolated warts and short ridges, prominences to 0.5 μm. STEM pinkish buff with polished scrobiculate spots; 3-6 x 2-3 cm, equal or narrowed toward base; dry. FRUITING cespitose-gregarious; redwoods and other conifers; CA, OR.

109b Cap not zonate, or only somewhat zonate in var. torminosus

110a Milk white

110b Milk white changing to pale yellow or cream

111a Cap light to dull pink, somewhat zonate; spores 7.5-9+ x 6-7.5 μm

................................................................................L. torminosus var. torminosus

H&Sm 274.

CAP light to dull pink to whitish margin and fading to whitish; 5-12 cm, convex to depressed, often plano-depressed lifting to a shallow funnel shape; center at first viscid, glabrous, somewhat zonate; margin incurved, bearded to fibrillose, white at least when young; flesh white to flesh color, firm becoming flexible. MILK white, not changing, not staining gills. ODOR slight. TASTE peppery. GILLS white to creamish pink then light tan; close, narrow, with some forking near stem. SPORES cream; 7.5-9+ x 6-7.5 μm, ellipsoid; reticulum a broken to partial network, many free ends, some isolated warts, prominences to 0.5 μm. STEM colored as cap to paler; 3-7 x 0.6-1.5(2) cm, smooth or nearly so, sometimes spotted, dry; stuffed then hollow. FRUITING on soil; conifers and hardwoods, birch almost always present; common; AK, CO, ID. The true species may not be in N. Am.L torminosus var. torminosus
L torminosus var torminosus
Michael Beug

111b Cap white to cream with center orangish to bright orange reddish or red brown, never zoned; spores 6.5-8.5 x 5.5-6.5 μm

................................................................................L. pubescens var. pubescens

H&Sm 280.

CAP white to cream with center orange-yellow to bright orange-reddish (or red-brown); 2.5-9 cm, convex to globose, soon depressed (small navel), expanding to saucer to funnel shape with arched incurved margins; hairy, viscid shallowly slimy to dry shiny, often dull, never zoned; flesh white, firm then soft. MILK white, unchanging, not bruising or sometimes the flesh dingy rusty. ODOR weak geranium. TASTE peppery. GILLS white to yellowish, flesh tints to orange-flesh color; adnate to subdecurrent, crowded, seldom forked; many secondary gills. SPORES cream to flesh; 6.5-8.5 x 5.5-6.5 μm; reticulum partial to broken with small warts. STEM whitish to orange-yellow or flesh toned, some flesh red tints, often an orange-red girdle, base with dingy orangish brown spots but not scrobiculate; 2-5.5 cm x 0.3-1.2, silky pruinose above. FRUITING under birch, Europe; AZ, CA, CO, ID, OR.

 

112a (110b) Latex fairly abundant, slowly changing to pale yellow (cream) on gills or gills spotted pale yellow; spores 8-11 x 6-8 μm

................................................................................L. torminosus var. nordmanensis

H&Sm 277.

This is mostly like var. torminosus except for the following differences: CAP red-pink-cinnamon to light pink-cinnamon; depressed with arched incurved and coarsely hairy and matted, wooly margin; flesh to pinkish, thick and brittle. MILK white, fairly abundant, slowly changing to pale yellow (cream) on gills, or gills spotting yellow. GILLS pale cinnamon-pink or pinker; short-decurrent, crowded, narrow, forked near stem; edges spotted from milk. SPORES white; 8-11 x 6-8μm, broadly ellipsoid; reticulum of bands and branches forming a broken to partial net. STEM color of gills or pinker; 3-6 x 1-2.5 cm; hollow, hard, pale flesh. CHEMICAL latex bright yellow in KOH. FRUITING mixed aspen, birch and conifers including hemlock; ID.L torminosus var. nordmanensis
Lactarius torminosus var nordmanensis
Michael Beug

112b Latex scanty, turning yellow, staining yellow or white paper yellow; stem dry; cap dry; spores 6.5-8 x 5.5-6.5 μm, reticulum of widely spaced prominent ridges

................................................................................L. pubescens var. betulae

H&Sm 282.

CAP pale cinnamon pink or darker; 3-8 cm, convex-depressed, incurved margin expanding to shallow funnel; viscid then soon dry, covered by dense appressed non-gelatinous wooly hairs; margin bearded; flesh thickish, fragile, white to pinkish concentrated in outer "rind". MILK scanty, white, soon yellow and staining yellow; stains white paper yellow. ODOR not distinctive. TASTE slowly but strongly peppery. GILLS pale flesh pinkish, decurrent, fairly close, narrow. SPORES white to cream; 6.5-8 x 5.5-6.5μm, ellipsoid; reticulum of widely spaced ridges or bands and branches forming a wide-meshed very broken network, isolated warts, prominences to 0.8 μm. STEM pinker than cap; 3-8 x 1-1.8 cm, nearly equal, subfibrillose to unpolished, dry, solid then hollow. CHEMICAL latex yellow in KOH. FRUITING gregarious to scattered; birch, willow; AK, ID.Lactarius pubescens var. betulae
Lactarius pubescens var betulae
Fred Stevens (MykoWeb)

 

 

SERIES 200: CAP COLOR YELLOW AND TANS TO BISCUIT BROWN.

 

201a Caps usually 5-18 (27) cm, viscid

201b Caps usually less than 6 cm, dry to moist, not viscid

202a Taste mild or only slowly peppery

................................................................................Lactarius trivialis

H&Sm 415, SmNH 259, SmII 237.

CAP pink to lavender-gray, sometimes with a deep yellowish brown then cinnamon to more tan; 5-18 cm, convex, margin incurved, soon lifting to plano-convex then centrally depressed with uplifted margins; slimy viscid, glabrous; margin downy, soon smooth, if zonate then obscurely; flesh whitish, thick, firm. MILK white, droplets drying olive-cream, gills rarely stain olive-brown and then only slightly. ODOR slight. TASTE mild to slowly and slightly peppery. GILLS pallid then pale cinnamon to tan; adnate, close to subdistant. SPORES cream or dull yellow; 7.5-9+ x 6-7.5+ μm, broad ellipsoid; reticulum of sparse broken network, some warts, bands narrow and far apart, prominences to 0.4 μm. STEM pale cinnamon to tan; 5-10 (15) x 1-2.5 cm, equal, fragile, hollow; slimy, soon dry. FRUITING solitary to widely gregarious; conifers; common northern ID and conifer forests of PNW; AK, ID, WA.Lactarius trivialis
Lactarius trivialis
Michael Beug

202b Taste very peppery

203a Cap very large, to 27 cm; flesh to 3 cm thick; cap light yellows to yellow-gray-brown; spore ornamentation not prominent, prominences to 0.5 μm

................................................................................L. argillaceifolius var. megacarpus

H&Sm 369.

CAP light yellow to pale yellow becoming a light yellowish gray-brown near margin; 14-27 cm, broadly depressed; margin strongly incurved, irregular, undulating; viscid, glabrous; flesh to 3 cm thick, white to off-white, not changing. MILK white, unchanging; gills staining brownish. ODOR not distinctive. TASTE quite peppery. GILLS pale then pale yellow with slight yellow-gray to brown cast; adnate, close to subdistant; numerous tiers of secondary gills. SPORES (color)______; 7.5-10.5 x 6.5-8 μm, broadly ellipsoid; reticulum of low rather fine lines and ridges both short and long branched, some isolated warts, almost not reticulate, prominences to 0.5 μm. STEM white at base to pale buff at top; 16-20 x 4-5 cm; only slightly viscid, glabrous, somewhat wrinkled; rigid; flesh white, stuffed to hollow. FRUITING soil; oak; CA, OR.Lactarius argillaceifolius var. megacarpus
argillaceifolius var megacarpus
Michael Wood (MykoWeb)

203b Cap usually less than 15 (18) cm, tones of yellow orange to brown or cinnamon

204a Margin cottony fibrillose when young

204b Margin naked or only with fine hairs

205a Cap yellow then darker (yellow in drying), strains yellow; margin downy at first; stem hard

205b Biscuit brown, viscid, margin glabrous at first; stem viscid, buff, staining color of cap; a firm brittle mushroom

................................................................................L. affinis var. viridilactis

H&Sm 421, N 48.

CAP pallid to cinnamon-cream drying dingy or yellowish to "pinkish cinnamon" and duller; 6-15 (18) cm, convex-depressed, inrolled margin expanding to plane, then to a broad funnel; viscid, slimy then drying shining, glabrous including margin; flesh white then flushed tan to darker, firm, hard. MILK white drying olive and/or wounds staining olivaceous; bruised gills slowly greenish. ODOR mild. TASTE very peppery. GILLS pale cream to tanner; subdecurrent to adnate, close to subdistant. SPORES yellowish; 8-9.5+ x 6.5-8 μm, broadly ellipsoid or narrower; reticulum a broken network with many short ridges and some warts, some ridges connected; prominences to 1.0 μm. STEM whitish becoming tan as cap, may form rust brown stains near base; viscid, soon dry and shining, sometimes spotted, 4-12 x 1-3 cm. FRUITING scattered to gregarious; mixed conifer forests of the Great Lakes. Suspected of being in forests of northern ID (Smith). Though not cited from PNW, have collected this or something very near it in northern ID and east of Snoqualmie Pass, WA.Lactarius affinis var. viridilactis
L affinis var viridilactis
Andrew Parker

206a (201b) Odor fragrant (coconut) shortly after picking and especially upon drying; cap with lavender tints in gray to yellow gray or brownish base color, 2-6 cm

206b Odor not distinctive, cap brown-gray to gray and fading, 2-4 cm

 

 

SERIES 300: CAP COLOR ORANGE TO ORANGISH.

 

301a Cap margin striate and translucent, small 1-2.2 cm

301b Cap margin not striate or translucent, cap usually 2.5 cm or larger

302a Cap orange with prominent zones, 6-12 cm; flesh firm, white, thicker, (L. zonarius)

................................................................................Lactarius olympianus

H&Sm 239 (L. zonarius M 49, SmNH 271)

CAP orange, zones lighter, fading to light orange buff; 6-12 cm, convex, depressed center, margin remaining decurved or elevated, then broadly funnel shaped; glabrous, viscid, zonate; flesh white, thin, somewhat fragile. MILK white; gills may stain white to dirty orangish when bruised. ODOR____. TASTE very peppery. GILLS white then light cream to dirty yellow; dingy orange to orange-brown when bruised; adnate, secondary gills. SPORES "cinnamon-buff"; (7)8-11+ x 7.5-9+ μm, broadly ellipsoid; reticulum of short to long ridges, often branched forming a reasonably complete network, sometimes only of short ridges and isolated warts, prominences to 1.5 μm. STEM white with a white bloom at first, then to dingy orangish, especially if handled; 4-6 x 1.5-3 cm, nearly equal. FRUITING scattered to gregarious in montane conifer forests of the PNW; ID, OR, WA, CO, WY.Lactarius olympianus
Lactarius olympianus
Steve Trudell

302b Cap yellow-orange to red-orange, azonate, 2.5-7 cm

303a Cap dry

303b Cap viscid

304a Gills reddish to ochraceous; milk white, sometimes changing to lemon yellow

................................................................................(L. subdulcis of PNW) L. hepaticus, see 409

304b Gills not reddish; milk whey-like and scanty

305a Gills yellow; cap orange yellow to brownish yellow, 2.5-4 cm, hairy when young

................................................................................L. alpinus var. alpinus

H&Sm 495, SmNH 253.

CAP orange-yellow to brownish yellow, "bright apricot tones", or bright orange to yellow-orange; (1.0)1.5-4 cm, convex with a small umbo, expanding to centrally depressed; dry, wooly hairy; flesh white, thin. MILK white or colorless to milk white, scanty, unchanging. ODOR not distinct. TASTE peppery or slowly and slightly so. GILLS yellow to orange-yellow to orange, similar to cap; adnate, close. SPORES white, 7-9.5 x 6-8 μm, ellipsoid; reticulum of many branches with free ends, prominences (warts) to 0.7 μm; macrocystidia, 42-60 μm, often embedded, inconspicuous. STEM pallid whitish or tinted color of cap; 1.8-3.2 x 0.3-0.5 cm, about equal, dry, somewhat mealy; flesh whitish or as surface, solid. CHEMICAL FeS04 on flesh of cap and stem pink, remainder negative. FRUITING gregarious to cespitose; alder in swampy and wet areas of PNW; ID, OR, WA.L alpinus var. alpinus
L alpinus var alpinus
Ben Woo

305b Gills dull gray lavenderish to brownish; cap darker to red-brown or pink-brown, 3-6 cm, glabrous

................................................................................L. alpinus var. mitis

H&Sm 497.

CAP red-brown soon fading to a light pink-brown or cinnamon; 3-6 cm, nearly plane to convex with mottled margin and sometimes a small nipple (umbo), the margin arching forming a broad depressed funnel; surface cracking or checking, smooth when moist, glabrous; flesh more or less like surface, thin, very fragile. MILK white, whey-like in large drops, scanty, unchanging. ODOR none or very faint fresh or dry. TASTE mild, or very slowly peppery. GILLS full gray-pink-purplish then pinkish purple-cinnamon or lighter; adnate to short decurrent, close, many forked and anastomosing (running together). SPORES white, 7.5-9 x 6-7.5 μm; reticulum of broken to partial network with frequent warts and short ridges, prominences to 0.5 μm; macrocystidia, 100+ μm, of hymenium prominent. STEM to pale dull grayish "vinaceous" (pink-purplish) tending to orange-cinnamon or lighter; 3-5 x 1.0-1.5 cm, enlarged downward, very fragile; surface even to wavy, unpolished, glabrescent and somewhat watery; base often with white mycelium. CHEMICAL FeS04 on cap and gills green (Michigan), cut stem surface green overnight (Oregon). FRUITING gregarious to cespitose; alder in swampy and wet areas of PNW; ID, OR, WA.L alpinus var. mitis
L alpinus var mitis
Michael Beug

306a (303b) Cap margin thin and translucent striate in age; cap orange-red to yellowish along margins; milk slowly changing to straw yellow; spores cream

306b Margin thin but not translucent striate; cap scarlet orange to medium yellow orange

................................................................................The L. aurantiacus complex 307

307a Cap more yellowish, yellow buff to tawny; taste mild, may be slightly bitter then slightly peppery; spores cream, prominences low, only 0.3 um

................................................................................L. luculentus var. luculentus

H&Sm 454.

CAP medium yellow-tawny, moist looking yellow-buff to tawny; 2.5-7.5+ cm, broadly convex to plane then centrally depressed, a small umbo which disappears; slimy viscid, glabrous, not zoned; margin even. MILK white, unchanging. ODOR______. TASTE mild to slightly bitter, then maybe slowly peppery. GILLS red-orange to tawny; adnate (to decurrent), simple, unequal, close, narrow. SPORES cream or buff, 7.5-9 x 6-7.5 μm, broad ellipsoid; reticulum of a broken network with some warts and short ridges, prominences low, only to 0.3 μm. STEM red-orange to orange-brown, perhaps darker toward base; 2-5 x 0.7-1.5 cm, slightly viscid; firm, becoming hollow. FRUITING with Douglas Fir (conifers and mixed forest); AK, CO, OR.L luculentus var. luculentus
L luculentus var luculentus
Michael Beug

307b Cap bright orange to scarlet

308a Cap bright orange, margin lighter; flesh pallid to light yellow; gills slowly stain brown; spore prominences to 0.7 μm. This variety is more common than var. luculentus (Smith)

................................................................................L. luculentus var. laetus

H&Sm 456.

CAP brillant orange, margin a little lighter, duller in age; 3-6 cm, convex to plane or with small umbo becoming broadly depressed in age; slightly viscid, soon dry, glabrous; flesh pallid to pale yellow, thin, firm. MILK white, abundant, unchanging; gills stain slowly brownish. ODOR___ ; TASTE mild, slowly bitter. GILLS pale reddish clay-orange; crowded, narrow, about four series of secondary gills. SPORES color ___; 8-10 x 7-8.5 μm, broadly ellipsoid; reticulum of a few prominent bands with "y"-branching, no network, some warts and short ridges, prominences to 0.7 μm. STEM color as cap or gills; 4-5 x 0.5-0.7 cm, equal to tapering below; smooth, glabrous; firm then fragile. FRUITING gregarious; conifers, mountain alder; Mt. Angeles, Olympic Mts., CO, WA. This variety is more common than var. luculentus (Smith).L luculentus var. laetus
L luculentus var laetus
Michael Beug

308b Cap scarlet then dulling; flesh cream to orange yellow; taste slowly peppery; spores white, prominences to 1.0 μm.

................................................................................Lactarius subflammeus

H&Sm 451.

CAP scarlet soon orange, dulling in age, margin with short translucent sections in age; 3-7 cm, convex then shallowly depressed with plain to arched margin; slimy-viscid, margin and cap glabrous; flesh cream to orange-buff, watery, thin, fragile. MILK white, unchanging, not staining. ODOR slight. TASTE slowly peppery. GILLS whitish to cream-orange to color of cap; broadly adnate to decurrent, close to subdistant. SPORES white, 7.5-9 x 6.5-7.5 μm, ellipsoid; reticulum of short ridges and warts not forming a network, prominences to 1.0 μm. STEM color of cap; 4-9 x 0.8-1.5 cm, enlarged toward base, fragile; mealy when young, not viscid; hollow. FRUITING under pines; coastal sand dunes Pacific City, OR.; very common in conifer forests PNW; CO, ID, OR, WA.Lactarius subflammeus
Lactarius subflammeus
Steve Trudell

 

 

SERIES 400: CAP COLOR RED AND RED-BROWN TO DARK MAROON CAPS.

 

401a Cap viscid

401b Cap dry, may be moist, but not viscid

402a Taste mild; cap blackish red then mahogany-red and paler in age; gills stain dark red brown

................................................................................Lactarius atrobadius

H&Sm 450.

CAP blackish red to a dark red-brown, drying purplish brown-gray, margin often dull gray; 3-5 cm, convex to broadly convex-depressed; slimy viscid drying slowly then shining, glabrous, not zoned; flesh watery, pinkish to purplish, thin. ODOR______. TASTE mild. MILK white, unchanging; gills stain dark red-brown. GILLS light cream to pinkish purple-cinnamon, drying orange-cinnamon; decurrent, close to subdistant, narrow. SPORES whitish then creamy; 7-9 x 6-7 μm, ellipsoid to broader; reticulum a broken network with some isolated warts and parts, prominences to 0.5 μm. STEM color of cap; 3-6 x 0.6-1.2 cm, equal to narrower at base; slimy viscid, soon dry, surface uneven; basal fibers present. FRUITING gregarious to scattered; pine, alder and spruce; Pacific City, OR; CA, OR.

402b Taste bitter or peppery

403a Cap color bright red-orange, becoming more orange and duller with age; spores white; milk unchanging

403b Cap color dull red

404a Cap 3-9 cm; margin striate; spore prominences 0.7 μ

................................................................................Lactarius substriatus

H&Sm 471.

CAP deep red to orange red to yellowish along margin and fading in age; 3-7(9) cm, convex with incurved or inrolled margin expanding to plane or with elevated margin and shallowly depressed; slimy-viscid, soon dry, glabrous, not zoned; margin mealy then smooth, when moist with translucent lines, striate in age; flesh light yellow-orangish cinnamon, thin, brittle. ODOR not distinctive. TASTE bitterish then slowly peppery. MILK white then slowly "straw yellow". GILLS red to creamish, cinnamon-tan; adnate, crowded, narrow. SPORES cream; 6.5-9 x 6-8 μm, ellipsoid, apiculus small; reticulum an incomplete network of fairly broad bands and fine lines, these may be with bumps, branches, and some warts, prominences to 0.7(1.0) μm. STEM orange-cream to redder, paler than cap; 3-6 x 0.9-1.5 cm, equal, mealy, glabrous, not shining; flesh solid, fragile. FRUITING gregarious; under conifers in PNW, esp. coastal forests; CA, OR, WA.

404b Cap 1-4 cm; margin not striate; spore prominences to 1.5 μm

................................................................................Lactarius subviscidus

H&Sm 474.

CAP dark mahogany red to brick red or paler and then fading, hygrophanous to a whitish pink; 1-4 cm, shallowly depressed with incurved margin, expanding to shallow funnel with a wavy margin; subviscid to thin slimy wet, soon dry, glabrous, smooth to rough irregular; flesh color of gills, thin. ODOR none. TASTE slightly peppery. MILK white, unchanging, scanty; staining white paper yellow. GILLS "pinkish cinnamon" to darker in age, decurrent, crowded, pruinose, many series of secondary gills. SPORES white to yellowish; 8-10 x 7-8 μm, broadly ellipsoid, reticulum of ridges and some warts forming a partial network, prominences large, to 1.5 μm. STEM color of gills; 3-4 x 0.4-0.8 cm; moist not viscid, glabrous, uneven. FRUITING gregarious; on very rotten wood or humus, conifers OR, near Longmire WA, throughout the PNW, common west of Cascade Mountains; OR, WA.

405a (401b) Cap small, 1-4(5) cm

405b Cap larger, 3-9(12)cm

406a Cap margin not striate; on decaying western red cedar, a single collection cited

................................................................................L. rufus var. parvus

H&Sm 447

CAP dark dull iron red to brown, paler if dry; 2-4(5) cm, plane with small umbo, incurved margin expanding to plane or shallowly depressed without an umbo; moist, not viscid, margin glabrous; flesh whitish to pallid pinkish purple (vinaceous). ODOR none. TASTE quickly and intensely hot peppery. MILK white, scanty. GILLS pallid becoming more or less pinkish buff; adnate to decurrent, close, narrow, many forked. SPORES white; 7.5-9 x 5.5-6.5 μm, ellipsoid; reticulum a partial network with some isolated particles and warts, prominences to 0.8 μm. STEM paler red than cap, spotted darker in age, base pallid; 3-7 x 0.4-0.7 cm, equal, moist, glabrous. FRUITING gregarious; on decaying log of Western Red Cedar and moss; ID, a single collection.

406b Cap margin striate or sulcate-striate

407a Cap 1-2.2 cm; under alder; milk white

................................................................................L. obscuratus var. radiatus

H&Sm 559.

CAP orange then deep red center to reddish dark brown, no olive tones; 1.0-2.2 cm, convex then expanding; surface smooth, glabrous, translucent and striate; flesh reddish, darker in center, thin. ODOR weak. TASTE peppery. MILK white. GILLS creamy orange-rose, edges paler; adnate, crowded, two to three series of secondary gills. SPORES white; 7-7.7+ x 5.7-6+ μm; reticulum fine, incomplete. STEM pale orange above, redder below; 1-2.5 x 0.15-0.3 cm; surface polished or mealy; becoming hollow. CHEMICAL Latex yellow in aniline. FRUITING under alders.

407b Cap 1-4 cm; clustered on old burns or mossy soil; milk slowly yellow and staining tissues

................................................................................Lactarius carbonicola

H&Sm 527.

CAP brick red fading to dull purplish pink to tawny and lighter; 1-4 cm, plano-depressed, margin arched with a small umbo; surface moist and subhygrophanous, without zones or only obscure broad zones while color fades, glabrous, uneven; margin opaque to faintly sulcate-striate, thin; flesh pinkish purple-buff. ODOR not distinctive. TASTE very slowly and faintly peppery. MILK white, scanty becoming thin; drying yellow on gills, tissues staining dingy pinkish purple, stains white paper yellow. GILLS dull cinnamon, staining as above; decurrent, close then subdistant. SPORES white to yellowish; 6-7.6 x 5-6.5 μm, broad ellipsoid to subglobose; reticulum of coarse crooked bands and branches, warts or ridges fused into irregular bands but not making a network, prominences to 0.6(1.0) μm. STEM color of cap and pruinose (white & mealy) when young; 2-4 x 0.3-0.5 cm, equal, fragile, never viscid; hollow; pinkish purple hairs at base. CHEMICAL Cap olivaceous in KOH. FRUITING gregarious to subcespitose; old burn, mossy soil, partly dried up woodland pools; ID.

408a (405b) Taste mild

408b Taste peppery

409a Spores white, milk sometimes changing to lemon yellow. This seems to be what we have called L. subdulcis. (Seems not to be very peppery, if at all, in PNW.)

................................................................................Lactarius hepaticus

H&Sm 490. (L. subdulcis M 52, SmNH 256, L&H 208)

CAP brownish to dark rusty red, drying pinkish purple to dull red; 4-6(9) cm, convex then plane and depressed; moist, not tacky (see comment below), glabrous; flesh pale reddish, thin, brittle. ODOR______. TASTE very slowly and faintly peppery. MILK white, sometimes changing to tints of lemon-yellow; may stain white paper sulfur-yellow, cut gill dingy yellow then olive-gray. See comment at bottom. GILLS reddish to orange-yellow; adnate to decurrent, close. SPORES white; 7.5-.9 x 6-7 μm (6.5+ - 8.5 x 5+ - 6+ from the type collection), ellipsoid; reticulum of broken to partial network with isolated warts and ridges, prominences low, to 0.4 μm. STEM brownish, paler toward top; 4-9 x 0.4-1 cm, equal, dry, fragile; flesh reddish marbled darker in base; solid then hollow; hairy at base. CHEMICAL Cuticle of cap dull olive in KOH. FRUITING solitary to gregarious; damp moist places, conifers; CO, ID, NM, WA.

COMMENT: It seems that this must be what we have been calling L. subdulcis. Most of our western collections seem to be more red-orange and not brownish as described above. We consider the cap to be moist to dry and not viscid as is the case with the near look-alike L. luculentus, etc. (L. aurantiacus), but Smith indicates the cap to be "moist but not tacky ...scarcely shining in age"..and then from a collection in Colorado "... merely moist when young ...but shiny and subviscid at maturity." From the work of Dr. Weber, Smith indicates the peppery taste seems to coincide with the latex changing to yellow or staining white paper yellow. In the mild forms, also often related to age, the latex remains white and there is no staining reaction. There is obviously a great deal of variation in this species which at one time Smith had sorted into "about six species". Our western form is mostly orangish red, moist to dry, and mild to only somewhat peppery.

409b Spores pale yellow cream; milk unchanging; gills not spotted; very peppery

................................................................................L. rufus var. rufus

H&Sm 441, M 51, SmII 245, Mc 101, L&H 208.

CAP dark dull reddish purple-brown often with a bloom in youth, gradually paling in age; 4-12 cm, broadly convex with incurved margin expanding to plane and shallowly depressed then to broadly funnel shaped; flesh pale pinkish purple. ODOR none or slight. TASTE quickly hot and intensely peppery. MILK white, unchanging and not spotting gills, gills not yellow; latex stains white paper slowly yellow. GILLS whitish when young, in age purplish yellow-tan or yellowish brown with a purplish tinge; short decurrent, crowded, narrow. SPORES pale yellow cream; 8.5-10.5+ x 6-7.8+ μm, broad ellipsoid; reticulum of ridges forming a partial network, some warts, prominences to 0.5 μm. STEM at first a light hoary then mahogany red-brown with a whitish base; 5-11 x 0.9-1.7 cm, dry, stuffed; flesh whitish when young. CHEMICAL Gills not yellow in KOH; slowly olive-gray in FeS04. FRUITING scattered under pine; Pacific City OR; ID, OR, WA.L rufus var. rufus
L rufus var rufus
Steve Trudell

 

 

SERIES 500: CAP COLOR MEDIUM BROWN DARK BROWN OR TO BLACKISH

This group includes small somewhat fragile mushrooms with olive tones.

 

501a Cap dry, may be moist, but not viscid

501b Cap viscid

502a Cap velvety at least under 10X lens, dark sooty brown to blackish; montane on conifer duff and rotting wood

502b Cap not velvety, color lighter

503a Gill edges brown to black; cap obviously velvety

................................................................................L. fallax var. fallax

H&Sm 139 (L. lignyotus M 53, SmNH 261).

CAP dark sooty brown to blackish; 2.5-9+ cm, broadly convex to plane, small umbo, may become depressed; may be wrinkled over center of cap, dry and velvety; margin may become scalloped; flesh whitish, thin, brittle. MILK white, milk-like, slowly staining tissue and gills pale "vinaceous" pink-purplish. ODOR not distinctive. TASTE mild to faintly peppery. GILLS white becoming creamy buff, staining in time where bruised, edges brown; adnate to subdecurrent, narrow, crowded, not forked near stem; secondary gills interspersed in several tiers. SPORES yellowish; 7.5-10 μm (9-12 with reticulum), globose, wall clear to yellow in Melzer's; reticulum broken to partial network, prominences very high, to 2 μm. STEM usually lighter brown than cap; 2.5-6 x 0.8-1.5 cm, about equal, dry and unpolished to velvety; flesh white, solid. FRUITING scattered to gregarious; montane under conifers in PNW, common on duff or rotting conifer logs; AK, CA, ID, OR, WA.L fallax var. fallax
L fallax var fallax
Michael Beug

503b Gill edges not dark (same color as sides); cap at least appearing velvety under 10X lens

................................................................................L. fallax var. concolor

H&Sm 140, also see above.

CAP dark sooty brown to blackish brown; 2.5-8 cm, convex or with a small conic umbo, broadly convex in age and often without the umbo; dry and glabrous, appearing velvety under 10X; margin inrolled then expanding and wavy with a ribbed surface; flesh white, firm, brittle. MILK white, unchanging in several hours; flesh slowly stains pinkish purple where bruised. ODOR mild; TASTE mild to only faintly peppery. GILLS white turning yellowish, edges even and the same color as sides; subdecurrent, close, narrow; many forked near stem. SPORES pale yellow; 7.5-9 μm (9-11 with reticulum), nearly globose; reticulum a partial to broken reticulum, prominences very high, to 2 μm. STEM same color as cap but a paler base and evenly velvety under 10X; 3-4 x 0.6-1 cm, about equal, may narrow at base and may be fluted near gills; solid becoming hollow. FRUITING scattered to gregarious; montane and northern conifer forests, common under white fir; AK, CA, ID, OR, WA.L fallax var. concolor
L fallax var concolor
Michael Beug

504a (502b) A fragrant odor soon obvious which is much like celery seed; no translucent lines from margin

................................................................................Lactarius camphoratus

H&Sm 506, M 51, L&H 208.

CAP light brown to dark liver red-brown; 2.5-4 cm, broadly conic to broadly convex-depressed, may have small umbo, then plano-depressed, the umbo may persist; surface moist, soon dry and dull, glabrous; flesh as cap surface, rigid, brittle. MILK white, soon whey-like, unchanging, not staining gills or white paper. ODOR fragrant in fresh and dried. TASTE somewhat disagreeable to bitter, not peppery. GILLS pale pink cinnamon to pink-purplish red in age; adnate to subdecur-rent, close to crowded, and anastomosing near cap. SPORES white if thin, yellowish if heavy; 7-8.5 x 6-7.5 μm, subglobose; reticulum of isolated short spines, some connected to form nodulose ridges, some fine lines, little hint of a network, prominences high, to 1.0 μm. STEM color of cap; 1.5-6 x 0.3-1.1+ cm, about equal; moist to dry, not viscid; fragile, soon hollow; hairs at base. FRUITING common under conifer and mixed forests of northern US and southern Canada.

504b No distinctive odor when fresh; cap often with translucent lines from margin

505a Cap 3-8 cm, deep brown to rust brown; spores yellow, globose, 6-8.5 x 6-8 μm; on rotting conifer wood, odor fragrant. The Candy Cap Lactarius

................................................................................L. fragilis var. rubidus

H&Sm 505. (also known as Lactarius rubidus (Hesler & A.H. Sm.) Methven)

CAP deep brown to rust-brown on margin; 3-8 cm, convex with incurved margin, soon plane then shallowly depressed, typically no umbo; surface wrinkled, rarely weakly striate; flesh thin, brittle. MILK watery to whey-like, unchanging. ODOR mild, may become like maple syrup, when dry like burnt (maple ?) sugar. TASTE mild. GILLS pale pink-cinnamon becoming darker, edges staining darker; subdistant, ofter forking; secondary gills frequent. SPORES pale cream (pinkish buff); 6-8.5 x 6-8 μm, globose to subglobose; reticulum of a broken to partial network with some warts, prominences high, to 1.0 μm. STEM pinkish purple-tawny, base darker; 4-9 x 0.5-1 cm; fragile, hollow, base thick mycelial strands (strigose). FRUITING on rotting conifer wood; CA, OR, WA.L fragilis var. rubidus
L fragilis var rubidus
Ben Woo

505b Cap 1-3.5 cm, olive brown to brown gray; spores white, ellipsoid, 8-10 x 6.5-8 μm; not fragrant

................................................................................Lactarius occidentalis

H&Sm 513.

CAP olive-brown to brown-gray then tawny to dark pink-purplish brown; 1-3.5 cm, depressed or sometimes with an umbo, margin decurved first then spreading or uplifting to a plane or a shallow funnel; moist, not viscid, opaque then translucent-striate, uneven or pitted; flesh buff or toward cinnamon. MILK white to whey-like, usually soon changing to yellow, but at least staining white paper yellow. ODOR none or slight. TASTE mild. GILLS light to pinkish cinnamon, slowly incarnate-tan where bruised, often reddish tan in age. SPORES white; 8-10 x 6.5-8 μm, ellipsoid; reticulum of warts and spines connected by lines forming nodulose ridges, short branches and fine lines connecting to larger nodules but not forming a network, some isolated warts, prominences to 0.6(0.8) μm. STEM color as cap or lighter; 3-6 x 0.5-0.6 cm, enlarged downard or equal; smooth, glabrous, unpolished; solid; flesh slowly reddish brown where cut. FRUITING scattered; under Western Red Cedar and alder; PNW; CA, OR, WA.Lactarius occidentalis
Lactarius occidentalis
Steve Trudell

506a (501b) Gills and stem of similar color, white to pallid and lighter than cap

506b Gills light; stem darker and similar in color to cap

507a Taste peppery; cap blackish brown or olive brown, mahogany gray esp. in age

507b Taste mild to slightly peppery; cap more gray

508a Cap brown gray to olive brown not real dark to blackish in young caps, flesh white; stem without pinkish to lavender tones; spore deposit yellowish

H&Sm 349.

CAP gray to olive brown; 4.5-10(15) cm, convex with inrolled margin lifting to shallowly depressed with arched margins; viscid, glabrous, not zoned, margin naked; flesh white, thick, brittle, color after several hours or over night changing to yellow. MILK white not changing; flesh staining slowly yellowish and gills brownish. ODOR______. TASTE burning peppery. GILLS whitish then pale pink to pinkish yellow then slowly sordid brown if bruised; adnate becoming short decurrent, close; 2-3 series of secondary gills. SPORES pale buff; (8)9-12 x 7-9 μm, broad ellipsoid; reticulum a broken to partial network of broad to rather fine lines in variable-sized angular meshes, prominences to 0.5 μm. STEM pallid to pale brownish or brownish gray; 3-7 x 1-3 cm; slimy-viscid, shining when dry; hollow; flesh white. FRUITING cespitose, gregarious to scattered; on soil under conifers; CA, CO, ID, OR, UT, WA, WY.Lactarius caespitosus
Lactarius caespitosus
Buck McAdoo

508b Cap blackish brown when young; flesh colored or slowly staining esp. near gills or under cap surface; stem usually with pinkish to lavender tones; deposit white to yellowish

509a Spore deposit white; cap becoming gray to pinkish gray on aging, flesh thickish; gills slowly staining olive to gray brown; in conifer woods; common PNW

................................................................................L. kauffmanii var. kauffmanii

H&Sm 351.

CAP blackish brown (hair-, bone-, clove- and even seal-brown) becoming drab to grayish or gray-pinkish purple on aging; 5-15(20) cm, convex-depressed, margin inrolled, elevating in age; slimy-viscid, not zoned or rarely and obscurely zoned, glabrous; margin finely hairy when young; flesh violaceous-brown near cuticle and pale pink-purplish fawn near gills. MILK white, unchanging; gills slowly stain olive to gray brown. ODOR none. TASTE peppery, gills mild at first. GILLS pallid then flushed pale dull pinkish purple to orange-yellowish brown and in age to pale pinkish cinnamon or darker, often with brown stains; adnate to short decurrent, close, forking near stem. SPORES white to yellow tinted, whitish when dry; 7-10 x 6.5-8 μm, broadly ellipsoid; reticulum distinct, partial, shape of meshes quite irregular, many elongated ridges, few isolated warts if any, prominences to 0.7(1.0) μm. STEM pallid to pink purplish cinnamon or tan; 5-10 x 1-3 cm, often thicker in mid portion; slimy-viscid, appearing varnished if dry, glabrous, often uneven, characteristically scrobiculate; soon hollow. FRUITING soil, coniferous woods; common PNW; AK, CA, ID, OR, WA, BC.L kauffmanii var. kauffmanii
L kauffmanii var kauffmanii
Michael Beug

509b Spore deposit yellowish; cap soon yellow to dingy brown tones, flesh thinner; cap and gill flesh not readily staining; under sitka spruce, OR

................................................................................L. kauffmanii var. sitchensis

H&Sm 354.

CAP blackish brown becoming grayer and sometimes paler over margins; 6-15 cm, widely convex with "bent-in" margin to plane and centrally depressed and finally a shallow funnel shape; slimy-viscid, glabrous including margin, opaque when moist; flesh watery brown staining olivaceous overnight. MILK white, unchanging, not readily staining. ODOR______. TASTE peppery. GILLS white to pale pink-yellow, no color changes; adnate to decurrent. SPORES dull yellowish; 7-9+ x 6-7.5+ μm, subglobose to ellipsoid; reticulum coarse, irregular and incomplete consisting of wide and narrow bands connected and some isolated particles; the reticulum has a heavy and ragged appearance, prominences very high, 1(1.5) μm. STEM dingy watery pinkish purple-buff to watery tan; 5-9 x 1-2 cm, equal, slimy, sometimes with more or less tan spots. FRUITING scattered; sitka spruce, alder, bracken fern, and brambles, vegetation very dense; OR.

510a (506b) Taste mild or slightly peppery

510b Taste peppery

511a Cap 3-5 cm, black red to dark red brown

511b Cap 4-10 cm, dark brown gray to gray

512a (510b) Gill color cream, yellow, orangish yellow, or orange yellow brown; neither milk nor tissues staining

512b Gills white to ash gray, pale pinkish fawn, or sometimes cream in age, staining, spotting, or milk thereon drying in time yellow-yellow brown, olive brown, gray-cinnamon, or olive yellow to brown

513a Cap brownish to light gray yellow brown at margin; gills yellow to yellow orange in maturity

................................................................................L. hysginus var. hysginus

H&Sm 428.

CAP dark brownish to light grayish yellow-brown at margin, often appearing streaked beneath cuticle; 3-9 cm, convex depressed then shallow funnel shape; viscid to slimy, soon dry, zonate; flesh white to pale cream, thick in center, brittle to flexible in age. MILK white, unchanging, not staining. ODOR none or slight. TASTE quickly, strongly peppery. GILLS pale cream to yellow to orange-yellow; adnate then subdecurrent, crowded, narrow. SPORES yellowish; (5.5)6-7.5 x 5.5-7 μm , globose or subglobose to broadly ellipsoid; reticulum of a partial to broken network, some isolated elements, prominences to 0.5 μm. STEM color of cap or paler; 3-8 x 0.9-1.5 cm, almost equal; viscid, soon dry, often spotted; soon hollow. CHEMICAL cap flesh pinkish brown in KOH. FRUITING scattered to gregarious, under conifers; ID.

513b Cap brown to redder brown; gills orange yellow brown in maturity. Colors tan to dull cinnamon

................................................................................L. hysginus var. americanus

H&Sm 432.

CAP brown to redder brown; 4-10 cm, plane to slightly depressed then broadly depressed with uplifting margins; slimy, glabrous, without or only zoned near margin; flesh whitish, thin, brittle. MILK white, unchanging, not staining. ODOR faint. TASTE very hot peppery. GILLS light yellow to orange-yellowish cream to brownish; adnate, narrow, forked near stem. SPORES color ______, 6.5-8 x 6-7 μm, globose to broadly ellipsoid; reticulum of broken lines forming an incomplete network, prominences to 0.5 μm. STEM yellowish to orangish yellow-brown or darker; 4-7(10) x 1-2.5 cm, tapering lower; dry, glabrous, unpolished, sometimes spotted; stuffed then hollow. FRUITING gregarious under conifers including redwood; CA, ID, OR.

514a (512b) Spores yellow; milk slowly yellowish or gills spotting gray-cinnamon yellow, taste mild or only slightly peppery

................................................................................L. mucidus var. fuscogriseus

H&Sm 361.

CAP dark brown-gray to ash-gray in age; 4-10 cm, plano-convex, margin incurved then lifting to a rather shallow broad funnel shape; slimy-viscid, varnished appearance if dry, glabrous including margin, not strongly zoned if at all; flesh pale to pale pink-purplish buff. MILK white, slowly yellowish, spotting the gills grayish cinnamon-buff. ODOR______. TASTE mild to slightly peppery. GILLS color of stem, aging only slightly darker in color; decurrent, narrow, close. SPORES pale pinkish buff (yellow); 7.5-9 x 6-7.5 μm, ellipsoid; reticulum nearly complete, irregular meshes, ridges heavy, prominences to 0.8 μm. STEM pale pink-purplish fawn; 3-6 x 1-2+ cm, viscid, soon dry, sometimes spotted; hollow. FRUITING gregarious; in moss; ID, OR.L mucidus var. fuscogriseus
L mucidus var fuscogriseus
Michael Beug

514b Spores white; taste peppery

515a Cap charcoal gray to brown gray; stem extremely slimy in wet weather. This is what we have called L. mucidus in the PNW

................................................................................Lactarius pseudomucidus

H&Sm 356, (Mc 98).

CAP charcoal to brownish gray to drab-gray; 3-10+ cm, plano-convex, margin inrolled, becoming shallowly depressed and broadly funnel shaped; slime layer, glabrous including margin which is often wavy; flesh grayish, thin, flexible. MILK white, thin (not whey-like) in age, spotting gills yellow to tan to brown but not changing readily. ODOR slight. TASTE peppery; flesh slowly peppery or bitter, then peppery. GILLS white with gray-ash tinge; adnate to short decurrent, narrow, close becoming subdistant. SPORES white; 7-9 x 6-7 μm, broadly ellipsoid; reticulum a relatively distinct network of heavy bands with branches, prominences high, to 1.2 μm. STEM charcoal to brown-gray or paler dull gray; 3-9+ x 0.5-1+ cm, enlarged downward; glabrous, very fragile; soon hollow; flesh gray to pale brown-gray. FRUITING solitary to gregarious under conifers; common PNW, AK, CA, ID, OR, WA.Lactarius pseudomucidus
Lactarius pseudomucidus
Kit Scates Barnhart

515b Cap dingy chocolate brown, margin paler; stem only slightly viscid; milk drying on gills a bluish to greenish gray

................................................................................L. mucidus var. mucidus

H&Sm 361, M 53, Mc 98.

CAP dark dingy chocolate-brown, margin paler; 3-9 cm, convex-expanded, depressed, may have small umbo; viscid-glutinous, glabrous; flesh white, thick, firm, thin near margin. MILK white, drying on gill a glaucous-green to olive. ODOR mild. TASTE peppery. GILLS white then cream, stain blue-greenish gray by latex; adnate to subdecurrent, close, some forking, edges fimbriate; numerous secondary gills. SPORES white; 7.5-9+ x 6-7+ μm, ellipsoid; reticulum a broken to partial network with angular meshes, many isolated elements, prominences to 0.5 μm. STEM paler than cap; 4-8 x 0.7-1 cm, tapering upward or nearly equal; viscid, glabrous; solid then hollow. FRUITING in conifer woods; mostly eastern from NC to NH; one collection cited (H&Sm) from ID.

 

 

SERIES 600 : THE SORDID MILK-CAPS. CAP COLOR WITH GREEN TONES AS THE PRIMARY OR SECONDARY COLOR.

 

601a Margin wooly, cottony, hairy to fibrillose at least in younger caps

601b Margin naked

602a Cap dark olive tones, zoned; spores light medium yellow, 7-9 x 6-8 μm

................................................................................Lactarius olivaceoumbrinus

H&Sm 219, (M 49, L&H 212)

CAP dark olive at center to dark olive-buff at margin, shallowly depressed; margin inrolled, pubescent; surface glabrous, viscid, and zonate with green to buffish bands fading and losing zones in age, drying dark brown gray olive; flesh thick, firm, pallid olivaceous. MILK white, abundant, slowly greenish gray. ODOR______. TASTE extremely peppery. GILLS pallid then greenish then spotted greenish gray and eventually olive-gray overall. SPORES light buff, 7-9 x 6-8 μm, ellipsoid to subglobose, reticulum partial to broken with free-ending branches, warts and prominences to 1(1.5) μm. STEM colored like cap and remaining when dried; to 1.5-9 x 1-1.5 cm, enlarged toward base, viscid then dry, glabrous, scrobiculate, solid, hollow in age; flesh changing to dingy gray. FRUITING from soil, under conifers; frequently associated with introduced birch trees (in which case the specimens may be L. necator if introduced from Europe and spores 6-8 x 5-6 μm); PNW, July-September.Lactarius olivaceoumbrinus
Lactarius olivaceoumbrinus
Ben Woo

602b Cap pale brownish yellow with greenish tones, never zoned; spores dull white, 5.5-7.5 x 5-6.5 μ

................................................................................Lactarius sordidus

H&Sm 222, M 49.

CAP pale brownish yellowish to dark brown, darker in center, green tones, then dark olive, 5-15 cm, convex, depressed and later funnel-shaped; surface nearly smooth with margin inrolled then expanding, cottony fibrillose when young, usually slightly viscid; flesh thick, firm, white to yellow with a pink tinge then olive-brown. MILK white like milk, milk and tissue stains olive to brown. ODOR______. TASTE peppery. GILLS white or yellowish, decurrent, narrow, close, many secondary gills. SPORES dull white, 5.5-7.5 x 5-6.5 μm, broadly ellipsoid, reticulum well developed, some warts, the prominences to 0.5 μm. STEM colored as cap, to 7 x 1 cm, equal, firm, hollow, scrobiculate in age. CHEMICAL KOH on cuticle and gills turns them magenta. FRUITING from soil under conifers; AK, ID.

 

 

SERIES 700 THE, OOPS!, CHANGING MILK-CAPS. CAP COLOR VARIOUS. MILK WHITE, THEN WITHIN A FEW MINUTES (USUALLY A FEW SECONDS TO 5 (15)MINUTES) THE MILK AND/OR FLESH CHANGING COLOR.

 

701a Milk or flesh changing or staining yellow to brown

701b Milk or flesh changing or staining some shade of lavender to purple, the milk may remain white

702a Pileus margin bearded, strigose, coarsely tomentose or wooly when young

702b Pileus margin maybe naked to pruinose or faintly pubescent at first then naked or smooth

703a Stem with "wetted" depressed spots described as scrobiculate

703b Stem without scrobiculate spots

704a Cap fibers matted down (smooth) yellowish at least in age, milk turns sulfur yellow within a few seconds, scrobiculate spots glazed yellowish

................................................................................L. scrobiculatus var. canadensis

H&Sm 297, M 54, Mc 99, SmWM 241.

NOTE: L. scrobiculatus var. scrobiculatus grows scattered gregarious in conifer forests, especially in the mountains. Its presence in North America needs critical documentation, and there needs to be established a type collection for var. scrobiculatus in Europe (Hesler & Smith, p.297). They established var. canadensis for our common form in North America. I've noticed some collections have nearly no odor while others are strangely lemon-citric.

CAP whitish then olive-buff, then slowly a dull yellow in age, drying dull ochraceous (orange yellows), and may remain yellow from young stages; 4-10+ cm, convex to plano-depressed; viscid, soon dry; margin bearded to wooly hairy, the hairs sometimes glued together into groups, sometimes appressed; margin may become naked at maturity; flesh white, firm, brittle then soft. MILK white (scanty) becoming sulfur yellow usually within a few seconds. ODOR faintly fragrant. TASTE mild to slightly peppery. GILLS white then pale yellow and staining yellow; short decurrent, crowded, narrow, many forked near stem; 2-3 rows of secondary gills. SPORES white to cream; 7-9 x 5.5-7 μm, ellipsoid, distinct plage; reticulum of branched ridges forming only a loose broken network with many isolated elements, prominences to 0.5 μm. STEM white to yellowish and unpolished; usually with large irregular glazed yellowish spots (scrobiculate - more or less slightly depressed); 3-11 x 1-3 cm, equal, stuffed becoming hollow. FRUITING solitary to gregarious in conifer forests of N. Am., especially in northern mountain areas; AK, CA, CO, ID, OR, WA.L scrobiculatus var. canadensis
L scrobiculatus var canadensis
Michael Beug

704b Cap with masses of fibers often pale brown-gray, milk scanty turning dingy yellow then yellow-orange; stem with scrobiculate spots, glabrous, yellow-orange staining dark yellow-brown

................................................................................Lactarius payettensis

H&Sm 289.

CAP dull buff with a hint of olive, soon pale to dark straw color and finally dirty dark orange-yellow, the glued masses of fibers often becoming pale brown-gray; 8-16 cm, plano-depressed to broadly convex with incurved margin finally lifting to funnel shape; glabrous center, becoming agglutinated-hairy toward edge, viscid to glutinous overall; flesh pallid, then orange-yellow in age, thick, firm, hard. MILK white, scanty, staining gills and flesh dingy yellow and finally dark orange-yellow. ODOR lightly pungent, disagreeable. TASTE immediately and intensely burning peppery. GILLS cream white then dingy orange-yellow and darkening along margin; fairly close, narrow. SPORES pale cream; 8-10+ x 7-8 um, ellipsoid; reticulum a sparse, incomplete network of lines to 0.5 μm wide with some warts, prominences to 0.5 μm. STEM white, unpolished with large glabrous orange-yellow spots (scrobiculate) which stain dark yellow-brown in age or if bruised; 2-5 x 2-4 cm long, thick, hard, hollow, pinched at base. FRUITING scattered under spruce and fir, (alder, aspen); CO, ID.

705a (703b) Cap yellow-orange, somewhat zonate

................................................................................L. alnicola var. alnicola

H&Sm 300.

CAP yellow-orangish brown overall, paler margin, somewhat zonate; 8-18 cm, convex-depressed, margin inrolled expanding to a broad funnel shape; viscid to glutinous with submatted fibers, margin edge may be slightly hairy; flesh whitish, thick, hard. ODOR slight like fungus. TASTE strongly and sharply peppery. MILK white, not or only very slowly yellow; flesh stains yellow. GILLS white but soon buff then light orange-buff or darker; decurrent, crowded, narrow, forked near stem; many secondary gills; stains yellow and finally dull yellow-brown if bruised. SPORES pale pink-buff (almost white); 7.5-10 x 6-7.5+ μm, ellipsoid; reticulum of sparse narrow bands united to form a partial network, prominences to 0.6(0.8-1.0) μm. STEM white at top, orange-buff and tawny below with tawny mycelium at base; 3-6 x 2-3 cm, solid, hard, dry to touch, becoming hollow. CHEMICAL flesh yellow in KOH. FRUITING gregarious; under conifers; in the western U.S; CA, CO, ID, OR, WY, UT.Lactarius alnicola
Lactarius alnicola
Fred Stevens (MykoWeb)

705b Cap milk white becoming yellowish, orange-yellow to brownish, zones, if any, pale orange yellow

706a Cap tending to form yellowish to brownish or orangish zones; spores 6-8 x 5-6 μm.

................................................................................L. resimus var. resimus

H&Sm 292, L&H 210.

CAP milk-white, zones if present pale orange-yellow, any hair remaining in age tending to discolor yellowish to brownish; 6-15 cm, deeply depressed, arched margins then lifting to funnel shape; viscid to slimy, marginal hairs glued together into fibrils, azonate or only near margin, sometimes zones conspicuous in older caps; flesh white, thick and not brittle. MILK white, scanty, quickly pale greenish yellow. ODOR______. TASTE slowly peppery. GILLS white then pinkish buff, staining dingy yellow; decurrent, crowded, narrow, and many forked near stem. SPORES whitish to light pinkish yellow like putty; 6-8 x 5-6 μm, broadly ellipsoid; reticulum a broken to partial network; some warts and particles, prominences to 0.5 μm. STEM white or in age pale pinkish buff; 6-9 x 1-2.5 cm, thick, firm, narrowing near base, dull unpolished and not spotted or in age with dull unpolished irregular spots; base with sparse coarse mycelium. FRUITING scattered under birch, aspen, balsam (white) fir, and pine, widely distributed; AK, ID, OR.Lactarius resimus
L resimus var resimus
Kit Scates Barnhart

706b Cap soon spotting yellow then almost entirely brown-yellow-orange, not zoned; spores 7-9 x 6-7.5 μm

................................................................................L. resimus var. regalis

H&Sm 294.

CAP milk-white overall, soon spotted yellow and finally almost entirely dingy cinnamon-buff; 10-15 cm, center depressed with arched and inrolled margin, then lifting to funnel shape; viscid, glabrous, not zoned, margin lightly hairy or faintly fibrillose; flesh white, hard, soon becoming yellow. MILK white, scanty, soon sulfur-yellow; flesh and gills soon changing to yellow where broken. ODOR not distinctive. TASTE mild. GILLS white, staining yellow; decurrent, crowded, narrow. SPORES white-buff; 7-9+ x 6-7.5+ μm, broad-ellipsoid; reticulum very slight of widely spaced bands or short ridges and some isolated warts, sometimes a broken to partial reticulum, prominences to 0.5 μm. STEM dull white, base dingy orange-yellow; 3-4 x 2-3 cm, thick, equal or narrower toward base; smooth, naked, hollow. FRUITING scattered under hardwoods including aspen; AK, ID.

707a (702b) Gills pallid to pale orange buff or somewhat darker. Cap pale pinkish buff to yellowish brown or rusty central splotches, zonate or only watery spots in zones

................................................................................Lactarius chrysorheus

H&Sm 313, Sm&W 125.

CAP when moist pallid to pale yellowish red-brown with slightly darker spots, may fade to nearly white; 3-8 cm, convex, soon depressed and expanding to a broad funnel shape; glabrous, moist to slightly viscid then dry with a whitish bloom, may have watery spots in a somewhat zonate pattern, sometimes when moist becoming translucent striate; flesh white at first, thin. MILK white, abundant, changing to yellow; tissues also becoming bright yellow. ODOR slight. TASTE quite peppery. GILLS pallid to pale orange-buff, not darkening; close, adnate to slightly decurrent, may be forked near stem; numerous secondary gills. SPORES pale yellow; 6-8.5 x 5.5-6.5 μm, broadly ellipsoid, wall of sparsely branched or unbranched ridges and isolated warts, prominences 0.5-1.0 μm. STEM pallid yellowish, sometimes orange-buff in age; 3-4(8) x 1-1.7 cm, equal, soon hollow; flesh white at first. FRUITING in hardwood and mixed forests, could be confused with L. vinaceorufescens which is primarily found east of the Mississippi; CA, OR, WA.Lactarius chrysorheus
Lactarius chrysorheus
Michael Beug

COMMENT: The Mt. Hood collection I saw may have been L. vinaceorufescens. See observations Weber & Smith. Guide to Southern Mushrooms.

707b Gills soon reddish becoming dark red brown or even red all over. Cap buff to cinnamon brownish red (wine russet) faintly zoned with watery spots

................................................................................Lactarius vinaceorufescens

H&Sm 317.

CAP pallid to buff becoming pink cinnamon to darker and finally dark pink brownish-red; 4-12 cm, convex, inrolled margin when young, pubescent to glabrous, viscid, zoned faintly with watery spots or bands; flesh thin, brittle, white to pinkish near surface changing to bright yellow. MILK white soon vivid bright-"strontian"-yellow. ODOR______. TASTE peppery, but strongly so after changing to yellow. GILLS pale pinkish-buff soon spotted stained "onion skin pink" becoming sordid reddish brown, subdecurrent, close, narrow, forking rather frequently near stem. SPORES dull white to yellowish; 6.5-8(9) x 6-7 μm, subglobose to broadly ellipsoid; apiculus inconspicuous, oblique, nonamyloid; wall of nodulose ridges, isolated warts and particles, in some spores a partial reticulum, prominences 0.5-0.8(1.0) μm, plage hyaline, practically lacking ornamentation. STEM pale pinkish buff at first, becoming dark vinaceous brown like cap; 4-7 x 1-2.5 cm, equal or enlarging slightly downwards, hoary above at first, glabrous above but base strigose with vinaceous brown hairs. FRUITING gregarious under pines, frequently mixed hardwood-conifer, low ground; widely distributed, not cited in west (H.&Sm), often abundant in "our area" (Arora), identified Nov. 9, '96, Hood Canal (Seabeck), WA.

708a (701b) Cap white then slowly lavender-purple to tan

................................................................................L. pallescens var. pallescens also see entry 713

H&Sm 323.

CAP white then slowly purplish pink-tan to fawn graying some with age, sometimes orangish to pale rusty stains; 3-10 cm, plano-convex to plano-depressed, margin incurved; slimy-viscid, glabrous but margin may be slightly down, shining when dry, without zones or faintly so; flesh white staining lilac and progressing to lilac-brown. MILK abundant, white, drying purple-pinkish buff; tissues staining purplish lilac then lilac-brown. ODOR______. TASTE not peppery. GILLS white, staining lilac and often orange-yellow along edges; adnate to decurrent, close becoming subdistant. SPORES white to creamy; 9-10.5 x 7-9 μm, ellipsoid; reticulum a broken to partial network with short bands and ridges, some warts, prominences high, to 1 μm. STEM white, changing like cap; 3-8 x 1-1.7 cm, enlarged downward; slimy-viscid to shiny when dry. FRUITING on soil, humus, and moss in conifer forests of the northern U.S.and Canada, most abundant in PNW: CA, ID, OR, WA.L pallescens var. pallescens
L pallescens var pallescens
Michael Beug

708b Cap yellowish brown, brownish or brownish gray to gray

709a Cap yellowish to yellow-orange with or without lavender tones

709b Cap off white-gray to brownish gray with lavender tones

710a Cap glabrous

................................................................................Lactarius californiensis

H&Sm 331.

CAP center purplish pink-buff, margin darker to tan or wood-brown or light yellowish gray brown (under debris a lighter color yellowish to tinges of yellow-brown); 12 cm, convex with shallow depression, margin incurved; viscid, glabrous, often a slimy streaked appearance; flesh white to pale pinkish buff to olive-buff; thick to 1.5 cm at center, firm. MILK white then whey-like, staining gills a purple-lilac tint as it dries; cap flesh also purple-lilac staining. ODOR slight. TASTE slowly peppery. GILLS pale ivory (pale olive-buff with yellowish cast); adnate to adnexed sometimes a slight notch, close to subdistant. SPORES color______; 7.5-9x 6-7.5 μm, ellipsoid; reticulum an incomplete network of fairly fine lines, segments of lines, and warts, prominences to 0.5 μm. STEM pale ivory (pinkish) similar to gills; 4-8 x 1.2-2 cm, solid, glabrous, not spotted, about equal (slight bulb at base), not viscid. FRUITING on humus; CA, OR.

710b Cap hairy, especially toward margin

711a Cap margin coarsely fibrillose to bearded, esp. in younger specimens

................................................................................Lactarius repraesentaneus

H&Sm 227, M 52, SmII 239, L&H 212.

CAP pale to rich yellow or yellow-buff, paling with age; 5-16+ cm, convex-depressed then more plane with arched margin and finally funnel-shaped; surface viscid with overlaying fibrils becoming coarser and more numerous at margin; margin coarsely bearded; flesh white at first, firm, brittle. MILK white to cream, abundant; tissues staining purplish when bruised. ODOR at least sometimes fragrant. TASTE mild to slightly peppery, often bitterish. GILLS cream to pale buff-yellow or with an orange cast, often spotted purplish; broadly adnate to subdecurrent, close, some forked near stem. SPORES yellowish; 8.5-11.5 x 6.5-8.5 μm, variable, ellipsoid to broadly so, wall clear in Melzer's; reticulum of warts, ridges, sparsely branched bands, and not organized into a network, prominences to 0.8 μm. STEM white to same color as cap; 5-12 x 1-4 cm, equal or club shaped, viscid at first, scrobiculate; having a hard "rind", soon hollow. FRUITING common in spruce-fir forests of the Rocky Mtns; AK, CA, CO, ID, NM.Lactarius repraesentaneus
Lactarius repraesentaneus
Michael Beug

COMMENT: I find L. repraesentaneus in our Canadian life zone forests under white fir, hemlock and Douglas Fir. The fragrance of citrus, lemon, or soapy lemon is usually noted, esp. in fresh specimens when there is adequate humidity.

711b Cap margin naked or slightly cottony when young but soon more or less glabrous. Two rather rare species in the PNW which are similar to L. repraesentaneus

712a Stem when fresh slimy viscid, rare in PNW

................................................................................Lactarius aspideoides

H&Sm 233.

CAP evenly pale yellow; 3-8 cm, convex to convex-depressed then shallowly funnel-shaped; slimy viscid, glabrous, without zones or only slightly zoned; margin incurved and naked; flesh pallid, thin, brittle. MILK white, staining gills lilac or sometimes gill margin lilac in age. ODOR______. TASTE bitterish then slowly peppery. GILLS pale yellow; decurrent, crowded, narrow. SPORES pale pinkish buff (yellowish pallid); 7-9+ x 7-8 μm, subglobose to broadly ellipsoid; reticulum of broad ridges widely spaced, branching, some narrow ridges and isolated warts, but not organized into a network or only a slight network, prominences high, to 1.5 μm. STEM color of cap; 3-6 x 1-1.5 cm, thick, soon hollow; tissue pallid; often with beaded droplets near top. CHEMICAL FeS04 on surface negative, on latex and gills purple-red. KOH on surface and tissue negative. FRUITING gregarious; under conifers and hardwoods; east of the Great Plains in the U.S. and Canada, WA.

712b Stem dry or only slightly tacky, reported from Washington

................................................................................Lactarius aspideus

H&Sm 235.

CAP straw to light orange-yellowish buff or cream-buff; 2-5 cm, plano-convex then depressed, small umbo; viscid, azonate, glabrous, margin silky; flesh white. MILK white, stains gills violet-purple; flesh changes to violet-purple. ODOR______. TASTE mild then distinctly bitter. GILLS white then cream; adnate to subdecurrent, close, medium narrow, some forking, numerous secondary gills. SPORES yellow; 7.5-10.5 x 7-8.5 μm, ellipsoid; reticulum of blunt bands forming a partial network, prominences 0.3-0.5(rarely 1.0) μm. STEM color of cap; 2-6 x 0.5-1.5 cm, pruinose to delicately fibrillose, not very slimy. FRUITING on soil, in woods; reported from CO and WA.

713a (709b) Stem viscid. Not reported west of Mississippi River

................................................................................L. uvidus var. uvidus

H&Sm 338, M 52, L&H 212.

CAP pallid to very pale drab lilac, darkening with age, often becoming a light yellow-grayish brown or medium brown or even with orange-yellow tints; 3-10 cm, convex or nearly plane, may have an umbo, becoming depressed, margins incurved then plane to arched; viscid to slimy, glabrous, mostly azonate but occasionally somewhat to distinctly zonate; flesh whitish, staining lilac then tan to darker brown. MILK white, soon dingy pale cream, staining broken tissues dull lilaceous. ODOR______. TASTE mild then bitter or eventually faintly peppery. GILLS creamy white, staining lilac, becoming dirty tan; rather broad, adnate then decurrent, close. SPORES very pale yellow; 7.5-9.5 x 6.5-7.5 or 9-11 x 7-8.5 μm from older mature caps, subglobose to broad-ellipsoid; reticulum of widely spaced bands and ridges, scattered isolated particles, no obvious network, prominences 0.5-1.0 μm. STEM pallid; 3-7 x 1-1.6 cm, equal; naked, shining if dry, slimy, rarely spotted, often with orange-yellow stains around base. CHEMICAL KOH on cap grass green to olive; NH40H negative; FeS04 on cap or flesh negative or olive-gray overnight. FRUITING scattered to gregarious under aspen, birch and pine, low ground, widely distributed; Eastern U.S. and Canada, Europe.

COMMENT: Though not cited from the west, we do have a similar mushroom here in our mixed conifer woods with alder and willow that, at least sometimes, is extremely slimy-viscid over the cap and stem. The slime has been observed to be hanging and dripping from the cap margin, and the stem too slimy to grasp. See L. pallescens, entry 708.

713b Stem dry to slightly viscid

714a Cap 10-18 cm; taste mildish; gills dull brownish in age; under alders

................................................................................Lactarius cascadensis

H&Sm 336.

CAP light gray-lilac with darker violet-brown spots or zones, in age lilac tints fading to pinkish gray and finally to orangish brown to pale tan, a lilac tint may persist along the margin; 10-18 cm, widely convex, margin inrolled and hairy, then expanding to a shallow funnel shape; viscid if wet, soon dry, zones if present not prominent; flesh white to lilac-tinted near cuticle, in age pale tan throughout. MILK whey-like, scanty, not changing; wounds turning dull purple. ODOR slightly disagreeable. TASTE mild. GILLS pale tan to cinnamon in age; adnate to short decurrent, close; many series of secondary gills. SPORES yellowish; 8-10.5 x 6.5-8 μm, broad-ellipsoid; a broken reticulum of short ridges, branched ridges, and isolated warts, prominences to 0.8 μm. STEM whitish with a faint lilac tint at top; 4-6 x 1-2.5 cm, equal or enlarged above; dry, glabrous, uneven, some large watery spots; solid then hollow; flesh white then in age cinnamon-buff. FRUITING gregarious; under alder, swampy land; ID, OR. WA.

714b Cap 2-10+ cm; taste disagreeable; gills gray-white to pinkish yellow-orange in age; under conifers

................................................................................L. uvidus var. montanus

H&Sm 340.

CAP drab purple to light gray-pinkish becoming purple; 3-10+ cm, convex-depressed; viscid, glabrous, not zoned or only lightly; margin becoming wavy; flesh pallid staining pinkish purple-brown but redder than cap. MILK white to cream, abundant; tissues staining lilac to purple-brown to red-purplish to brown. ODOR______. TASTE resinous, not peppery. GILLS pallid to pale pinkish purple-buff then creamy; adnate, close, staining lilac to pinkish purple-brown or darker. SPORES color ______; 9-10.5 x 7-8+ μm, ellipsoid; reticulum a broken to partial network with many free branch ends, isolated warts and ridges, prominences to 0.5 μm. STEM pallid to pinkish purple-buff, staining lilac; 3-10 x 1-1.5 cm, clavate or club-shaped then about equal; dry and hairy when young, brittle; often with orangish yellow stains around base. CHEMICAL KOH turns cap and stem surface green. FRUITING gregarious under conifers; AK, AZ, CO, ID, NM, OR, WA, WY.

 

 

SERIES 800: THE DELICIOUS MILK-CAPS. CAP COLOR ORANGE, RED-ORANGE TO BURGUNDY AND THEN DINGY OR FADING, OR NEARLY WHITE. MILK COLORED ORANGE, ORANGE-BROWN, BURGUNDY TO PORT RED AND MUDDIER TO DULL MAGENTA WHEN FIRST OBSERVED.

TISSUES GENERALLY SOON STAINING GREEN.

 

801a Milk and cut young tissues deep blood or wine, burgundy to port red

801b Milk and cut young tissues yellow to muddy brown or orange to reddish carrot in color when first exposed

802a Cap white, shiny dry glistening, or mealy, and may stain buff to darker or have a pinkish cast due to the red latex showing in older specimens

................................................................................Lactarius sp. (also known as Lactarius stuntzii nom. prov.)

CAP white to off-white (very light blue clay white), shiny when moist, appearance of dried egg white when dry, or powdery/mealy observed on slides, stains green; 4-9 cm; centrally depressed with inrolled margin at first becoming plano-depressed then margin uplifted and wavy in age. ODOR mild. TASTE mild. MILK. bright red to maroon. GILLS white with a reddish pink coloration, staining green, numerous forking near the stem. SPORES______. STEM white becoming pinkish in age and staining green; 1.5-3 x 3-5 cm, scrobiculate patches showing a pinkish cast, base tapering, becoming hollow with numerous smallish felty floccose patches hanging around the inside. FRUITING numerous caps growing cespitose to closely scattered; in needle duff in a drainage swale under Douglas Fir with Ponderosa Pine nearby; arid transition conifer forest.

COMMENT: Observed and collected on 2 consecutive years in mid 1970s near Leavenworth WA. When I first found this fungus thinking it might be L. barrowsii, I sent some to Dr. Smith. He wrote saying that L. barrowsii was essentially a white form of (L. sanguifluus) L. rubrilacteus. It is noted in the description of L. rubrilacteus that Hesler & Smith state stipe "sometimes scrobiculate". They also say stipe of L. barrowsii is not scrobiculate. After seeing L. barrowsii in NM, August '95, it was very obvious this was a different fungus. From macro observation, the cuticle may be similar to that described for L. salmoneus, but L. salmoneus has bright salmon to deep orange salmon milk. Neither does this fungus fit L. paradoxus which has color tones of blue and green, dark red to pinkish brown milk, and zonate cap. L. subpurpureus is dark pinkish red, spotted or zonate, but has red spots on the stem. It seems, in general, similar to this fungus except its coloration. This is another fungus to keep our eyes open for to study microscopically. It is amply distinct in the color of the pileus from other species cited in Hesler & Smith.

802b Mature cap white with pinkish blush, or ochraceous-orange to deep brown orange with or without a deep red purplish wine imbedded hue

803a Cap carrot, sordid orange to purplish orange, becoming purplish gray-orange in age

................................................................................Lactarius rubrilacteus

H&Sm 76, (L. sanguifluus M c 95, M 56, SmNH 273), SmII 234, Sm WM 239.

CAP rich carrot color to blah orange and lighter zones between, pales in age, stains greenish; to 12 cm, center depressed; margin inrolled expanding in maturity to a broad vase-shape; surface glabrous, viscid zonate; flesh thin, brittle, dingy yellow to white. MILK dark blood red to purplish red, paler to dingy orangish red in older caps. ODOR faintly subaromatic. TASTE mild or of conifer needles. GILLS close, light orange brown-cinnamon to pinkish cinnamon becoming dull purplish red under a hoary sheen, adnate to subdecurrent. SPORES 7.5-9 x 6-7.5 μm, broad ellipsoid; reticulum of broken lines with numerous isolated warts and short ridges with prominences to 0.7 μm. STEM orangish and duller and paler than cap, to 6 x 3 cm, sometimes scrobiculate, firm and rigid, soon hollow, tapering to base. FRUITING abundant to scattered; in conifer forests; PNW to CA and NM.Lactarius rubrilacteus
Lactarius rubrilacteus
Steve Trudell

803b Cap white, showing a pinkish blush, not common

................................................................................Lactarius barrowsii

H&Sm 74.

CAP white to light pinkish, later pinkish buff to whitish orange, stains green where cut or bruised and becomes olive-gray in age, 3-10+ cm, broadly convex-depressed; smooth, viscid, turning dry, without or with a few faint zones near the margin, margin inrolled expanding to a broad funnel shape; flesh whitish to pale pinkish-brown and later flushed greenish. MILK dark red. ODOR______. TASTE mild to peppery. GILLS close, pinkish to pinkish-whitish orange, becoming decurrent. SPORES yellowish; 8-11 x 6-8 μm, ellipsoid, reticulum of narrow broken bands, prominences to 0.3 μm. STEM whitish with yellow underneath, aging greenish, dry, 2-4 x 1.5-2 cm, soon hollow, not scrobiculate. FRUITING under Ponderosa Pine and Pinyon Pine; NM.

COMMENT: In observing collections from Spokane and Ellensburg, there may be a close variant in this species. The one from Spokane was "creamy" in appearance and reported to have spots (scrobiculate) both on the cap and stem, growing in grass with Ponderosa Pine in the area. If they had red milk when fresh, they could be L. rubrilacteus because they lacked the olive-gray or greenish tones, or if the milk had turned magenta red or maroon red from orange or brown-orange then perhaps L. deliciosus var. areolatus, or var. olivaceosordidus.

804a (801b) Milk yellowish to grasshopper juice brown or becoming this dingy yellowish greenish brown, cap and/or stem tissues bluish, also developing the usual green stains from injury

................................................................................Lactarius chelidonium

H&Sm 83-85

No collections were cited from west of the Mississippi. There have been reports of this species from the southern part of our region and from California. Earlier western collections may actually be L. deliciosus var. piceus. L. chelidonium develops the usual green stain for species with colored latex, and is slightly peppery, with odor of Morchella esculenta.

var. chelidonium: Peck described this as a huge mushroom 2' high and 2' broad with a stem 4-6" thick. The milk is bright yellow at first then becomes tobacco brown; spores 8-10 x 6-7 μm; taste mild.

var. chelidonioides: Cap 3-8 cm, when young sordid azure-blue with dingy orange-brown areas or zones soon evident, the blue fading, in age muddy orange-brown or dull reddish brown (about as in old L. rubrilacteus); milk duller in young caps, dingy yellow to yellow-brown, scanty; odor subnauseous, like Morchella esculenta; taste slightly peppery; gills crowded, dingy yellowish to yellow brown, soon stained green, spores pale buff, 7-9 x 5-6.5(7) μm, ellipsoid, reticulum of heavy bands and irregular branches not forming a distinct network, prominences 0.5-1.0 μm. This is the variety which is more apt to be found here in the west.

804b Milk and cut young tissues carrot orange or brown muddy carrot to reddish carrot in color

................................................................................Lactarius deliciosus, see also 805 and 809

H&Sm 90-98, L&H 212, M55, SmNH 268, SmII 235, SmWM 238.

CAP orange (fulvous) toned to (vinaceous)-brown, zonate, to 5-14 cm, at first depressed and broadly convex, later broady funnel-shaped; surface slimy viscid when moist and flesh reddish pruinose when dry; margin inrolled becoming expanded and undulating; flesh rigid, later fragile, and cream yellow. MILK orange then soon cadmium-orange slowly fading to orange-yellow and eventually gray-green; injured areas of stem and gills becoming gray-green. ODOR slightly fruity. TASTE mild, often a trace of bitter. GILLS crowded, narrow, pale orange-yellow to ocher-orange (no cadmium sheen), adnate-decurrent. SPORES bright cream color, 7-9 x 6-7 μm, reticulum broken, small warts. STEM orangish pruinose, paler at apex and with appressed white mycelium at base, 3-7 x 1-2.5 cm, about equal to pinched at base, stuffed but soon hollow, brittle, often scrobiculate with darker glazed depressed areas, sparingly green stained. CHEMICAL tissue stains bright green in FeS04 within 20 minutes. FRUITING under conifers, especially pine; Europe.Lactarius deliciosus group
Lactarius deliciosus group
Fred Stevens (MykoWeb)

Five varieties of Lactarius deliciosus are included in Hesler & Smith with three reported from the PNW. It may be difficult to sort the varieties even with the use of a microscope.

var. areolatus page 91 (Hesler & Smith), "we have found it to be the common variant of the L. deliciosus group in the West during some seasons at least", cited locations: AK, CO, ID, OR, WY
var. deliciosus page 90, not cited from North America, (Stuntz thought it was in PNW)
var. deterrimus page 94, cited locations from MI & Switzerland
var. olivaceosordidus page 95, cited collections from OR
var. piceus page 97, cited collections from CA, ID, WA

 

Macroscopic key to the varieties of L. deliciosus

805a Milk muddy carrot or reddish carrot at first in good specimens

805b Milk bright orange at first

806a Cap tissue yellowish

................................................................................var. olivaceosordidus

H&Sm 95.

CAP 4-8 cm, plano-convex, the margin incurved, soon depressed over the disc and in age broadly vase-shaped. MILK muddy carrot with only slight tendency to become maroon-red where cut. Stains green-olive. This is darker than in var. areolatus. ODOR slight. TASTE mild (very slowly slightly peppery). FRUITING gregarious under Sitka Spruce.

806b Cap tissue reddish carrot under surface, then drying a dull red (15 minutes)

................................................................................var. piceus

CAP dull orange to orange-red, staining green where bruised; 4.5-11 cm, strongly convex and umbilicate with incurved margin then depressed with thin elevated margin. MILK reddish carrot. ODOR slightly fruity. TASTE mild. SPORES dull cream. FRUITING on fallen spruce needles and moss in France; CA, ID, WA.

 

807a (805b) Broken tissue of cap and or base of stem not slowly changing to a red or purple shade within 15-30 min

................................................................................var. deliciosus

CAP 4-15 cm, broadly convex with depressed disc and strongly inrolled margin and later broadly funnel-shaped. MILK orange then cadmium-orange and slowly to orange, yellow, and eventually gray-green. Cap tissue not staining darker or red. ODOR slightly fruity. TASTE mild, a trace of bitter. SPORES a bright cream.

807b Tissues staining dull red to purplish maroon, slowly

808a Cap becoming areolate to scaly, tissue thick, firm-brittle, pale orange to buff to redder at first

................................................................................var. areolatus

CAP Cap tissue pale orange-buff or redder, staining darker, 5-15 cm, convex becoming convex-depressed to plano-depressed or broadly funnel-shaped, glabrous and shiny, thinly slimy to viscid and soon dry then areolate-scaly, zonate to azonate. MILK carrot-orange becoming deep purplish red, green stain is persistent in dingy color of dry specimens. ODOR Morchella-like. TASTE mild then slightly bitter.

808b Cap not areolate, tissue fragile and pallid, becoming pinkish

................................................................................var. deterrimus

CAP 8-13 cm, convex to convex-depressed and plano-depressed in age; surface viscid, glabrous, subzonate to zonate, apricot-orange to pale orange-buff; flesh fragile, pallid to pinkish cinnamon and soon purplish. MILK bright orange, stains broken surface purple (vinaceous) then dull green. ODOR mild. TASTE in young specimens peppery. SPORES pale buff.

 

Microscopic key to the varieties of L. deliciosus (Hesler & Smith)

809a Macrocystidia absent or limited to region of gill edge

809b Macrocystidia present in the hymenium

810a Broken cap tissue and esp. base of stem not slowly staining dark red; spores 7-9 x 6-7 um with minute warts and bands forming only a partial reticulum

810b These tissues slowly becoming wine red

811a Pileus becoming areolate; spores 8.5-11 x 6-8.5 μm, broadly ellipsoid, reticulum of heavy bands often widely spaced forming a broken to partial network with prominences to 0.5 μm

811b Pileus not areolate; spores 7.5-9 x 6-7 μm, broadly ellipsoid with partial to broken reticulum with isolated warts and ridges, and prominences to 0.8 μm

812a (809b) Cap tissue yellowish when broken; spores 8.5-10.5 x 6.5-8 μm, subglobose to broadly ellipsoid with a reticulum of heavy bands forming a partial network of wide mesh and having prominences to 0.5 μm

812b Cap tissue becoming red when broken; spores 7.5-9 x 6.5-8 μm, often nearly oblong; a wide mesh of ridges forming a vague reticulum with prominences only to 0.4 μm

 

 

Appendix 1 LACTARIUS: The subgenera as sorted by Hesler & Smith 1979

Table by Coleman Leuthy - 80.

                                                                       [--------------------------------------------------------- > Not as in the previous column ]

Subgenus Lactarius pg. 65 Plinthogalus pg. 99 Lactifluus pg. 158 Tristes pg. 320 Piperites pg. 218 Russularia pg. 413
Latex Blue, red, orange-yellow to dingy brown or reddish brown White to cream, rarely browm White (abundant) to whey-like White White

MUST HAVE 1 or 3 or 5 or both 2 and 4:
White

HAS NONE OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF PIPERITES
Color changes of latex OR of staining of tissues Green staining where bruised or cut. Fast to 15 min. or in age. Reddish, vinaceous, or to lilac, violet. Brown, or (yellow, reddish or somewhat violet, gray, or to olive, etc.) Lilac, violet, olive, yellowish or brownish 1. Changes to pinkish lilac or violet and cap viscid and yellow to ochraceous  
Color of mushroom cap   Black to brown (or buff to dull white) Not dark, some whitish Black to fuscous gray, pallid or white 2. Cap yellow to red orange and often zonate  
Cap surface Viscid OR dry Dry, velvety not polished Dry, velvety to unpolished, not moist Slimy viscid, rarely dry 3. Cap margin bearded to fibrillose when young Viscid to moist cuticle breaks up looking squamulose-areolate, not velvety
Stem Viscid OR dry   Never viscid Slimy viscid, rarely dry 4. Hard, 10mm+ wide, may be scrobiculate Fragile, often hollow, 2-10 (15) mm wide; viscid to dry
Microscopic   Lacking macrocystidia in hymenium, has incrustations of pileus cuticle Macrocystidia often present, usually not thick colored walls Hyphal incrustations of pileus cuticle in most species. Make mount in acidified water   No dextrinoid incrustations of pileus hyphae
Chemical         5. KOH stains purple-magenta  

 

Appendix 2 Species and Varieties Included in This Key Listed by the Subgenera of Hesler & Smith (1979)

 

LACTARIUS PLINTHOGALUS LACTIFLUUS TRISTES PIPERITES RUSSULARIA

barrowsii

chelidonium

   chelidonioides

   chelidonium

deliciosus

   areolatus

   deliciosus

   deterrimus

   olivaceosordidus

   piceus

rubrilacteus

L. sp. (stuntzii nom.prov.)

fallax

   concolor

   fallax

pallidiolivaceus

 

-NONE-

 

argillaceifolius

   megacarpus

caespitosus

califormiensis

circellatus

   borealis

glyciosmus

kauffmanii

   kauffmanii

   sitchensis

lepidotus

mucidus

   fuscogriseus

   mucidus

pallescens

   pallescens

pseudomucidus

uvidus

montanus

uvidus

vietus

alnicola

   alnicola

aspideoides

aspideus

chrysorheus

olivaceoumbrinus

olympianus

payettensis

pseudodeceptivus

pubescens

   betulae

   pubescens

repraesentaneus

resimus

   regalis

   resimus

scrobiculatus

   canadensis

sordidus

subvillosus

torminosus

   nordmanensis

   torminosus

vinaceorufescens

affinis

   viridilactis

alpinus

   alpinus

   mitis

atrobadius

camphoratus

carbonicola

fragilis

   rubidus

hepaticus

hysginus

   americanus

   hysginus

luculentus

   laetus

   luculentus

obscuratus

   radiatus

occidentalis

rufus

   parvus

   rufus

subflammeus

substriatus

subviscidus

trivialis

 

 

 

 

Appendix 3 EXCLUDED SPECIES NAMES

A. Cross Reference

The following species names previously used in the Pacific Northwest are not considered to be found here or at least are not cited, but may be expected to be confirmed for North America* (Hesler & Smith, 1979). This list also included species reported in the "Master List of Pacific Northwest Fungi", 1977, printed 3/78 by the Puget Sound Mycological Society.

NAME COMMENTS
alnicolus see alnicola.
aquifluus not cited for PNW, but "widely distributed".
aurantiacus * see luculentus, subflammeus, etc.
blennius * not verified for North America, (H&Sm 551).
chelidonoides a variety of chelidonium, not reported west.
flexuosus not recognized N. Am. (H&Sm 573).
fuliginosus * see? L pallidiolivaceus.
The type L. pallidiolivaceus needs to be selected in Europe and the N. Am. forms need further study and comparison. Not confirmed for N. Am. (H&Sm 539).
helvus See aquifiuus above. L. helvus var. aquifluus =L aquifluus
lignyotus see fallax; lignyotus not western.
mitissimus see luculentus etc. (hepaticus, hysginus). mitissimus has a dry cap (Fries) which does not fit our forms. When clarified in Europe, we can deal with the problem. (H&Sm 501, M 51, SmII 246, L&H 208).
montanus not indexed as a species of Lactarius or Lactaria (H&Sm). See L uvidus var. montanus.
necator * see olivaceoumbrinus, sordidus. not yet found N. Am. (H&Sm).
obnubilus see occidentalis. not recognized N. Am. (H&Sm 514).
obscuratus * see obscuratus. Smith agreed to a field identification of var. radicatus on Orcas Is., WA .
pallidus * see trivialis or affinis Not verified. N.Am. (H&Sm 562).
piperatus * not verified from the west.
pyrogalus see circellatus.
sanguifluus see rubrilacteus.
semisanguifluus * not reported N.Am. (H&Sm 537), see L deliciosus var. deterrimus.
serifluus * questionable occurrence in N. Am. It is similar to subserifluus which is not cited for the west.
speciosus see repraesentaneus, aspideoides, aspideus.
subdulcis * see hepaticus, etc.
tabidus probable counterpart of canadensis (not reported west); also similar to carbonicola.
thyinos like deliciosus but with little, if any, green staining; close to salmonicolor of Europe; not reported in west.
uvidus v. pallescens, see pallescens.
zonarius see olympianus.

 

 

Appendix 3 EXCLUDED SPECIES NAMES (continued)

 

B

Other species names reported from N.Am but not verified.
  C

Other excluded & doubtful of "Lactaria" and Lactarius for N.Am.
Subgenus Species aeruginea
Lactarius hemicyaneus angustissimus
  pinicola azonites
  quieticolor bensleyae
  rubrifluus brevipes
  semisanguifluus buckleyana
Plinthogalus acris calceolus
  picinus cilicioides v. albus
  pterosporus cilicioides v. cilicioides
Lactifluus subpiperatus clitocybiformis
Piperites citriolens flexuosus
  flavidulus fuliginosus v. clitocyboides
  mairei ichoratus
  porninsis illachrymans
Tristes (none noted) insulsus v. insulsus
Russularia clethrophilus involuta
  lacunarum lignyotus v. tenuipes
  lilacinus mitissimus
  luteus nonlactiflua
  obscuratus v. obscuratus ocellata
  ophaliformis paucifluus
  spinosulus plumbeus
  subzonarius pseudofallax
    purgatorii
    rubifulvus
    rufescens
    saccharium
    sanguinalis
    sordidus v. hirsutus
    subaustralis
    subborealis
    sublata
    testacea
    trivialis v. maculatus
    volkertii

 

 

GLOSSARY

A few terms of special application to Lactarii:
   
areolate cracked finely, also cracked into +- 4, 5, or 6-sided scales
cespitose growing close together, not joined
ellipsoid an oblong sphere, nearly egg-shaped
hygrophanous translucent and dark in color when wet; opaque and lighter in color when dry
latex "milk"; white, whey-like, or colored juice
prominences the high points of the reticulum
pruinose whitish dust or bloom
reticulations the ridges and bands of the reticulum
reticulum vague to well developed raised network of ridges of the outer spore wall, including isolated segments and warts; stains dark with IKI or Melzer's solution
scrobiculate "wetted" down looking spots which may be shiny or dull
striate radial translucent lines from the margin
sulcate grooved, having furrows
viscid sticky or tacky to slimy; a gelatinous layer on the surface

 

 

INDEX TO HANDBOOKS AND REFERENCES MENTIONED IN THIS KEY

 

H&Sm Hesler, L.R. & A.H. Smith. 1979. North American Species of Lactarius.
L&H Lange & Hora. 1963. Collins Guide to Mushrooms and Toadstools
(Note: This reference may more closely represent the European counterpart of our mushrooms and often a name H&Sm have excluded from our western or North American flora.)
Mc McKenny, Margaret & Daniel Stuntz, revised 1971. The Savory Wild Mushroom
McIlvaine McIlvaine, Charles, Robert K. Macadam. 1900, revised 1902. One Thousand American Fungi
M Miller, Orson K. Mushrooms Of North America, 4th printing
Singer Singer, R. 1949. The Agaricales In Modern Taxonomy
SmNH Smith, A.H. 1949. Mushrooms In Their Natural Habitats
SmII Smith, A.H. 1963 revised edition. Mushroom Hunters Field Guide
SmWM Smith, A.H. 1975. Field Guide To Western Mushrooms
Sm&W Weber, Nancy Smith, and A.H. Smith. 1985. A Field Guide To Southern Mushrooms

 

 

INDEX TO INCLUDED SPECIES, VARIETIES

 

  Species   Key Entry Name previously used in PNW
1. affinis v. viridilactis (Kauffman) 205b ?trivialis
2. alnicola v. alnicola A.H. Sm. 705a  
3. alpinus v. alpinus Peck 305a  
4. alpinus v. mitis Hesler & A.H. Sm. 305b  
5. argillaceifolius v. megacarpus Hesler & A.H. Sm. 203a ? pyrogalus
6. aspideoides Burl. 712a repraesentaneus, speciosus
7. aspideus (Fr.) Fr. 712b repraesentaneus
8. atrobadius Hesler & A.H. Sm. 402a  
9. barrowsii Hesler & A.H. Sm. 803b  
10. caespitosus Hesler & A.H. Sm. 508a  
11. californiensis Hesler & A.H. Sm. 710a  
12. camphoratus (Fr.) Fr. 504a ? camphoratus
13. carbonicola A.H. Sm. 407b uvidus
14. cascadensis Hesler & A.H. Sm. 714a  
15. chelidonium Peck 804a  
16. chrysorheus Fr. 707a  
17. circellatus v. borealis Hesler & A.H. Sm. 105a pyrogalus
18. controversus (Fr.) Fr. 107a  
19. deliciosus (Fr.) S.F. Gray 804b  
20. deliciosus v. areolatus A.H. Sm. 808a, 811a  
21. deliciosus v. deliciosus (Fr.) S.F. Gray 807a, 810a  
22. deliciosus v. deterrimus (Gröger) Hesler & A.H. Sm. 808b, 811b  
23. deliciosus v. olivaceosordidus Hesler & A.H. Sm. 806a, 812a  
24. deliciosus v. piceus Smotl. 806b, 812b  
25. fallax v. concolor A.H. Sm. & Hesler 503b lignyotus
26. fallax v. fallax (Burl.) stat. nov. A.H. Sm. & Hesler 503a lignyotus
27. fragilis v. rubidus Hesler & A.H. Sm. 505a camphoratus
28. glyciosmus (Fr.) Fr. 103a  
29. hepaticus Plowr. 409a subdulcis
30. hysginus v. americanus Hesler & A.H. Sm. 513b  
31. hysginus v. hysginus Fr. 513a  
32. kauffmanil v. kauffmanii Hesler & A.H. Sm. 509a ? mucidus
33. kauffmanii v. sitchensis Hesler & A.H. Sm. 509b  
34. lepidotus Hesler & A.H. Sm. 103b glyciosmus
35. luculentus v. laetus Hesler & A.H. Sm. 308a aurantiacus
36. luculentus v. luculentus Burl. 307a aurantiacus
37. mucidus v. fuscogrisus Hesler & A.H. Sm. 514a  
38. mucidus v. mucidus Burl. 515b  
39. obscuratus v. radiatus (Lange) Romagn. 407a  
40. occidentalis A.H. Sm. 505b obnubilis
41. olivaceoumbrinus Hesler & A.H. Sm. 602a necator
42. olympianus Hesler & A.H. Sm. 302a zonarius
43. pallescens v. pallescens Hesler & A.H. Sm. 708a  
44. pallidiolivaceus Hesler & A.H. Sm. 106a ? fuliginosus
45. payettensis A.H. Sm. 704b scrobiculatus
46. pseudodeceptivus Hesler & A.H. Sm. 108a torminosus
47. pseudomucidus Hesler & A.H. Sm. 515a mucidus
48. pubescens v. betulae A.H. Sm. 112b torminosus
49. pubescens v. pubescens Fr. 111b torminosus
50. repraesentaneus Britzelm. sensu Neuhoff 711a speciosus
51. resimus v. regalis Peck 706b  
52. resimus v. resimus Fr. 706a  
53. rubrilacteus Hesler & A.H. Sm. 803a sangifluus
54. rufus v. parvus Hesler & A.H. Sm. 406a  
55. rufus v. rufus (Fr.) Fr. 409b  
56. scrobiculatus v. canadensis A.H. Sm. 704a  
57. sordidus Hesler & A.H. Sm. 602b necator
58. stuntzii nom. prov. 802a  
59. subflammeus Hesler & A.H. Sm. 308b aurantiacus
60. substriatus A.H. Sm. 404a  
61. subvillosus Hesler & A.H. Sm. 109a torminosus
62. subviscidus Hesler & A.H. Sm. 404b  
63. torminosus v. nordmanensis A.H. Sm. 112a  
64. torminosus v. torminosus (Fr.) S.F. Gray 111a  
65. trivialis (Fr.) Fr. 202a  
66. uvidus v. montanus Hesler & A.H. Sm. 714b  
67. uvidus v. uvidus (Fr.) Fr. 713a pallescens
68. vietus (Fr.) Fr. 104a ? trivialis
69. vinaceorufescens A.H. Sm. 707b  

 

- END -

 

 

Valid XHTML 1.0 Transitional