Trial field key to the BOLETES in the Pacific Northwest

Prepared for the Pacific Northwest Key Council
By Kit Scates (North Idaho Mycological Association) April 1982, Nov. 1982
Copyright © 1980, 1982, 2004 Pacific Northwest Key Council
Photo copyright held by each photographer
Do not copy photos without permission

Name update and additions Ian Gibson and Richard Bishop 2004, 2011.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Notes on 2004 and 2011 revision

Introduction

Acknowledgements

Key to genera of Boletes in the Pacific Northwest

Key to species of Boletus, Chalciporus, Gyroporus, and Porphyrellus

Key to Gastroboletus

Key to Leccinum

Key to Suillus and Fuscoboletinus

Description of Pulveruloboletus ravenelii

Excluded Species

References

Glossary

Index

 

NOTE ON 2004 and 2011 REVISION

Two very useful books have been published since the original key was written: The Boletes of North America A Compendium by Ernst E. Both which is primarily a nomenclatural guide, and North American Boletes by Alan E. Bessette, William C. Roody, and Arleen R. Bessette, which is a comprehensive illustrated guide. As the latter is likely to be used extensively by bolete enthusiasts, its names have been followed. Comments are included from Both’s work where relevant.

The following species have been added: Boletus haematinus, Boletus rainisii, Boletus satanus, Boletus sphaerocephalus (with comments regarding B. hemichrysus), Chalciporus piperatoides, Gastrobolus imbellus (further name change anticipated), Gastroboletus ruber, Gastroboletus vividus, Gyroporus castaneus, Leccinum atrostipitatum, Leccinum holopus, Leccinum testaceoscabrum, Pulveroboletus ravenelii, Suillus fuscotomentosus, and Suillus placidus. Name changes are as follows: Boletus amylosporus replaces Tylopilus amylosporus, Boletus luridiformis replaces B. erythropus, Boletus regineus replaces Boletus aereus, Boletus rex-veris replaces B. pinophilus and B. pinicola, Chalciporus piperatus replaces Boletus piperatus, Fuscoboletinus laricinus replaces F. aeruginascens, Porphyrellus porphyrosporus replaces Tylopilus pseudoscaber, Suillus flavidus replaces S. umbonatus, and Suillus neoalbidipes replaces S. albidipes. Descriptions of the new species and most of their differentiations are mostly derived from North American Boletes (except Gastroboletus vividus from the type description in 2000 and Gastroboletus imbellus).

The following species have been deleted because their species status or Pacific Northwest distribution is not agreed on by modern authors: Boletus fragrans Vittadini, Boletus porosporus (Imler) Watling var. americanus A.H. Sm. & Thiers, Leccinum incarnatum A.H. Sm., Thiers & Watling, Leccinum subfulvum A.H. Sm., Thiers & Watling, Leccinum truebloodii A.H. Sm., Thiers & Watling, Suillus appendiculatus (Peck) A.H. Sm. & Thiers, and Suillus ruber Singer & Sipe. For reference, note is made in the key where they would appear, with a reference to the description in the appendix on Excluded Species.

INTRODUCTION

Of the many divisions of the large Friesian genus Boletus since 1821, the classification system of Dr. A. H. Smith and Dr. H. D. Thiers is used here because theirs embraces the greatest amount of published material on species growing in the Pacific Northwest. Only the genera and species known to occur here are included in this regional key. No doubt many others will be found and require further description and additional changes in the key.

For the most part descriptions have been adapted from How to Know the Non-gilled Fleshy Fungi by Drs. Helen V. and Alexander H. Smith; A Contribution toward a monograph of North American Species of Suillus by Drs. A. H. Smith and Harry D. Thiers, and California Mushrooms: A Field Guide to the Boletes by Dr. Harry D. Thiers.

* Known to be choice edibles

% Rare species!! Please bring in and take to bolete specialist if possible.

# Poisonous

Because many boletes vary considerably in color and surface texture due to weather conditions, a few species are being included in more than one place in the key. Any part with a gelatinous layer - cap cuticle, subcutis, or veil - can thus range from dry to glutinous. Accordingly, descriptions will have to be mentally revised to suit the weather. Spore measurements vary little and are therefore of little help in separating species. This is a trial key.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Sincere appreciation is hereby expressed for personal help and access to both published and unpublished data by Dr. Helen V. Smith, Dr. A. H. Smith, Dr. Harry D. Thiers, Dr. Daniel E. Stuntz, Dr. Roy Watling, and Dr. Orson K. Miller Jr.

 

KEY TO THE GENERA OF BOLETES IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

1a Tubes usually irregular and not vertical; spore deposit not obtainable; fruitbodies +/- aborted-looking (rare)

................................................................................Gastroboletus

1b Tubes usually regular and vertical; spore deposit obtainable; fruitbodies with normal caps and stems

2a Bright yellow powdery cap and lower stem

................................................................................Pulveroboletus

2b Not with bright yellow powdery cap and lower stem

3a Stem roughened by tufted fibrillose scales which darken to brownish or black by maturity

................................................................................Leccinum

3a Stem smooth or ornamented but not as above

4a Button cap with partial veil or cottony roll, OR mature stem with an annulus or annular zone, OR mature stem with a granular rash of raised dark spots

................................................................................(part of) Suillus

(Spore print olive, dull yellow, etc. = Suillus. Spore print reddish brown or purplish brown, pores large and angular, tubes decurrent, only under larch = Fuscoboletinus in Suillus key.)

4b Button caps and mature stems lacking ornamentation described above

5a Stem bearing a network of raised fibrils in a fishnet pattern ("reticulate")

................................................................................(part of) Boletus

5a Stem lacking such a network, more or less smooth

6a Spore print and mature pores with reddish tint (reddish brown or chocolate brown)

................................................................................Porphyrellus and Tylopilus

6b Spore print with more olive or dingy yellow tints

7a Cap not viscid, usually suedelike and often cracking, occasionally glabrous

................................................................................Boletus, Chalciporus, Gyroporus

7b Cap viscid to glutinous, especially young (also see B. flaviporus in Boletus key)

................................................................................(part of) Suillus

 

Additional probabilities if stem is plain:

Stem red = Boletus

Cap cracking =Boletus

Stem olive = Boletus

Cap glutinous = Suillus

Stem white = Suillus

Pores chocolate or red-brown = Porphyrellus

 

 

KEY TO SPECIES OF BOLETUS, CHALCIPORUS, GYROPORUS, PORPHYRELLUS

 

1a Stem with a network of raised fibrils (= reticulate)

1b Stem lacking such a network

2a Pores dark red; cap brown to gray; bluing on injury

2b Pores another color - usually white, yellow, or olivaceous

3a Abruptly bulbous stipe when mature; associated with oak; cap light gray to olive buff with pink tones

................................................................................# Boletus satanus

(also known as Boletus satanas Lenz)

CAP light gray to olive buff with pink flushes; large (7-30 cm wide); dry, bald or slightly fibrillose or scaly or velvety, sometimes cracking in age; flesh thick, yellow, turning blue when exposed; TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. PORES and TUBES reddish brown or deep red, fading to paler red, then fading to orange; tubes yellow, turning blue when exposed or bruised. STEM with massive abrupt bulb, colored similarly to cap, with pink to vinaceous reticulation over upper part or sometimes overall, 6-15 cm x 2-7 cm at top, base 9-14 cm wide. HABITAT under oak. DISTRIBUTION California, a few Oregon collections at Oregon State University. EDIBILITY poisonous, causing severe gastrointestinal symptoms. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 11-14.4 x 4-6 microns, spindle-shaped to elliptic, septa of some of the tramal hyphae are amyloid.Boletus satanus
Boletus satanus
Ben Woo

3b Stipe not abruptly bulbous when mature; in coniferous or mixed forest; cap reddish brown, pale brown, olive-brown, or yellow-brown, may have pink tones

4a Cap reddish brown to olive-brown, or with grayish fibrils on reddish ground color, pores dark red at first, becoming orange-red, then brownish red, often yellow near margin; stipe club-shaped but no abrupt bulb, sometimes equal, reddish brown with dark red reticulation; growing in conifers and mixed woods

................................................................................# Boletus pulcherrimus

(This species has passed in California under the name B. eastwoodiae, but the type of B. eastwoodiae (Murrill) Sacc. & Trotter has been synonymized with B. satanus Lenz.)

CAP reddish brown at first, becoming olive-brown, or with grayish fibrils on reddish ground color; large (9-20 cm wide); dry, nearly bald when young, becoming fibrillose to fibrillose-scaly, sometimes cracking in age; flesh thick, bright yellow, quickly changing to blue when exposed. TASTE and ODOR mild. PORES deep red when young, becoming orange red then brownish red, quickly changing to blue when exposed. STEM enlarged downward or sometimes nearly equal, not abruptly bulbous; dull red to pale reddish brown, covered overall or at least on upper part by dark red reticulation; often with dull brown stains near base; staining blue when bruised, 8-15 cm long x 2-5 cm thick at apex, widening to 10 cm at base. HABITAT in mixed and coniferous forests. DISTRIBUTION British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California. EDIBILITY Poisonous, causing severe gastrointestinal symptoms. One death linked. Care should be taken even in tasting it. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 13-16 x 5-7 um, spindle-shaped to elliptic; septa of tramal hyphae not amyloid.Boletus pulcherrimus
Boletus pulcherrimus
Ben Woo

4b Cap light brown to yellow-brown or olive-brown, often tinged red; pores yellow when very young, soon becoming red except near margin; stipe sometimes bulbous but not abruptly, becoming equal, stipe yellow with pale red reticulation; associated with conifers, especially red fir

................................................................................# Boletus haematinus

CAP yellow-brown to olive-brown, or pale brown, often tinged red especially on margin; large (7-20 cm wide); dry, bald at first, becoming appressed-fibrillose and cracked-areolate in age; flesh yellow changing to blue when cut. TASTE and ODOR mild. PORES bright yellow when very young, soon pale red, then dark red, and finally reddish brown in age. STEM enlarged downward, sometimes somewhat bulbous at first but not abruptly bulbous, often nearly equal when mature; yellow to pale yellow, covered on upper two thirds or at least upper part with red reticulation, base may stain brown with handling; 5-11 cm long and 2.5-7 cm thick at apex. HABITAT under mountain conifers, especially Abies spp. DISTRIBUTION Washington, Idaho, California, reported from Montana. EDIBILITY unknown, but avoid. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 12-15 x 6-8 um, spindle-shaped to elliptic; septa of tramal hyphae not amyloid.Boletus haematinus
Boletus haematinus
Boleslaw Kuznik

5a Growing on wood (see description under 26a)

................................................................................* B. mirabilis

5b Not growing on wood

6a Cap bright red or rosy red (for reddish brown caps, take next choice)

6b Cap not bright red or rosy red

7a Flesh and pores staining blue readily; stem equal or subequal

................................................................................% Boletus speciosus

CAP deep rose red in all stages; 8-15 cm wide; dry and suede-like; flesh yellowish, quickly blue when cut. TASTE and ODOR mild. TUBES and PORES yellow, darkening with age; quickly blue when cut. STEM light yellow with red at base; 5-13 cm x 1/5-4 cm thick, at base enlarged or pinched off; surface finely reticulate. HABITAT only with oaks?. DISTRIBUTION most reports are from eastern North America, but collected from Chelan Co. Washington by D. Stuntz. EDIBILITY unknown. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 10-15 x 3.5-4.5 um; pileus cuticle a trichodermium collapsing to form a matted layer.

7b Flesh and pores staining blue only slightly; young stem swollen

................................................................................% Boletus regius

CAP bright pink to rose red during all stages; 8-20 cm broad; dry to moist; suedelike young, aging same or glabrous (bald); flesh thick, intense yellow, possibly bluing slightly. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES all bright yellow when young, aging deeper yellow; bluing when exposed, but slowly and erratically. STEM bright yellow with reticulation of same color; often reddish-tinted near base; dry; 7-11.5 cm long and 3-5 cm at apex, usually thicker in middle or at base. HABITAT usually with oaks in coastal forests, with conifers in mountains. DISTRIBUTION Washington, Oregon, California. EDIBILITY edible, but not considered good. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 12.5-16.5 x 3.7-5 um; pileus cuticle a trichodermium of tangled hyphae with +/- erect free tips which appear amyloid.Boletus regius
Boletus regius
Boleslaw Kuznik

8a Tubes and pores yellow, not bluing on injury, cap red brown and viscid

................................................................................% B. flaviporus

(See 36a for description.)

8b Tubes and pores white or yellow when young, bluing or not, (if yellow and not bluing then cap dry)

9a Tubes and pores white when young, no part bluing on injury

9b Tubes and pores yellow when young, mostly bluing on injury

10a Cap milk chocolate brown or darker, or cap distinctly wrinkled-reticulate (raised wrinkled-netted pattern)

10b Cap not milk chocolate brown or darker, and cap not distinctly wrinkled-reticulate

11a Only under oaks and madrone; cap almost black with smooth to pitted surface, dry to moist (subviscid only when old); (spores 12-13.5 um long)

................................................................................* Boletus regineus

CAP dark brown to nearly black; 7-15 cm; surface moist (never slimy or tacky), usually rough-granular and bumpy; flesh whitish, unchanging. TASTE and ODOR mild. TUBES and PORES white when young becoming yellow with age, not changing to blue. STEM whitish when young , sometimes winey or winey brown in age; reticulate over upper half; 8-11.5 cm x 2.5-4 cm at apex, club-shaped to subbulbous young; not changing to blue when exposed. HABITAT under oaks and madrones. DISTRIBUTION California according to Bessette et al., but also Washington (vouchered at University of Washington) and reported from British Columbia and Oregon. EDIBILITY edible and choice. MICROSTRUCTURES 12-13.5 x 4-5 um; pileus cuticle a broad trichodermium, end cells neither enlarged nor encrusted.Boletus regineus
Boletus regineus
Kit Scates Barnhart

11b Under conifers; cap dark brown with fibrils in wrinkled netted pattern, moist to subviscid, (spores 14.3-17.1 um long)

................................................................................Boletus mottiae

CAP cinnamon brown on disc, more buff toward margin; 6-12 cm; wrinkled-reticulate from bunched fibrils, hence uneven; moist to subviscid; flesh soft, white, unchanging when exposed. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES white when young, aging yellow; unchanging when bruised. STEM buff to cinnamon brown, with fine overlying reticulation of same color; 5-7.5 cm long x 1.5-3 cm thick, may be thicker at base. HABITAT under conifers. DISTRIBUTION Washington, Oregon, California, appears on an Idaho foray list. EDIBILITY unknown, but probably edible, since it seems to be closely allied to the B. edulis complex. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 14.3-17.1 x 3.8-5 um, pileus cuticle subgelatinous.

12a (10b) Only under oaks; cap gray-brown

................................................................................% Boletus variipes

CAP blackish brown to smoky brown or crust brown; 6-20 cm; dry, suedelike or scaly, usually becoming strongly areolate (mud-cracked) in age; flesh white, unchanging. TASTE and ODOR mild. TUBES and PORES white when young, pores "stuffed", soon yellow but unchanging if injured. STEM colored like cap or paler; 8-15 cm long x 1-3.5 cm thick; finely reticulate; naked to granular or fibrillose; mycelium white. HABITAT under oaks and other hardwoods. DISTRIBUTION "eastern Canada south to North Carolina and Texas, west to the Great Lakes region, distribution limits yet to be established", (Bessette et al.), included in Kit Scates 1982 key: further distribution records are desirable. EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 10-18 x 3.5-5 um; hyphal walls of cap cuticle smooth.

12b Under pines mostly; cap colors varied

13a Cap almost white

................................................................................% Boletus barrowsii

CAP white to whitish to buff; 9-10 cm wide; smooth, dull, sometimes pruinose; dry; sometimes becoming brown when bruised; flesh unchanging when exposed. TASTE and ODOR mild. TUBES and PORES tubes white when young, aging yellowish; pores "stuffed" (covered with white coating) when young; unchanging when exposed; 1-2 mm wide. STEM whitish to pinkish buff or pinkish cinnamon except base white; reticulate; 8-15 cm long, 2-5 cm at apex, bulb up to 9 cm broad; equal to club-shaped to bulbous. HABITAT under Ponderosa Pine, firs (Abies), spruce, and live oak, often in deserts. DISTRIBUTION at least Idaho and California, also Washington (vouchered at University of Washington), British Columbia (vouchered Pacific Forestry Center in Victoria). EDIBILITY unknown but probably edible since it is closely related to B. edulis. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 13-15 x 4-5 microns. It lacks the clearly differentiated, often viscid cap cuticle of B. edulis.Boletus barrowsii
Boletus barrowsii
Steve Trudell

13b Cap with more color

14a Cap red-brown; common east of Cascade Mt. Summit

................................................................................* Boletus rex-veris

(formerly known as Boletus pinicola (Vittad.) Venturi or Boletus pinophilus Pilát & Dermek)

CAP winey-brown to purplish chestnut, often darker brown at center; large (9-30 cm); moist to subviscid; mostly glabrous (lacking hairiness) except in age at margin, but often uneven ("bumpy") from irregularities; flesh not changing to blue but may darken to winey-brown near surface. TASTE not distinctive. ODOR spicy or not distinctive. TUBES and PORES white and "stuffed" (covered with soft white coating) when young; fading yellow; not turning blue on exposure. STEM light reddish buff at apex, darker to +/- chestnut below; robust (8-10 cm x 2.5-3 cm at apex and 4-4.5 cm at base); reticulate with fine network of whitish or winey ridges; flesh not changing to blue. HABITAT with conifers. DISTRIBUTION Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California. EDIBILITY edible, considered choice by many. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 13-17 x 4-5 microns. REMARKS This is in the Boletus edulis complex.Boletus rex-veris
Boletus rex-veris
Michael Beug

14b Cap pallid to tan; widespread

................................................................................* Boletus edulis

CAP light brown when young darkening to brown or reddish brown, margin often lighter; 5-18 cm or more wide; surface +/- viscid, more so in age, often irregular and uneven; flesh thick, whitish, not changing to blue. TASTE and ODOR mild. TUBES and PORES white and "stuffed" (covered with white coating) when young, aging yellow; not changing to blue when exposed; pores small, round. STEM white to sometimes pale brown; reticulate over at least some portion; often massive (8-16 cm or more long, 1.5-2.5 cm thick at apex and up to 6 cm or more thick at base). HABITAT variable, usually under conifers but may occur with hardwoods; common. DISTRIBUTION British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, reported from Montana and Idaho. EDIBILITY edible and choice, either fresh or dried. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 13-18 x 4-7 um; pileus cuticle a tangled trichodermium which collapses with age. REMARKS Besides B. rex-veris, other similar species include B. fibrillosus with dry, much darker fibrillose cap, yellow tubes when young and a much darker stem, B. regineus with a very dark brown to blackish cap that is moist to dry but not viscid, shorter spores and a different cap cuticle, and B. mottiae with a dark brown cap with wrinkled-netted surface. B. barrowsii is told from very pale forms of B. edulis by the lack of a well-differentiated cap cuticle in B. barrowsii.Boletus edulis
Boletus edulis
Michael Beug

15a (9b) Taste noticeably bitter

15b Taste not noticeably bitter

16a Stem swollen and/or with red color

................................................................................Boletus calopus

CAP brown changing to dark yellow-brown or dark brown with age; also becoming subtomentose to deeply cracked in age; particularly in dry weather; dry; 10-20 cm wide; flesh pale yellow, quickly bluing when exposed. TASTE very bitter. ODOR slight or absent. TUBES and PORES pale yellow becoming dark yellow, quickly turning blue on exposure. STEM yellow usually with pink to red areas; reticulate; 6-14 cm long x 3-7 cm thick at apex, equal to bulbous; flesh bluing when exposed. HABITAT under conifers, particularly firs, at higher elevations. DISTRIBUTION Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, California. EDIBILITY not considered poisonous, but too bitter to eat. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 14-17 x 4-6 um; hyphae of tubes have septa (cross-walls) which are amyloid.Boletus calopus
Boletus calopus
Ben Woo

16b Stem thick but not very swollen, with little or no bright red color

17a Stem base with root-like projection; stem tan

................................................................................% Boletus radicans

CAP tan, yellowish on margin, rarely with olive or reddish tones; usually up to 16 cm but perhaps up to 20 or even 30 cm wide; surface dry, glabrous to +/- tomentose and cracking; flesh whitish, bluing. TASTE bitter to very bitter. ODOR mild to slightly fragrant. TUBES and PORES yellow aging dirty tan yellow, bluing promptly on injury; spores small (possibly medium in very large specimens), round. STEM variable - reticulate (very fine, lens often necessary) or not, can be glabrous, granular, or striate; color usually yellow at apex varying to brown mottled with other colors below, sometimes with reddish or brownish ring-zones; 5-12 cm long x 1-5 cm thick, subequal to subbulbous, 1-3 cm at base within the ground, perhaps tapered; bluing on injury; mycelium pale yellow. HABITAT variable. EDIBILITY not poisonous, but too bitter to be good. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 9-16 x 4-5.5 um. DISTRIBUTION The occurrence of Boletus radicans Pers. sensu Kallenbach in North America is questionable because of confusion with B. inedulis (Murrill) Murrill, according to Bessette et al. It was reported from Washington (Janet Lindgren 1996, pers. comm.) and was included in the 1982 key with the statement "This is a confused species concept, and its presence needs confirmation". Most reports of the species are from eastern North America.

17b Stem base not rooting; stem pale yellow to olive to brown

................................................................................Boletus coniferarum

CAP dark olive-gray to gray-brown; unpolished to subtomentose, at times cracking in age; large (10-30 cm wide); flesh white to pale yellow, instantly bluing when exposed. TASTE bitter. ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES yellow, staining blue on exposure or injury. STEM pale or olivaceous yellow to brown, lacking pink or reddish tints, soon blue from handling; very thick (up to 6 cm) and bulbous when young; reticulate at apex, but reticulation is delicate and same color as background so is hard to detect. HABITAT conifer forests. DISTRIBUTION British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, reported from Idaho. EDIBILITY too bitter to eat. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 11-14 x 3.5-5 microns.Boletus coniferarum
Boletus coniferarum
Andrew Parker

18a (15b) Cap olive to yellow-brown, reddish brown, or date-brown; surface velvety-subtomentose (velvety to somewhat woolly)

................................................................................B. spadiceus

(See 42b for description.)

(also known as Xerocomus spadiceus (Fr.) Quélet)

18b Cap some shade of brown or pale rose color, or cap almost bald, or cap fibrillose to scaly

19a Cap almost glabrous (bald); only under hardwoods; reddish brown to rusty brown or yellow-brown or with rusty spots

................................................................................% Boletus appendiculatus

CAP reddish brown to rusty brown or yellow-brown or with rusty spots; 6-13 cm wide; bald or nearly so and sometimes cracking; dry, margin appendiculate; flesh pale yellow, unchanging or slowly changing to blue when exposed. TASTE and ODOR mild. TUBES and PORES yellow, usually bluing instantly when bruised. STEM yellow often with brownish red or winey red stains; reticulate; 6-9 cm x 2-4 cm at apex, usually enlarged at base or center. HABITAT usually under oaks. DISTRIBUTION Washington, Oregon, California, reported from Montana. EDIBILITY considered edible in Europe, but mistaken identity possible. MICROSTRUCTURES 12-14 x 4-5 um; pileus cuticle a trichodermium of interwoven hyphae, not encrusted.Boletus appendiculatus
Boletus appendiculatus
Michael Beug

19b Cap fibrillose to scaly, under conifers

20a Cap dark brown to chestnut brown, fibrillose, mostly coastal areas

................................................................................% Boletus fibrillosus

CAP brown to dark brown; 6-17 cm wide; velvety to fibrillose; possibly uneven; dry; flesh soft, whitish, unchanging when exposed. TASTE and ODOR mild. TUBES and PORES yellow during all stages, darkening with age, but unchanging when bruised. STEM yellow at apex, otherwise brown; comparatively long (10-16 cm) x 2-3 cm thick, equal or club-shaped; reticulate over most; white mycelium at base. HABITAT dense mixed coastal forests. DISTRIBUTION Washington, Oregon, California. EDIBILITY uncertain because of prior confusion over correct name for this species, but probably edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 13-17.5 x 3.5-5.5 um; pileus cuticle a tangled trichodermium of hyphae having +/- equal cells.Boletus fibrillosus
Boletus fibrillosus
Steve Trudell

20b Cap blotchy pale rose, fibrillose-scaly; with true firs above 5000 feet

................................................................................Boletus abieticola

CAP light rose, with tan spots; 9-13 cm; fibrillose when young to fibrillose-scaly in age; dry; flesh only occasionally changing to blue when exposed. TASTE and ODOR mild. TUBES and PORES yellow, darkening with age, changing to blue when bruised or exposed; pores small, angular. STEM yellow except reddish base; dry, yellow-reticulate; 9-12 cm long x 4-5 cm at apex and 5-6 cm below. HABITAT associated with true firs at high elevations (above 5000 feet). DISTRIBUTION Washington, California, reported from Oregon and Montana. EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 14-17.5 x 4.5-5.5 um; pileus cuticle a tangled trichodermium with spiral encrustations, hyphae stain reddish in Melzer’s.

21a (1b) Pores cinnamon (if so, taste peppery), or red or pinkish

21b Pores yellow, olive, brown, or whitish

22a Pores cinnamon; taste peppery; stem slim, yellow at base

22b Pores dark red, light red or pinkish

23a Pore surface staining blackish blue to greenish blue when bruised, (spores 6-10 x 3-4 microns)

................................................................................Chalciporus piperatoides

(also known as Boletus piperatoides A.H. Sm. & Thiers)

(See also 33a.)

CAP buff to yellow-brown, orange-brown or rusty brown; small to medium 3-8 cm wide, dry but viscid when moist; smooth or nearly so; flesh pale pinkish buff to dull pinkish brown or dull yellow-brown; typically bluing when cut, at least above the tubes. TASTE slowly peppery. ODOR not distinctive. PORES dull yellow at first, becoming yellow-brown to orange-brown, dull cinnamon or brown, often with an olive tinge; staining blue to bluish black when bruised; irregular in shape. STEM colored like cap or paler, basal mycelium bright yellow; dry, fibrillose-punctate to fibrous-striate; 3-8 cm x 0.5-1.6 cm; stem flesh yellow. HABITAT under conifers or hardwoods. DISTRIBUTION at least Washington Oregon, California, reported from British Columbia. EDIBILITY unknown, but likely too peppery. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 6-10 x 3-4 um, hymenophoral trama not amyloid.Chalciporus piperatoides
Chalciporus piperatoides
Michael Wood (MykoWeb)

23b Pore surface not staining blue, (spores 9-12 x 4-5 microns)

................................................................................Chalciporus piperatus

(also known as Boletus piperatus Bull.)

(See also 32b.)

CAP buff to yellow-brown, orange-brown or reddish brown; small to medium 1.6-9 cm wide, usually less than 6cm wide; dry or somewhat viscid; bald or slightly fibrillose; flesh pale yellow or tinged reddish, becoming dingy purplish brown in age, not bluing when cut or bruised. TASTE distinctly peppery. ODOR not distinctive. PORES dull cinnamon, reddish cinnamon, or cinnamon-brown, becoming darker reddish brown in age, not bluing when cut or bruised by sometimes staining brown; angular. STEM colored like cap or paler, base with bright yellow mycelium; 4-9 cm x 0.6-1.2 cm, stem flesh lemon-yellow, not bluing. HABITAT under conifers or hardwoods. DISTRIBUTION British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California. EDIBILITY poisonous according to one source (Murrill). MICROSTRUCTURES spores 9-12 x 4-5 um, amyloid reaction of hymenophoral trama.Chalciporus piperatus
Chalciporus piperatus
Michael Beug

24a (22b) Cap brown to red-brown; habitat various; pores dark red

................................................................................Boletus luridiformis

(also known as Boletus erythropus (Fr.) Krombholz)

CAP mostly dark brown, sometimes with reddish or olive tinge; 5-20 cm wide; minutely tomentose, dry; flesh yellow turning blue when cut. TASTE and ODOR mild to pungent and unpleasant. TUBES and PORES tubes yellow; pores brick red to orange-red, all bluing on injury. STEM ground color yellow but overlain by reddish granules which dominate; not reticulate; robust (8-12 cm long x 1-3.5 cm thick). HABITAT in mixed coastal forests, possibly mycorrhizal with oaks. DISTRIBUTION California, Washington, Oregon, and reported from British Columbia. EDIBILITY poisonous to some, causing gastrointestinal distress. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 13-16 x 4.8-5.5 um; pileus cuticle a trichodermium of tangled hyphae with encrusted tips.Boletus luridiformis
Boletus luridiformis
Michael Beug

24b Cap pink, red, or winey; typically under oak and manzanita, but also under redwoods; pores red to dull rusty red

................................................................................% Boletus amygdalinus

CAP pink to winey-red; 6-10 cm wide; matted tomentose, dry; flesh pale greenish yellow, turning blue on exposure. TASTE and ODOR mild. STEM yellow with brick-red tomentum or granules; 5-9 cm long x 1-3 cm at apex, +/- equal; not reticulate; flesh bluing. TUBES and PORES tubes pale greenish yellow, bluing on exposure; pores red to dull rusty red, bluing immediately on exposure. HABITAT typically under oak and manzanita, but also under redwood; in coastal forests. DISTRIBUTION north from California at least to southern Oregon. EDIBILITY unknown, but many boletes with red pores are poisonous. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 11.2-16 x 5.2-8 um; pileus cuticle differentiated as a trichodermium of interwoven hyphae with numerous free hyphal tips tapering toward the end.Boletus amygdalinus
Boletus amygdalinus
Michael Beug

25a (21b) Growing directly on rotting wood

25b Not growing directly on rotting wood

26a Cap brown and granular; single or in 2’s or 3’s

................................................................................* Boletus mirabilis

(also known as Xerocomus mirabilis (Murrill) Singer)

(See also 5a.)

CAP dark reddish brown to maroon brown, or chocolate brown, may become more grayish brown in age; 7-15 cm wide; velvety to rough-scaly in center, sometimes cracking; moist to dry; flesh pallid, tinged wine-red just under cuticle, not changing to blue when bruised. TASTE and ODOR mild. TUBES and PORES yellow, only darkening slightly with age or bruising. STEM colored like cap; often unusually long in relation to cap (8-15 cm x 1-3 cm at apex), club-shaped with base up to 5 cm thick; surface may be smooth or coarsely fibrillose-ridged or pitted in lattice-like fashion. HABITAT in the Pacific Northwest usually on rotting hemlock logs. DISTRIBUTION common in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, also found northern California, reported from Idaho and Montana. EDIBILITY edible and considered choice. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 18-22 x 7-9 um; pileus cuticle a trichodermium, cells septate, end cells +/- separating.Boletus mirabilis
Boletus mirabilis
Heather Wade

26b Caps bright yellow, smooth; often clustered

................................................................................% Boletus sphaerocephalus

CAP sulphur yellow when young, becoming pale yellow to whitish in age; 4-10 cm wide; dry, somewhat tomentose, often cracking in age; flesh sulphur yellow to pale yellow, typically bluing when exposed, but sometimes slowly or not at all. TASTE not distinctive or somewhat bitter. ODOR not distinctive. PORES yellow at first, becoming dull yellow to brownish yellow, bluing, then slowly staining brownish when bruised. STEM yellow, 5-10 cm x 1-3 cm, appressed fibrillose, with yellow basal mycelium. HABIT and HABITAT scattered, in groups or clusters in sawdust, or on stumps or the surrounding soil. DISTRIBUTION at least Idaho. EDIBILITY unknown. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 7-9 x 3-4 um. REMARKS Boletus hemichrysus Berkeley and Curtis, "considered to be a synonym by some authors, has a bright golden yellow to orange-yellow pileus, a red-brown to reddish brown pore surface, and a stipe tinged with red." (Bessette et al.)

27a (25b) Cap and stem instantly staining blue to bluish black or dark green to greenish black when bruised or handled, taste mild

27b Cap and stem not instantly staining dark green to blue or greenish black when bruised or handled, or taste peppery

28a Instantly staining green to greenish black when bruised, cap dark olive brown to blackish brown when young, becoming paler olive-brown to yellowish brown at maturity

................................................................................Boletus rainisii

CAP dark olive-brown to blackish brown when young, becoming paler olive-brown to yellowish brown, instantly staining greenish black when handled or bruised; 4-11.5cm wide; dry, velvety-tomentose to appressed-tomentose, becoming conspicuously cracked with yellow flesh between cracks in age; flesh yellow, instantly bluing when exposed. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. PORES pale yellow, becoming darker dull golden yellow with brownish to reddish tints in age, instantly staining dark green, then slowly brownish when bruised. STEM bright yellow with rusty red tinges near the base, instantly staining dark green, then greenish black when handled or bruised; flesh yellow with dull red tints at base, instantly bluing when exposed; basal mycelium white; 3-9 cm x 1.5-3.5 cm, distinctly club-shaped at first, sometimes nearly equal at maturity, with pinched base, dry, bald without reticulation or raised longitudinal ridges. HABITAT under mixed conifers, including Douglas-fir and Western Hemlock. DISTRIBUTION Washington and possibly California. EDIBILITY unknown. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 10-17 x 4.2-7 um; basidia 37-55 x 9-14 um; pileus cuticle a trichodermium with narrowly clavate to fusiform cystidioid end-cells.

28b Instantly staining blue to blackish blue when bruised or handled, cap dark yellow-brown to blackish brown or dark cinnamon-brown, without olive tones

................................................................................Boletus pulverulentus

(also known as Xerocomus pulverulentus (Opatowski) Gilbert)

CAP dark yellow-brown to blackish brown or dark cinnamon-brown and often developing reddish tints in age, instantly staining blackish blue when bruised or handled; 4-12.5 cm wide; dry, subtomentose, becoming bald and often somewhat shiny in age; flesh yellow, instantly bluing on exposure. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. PORES yellow when young, darkening to golden yellow to brownish yellow, instantly bluing, then slowly staining dull brown when bruised. STEM yellow in upper part and darker yellow to orange-yellow downward, typically reddish brown toward the base, quickly bluing, then slowly staining dull brown when handled; flesh reddish brown in the base, yellow in upper part, and instantly bluing when exposed, 3.5-9 cm x 1.5-3.5 cm, nearly equal or sometimes enlarged downward, dry, pruinose at apex and typically toward base, lacking reticulation but often with raised longitudinal ridges. HABITAT under conifers or hardwoods. DISTRIBUTION eastern Canada south to Florida west to at least Michigan. It has been reported from northern California, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, but at least some may have been B. rainisii, which was not described till 2000. EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 11-15 x 4-6 um; basidia 22-35 x 6-9 um; pileus cuticle a cutis of undifferentiated interwoven hyphae that measure 3-7 um wide.

29a (27b) Stem robust (more than 2.5 cm diameter)

29b Stem average or slender (2.5 cm or less diameter)

30a Found only under conifers at 6000 feet +; color olive to brown

................................................................................% B. fragrans

(See Excluded Species.)

30b Not confined to high mountains; olive to buff when young, aging tan or red

31a Cap tan without red; young stem yellow + red; taste bitter

................................................................................Boletus rubripes

CAP olive or buff when young, aging more tan; 9-16 cm wide; dry, dull, suedelike, possibly appressed fibrillose in age; flesh thick, buff, bluing on exposure. TASTE unpleasant, bitter. ODOR often strong unpleasant. TUBES and PORES yellow, darkening with age; bluing immediately when bruised. STEM color when young yellow at the apex but reddish toward base, in age entire stem is dark red to almost black at base; changing to blue when exposed; 8-13 cm long x 2-4 cm thick at apex, equal or slightly larger at base. HABITAT in mixed or coniferous forests. DISTRIBUTION Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California, reported from Montana. EDIBILITY unknown, but taste is very bitter when raw. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 12.5-17.6 x 4-5 microns; pileus cuticle a trichodermium of interwoven hyphae, occasionally encrusted.Boletus rubripes
Boletus rubripes
Michael Beug

31b Cap developing red tones with age; taste mild

................................................................................Boletus smithii

CAP color variable, olive or buff when young with red blotches, but red increasing with age and other colors decreasing; 5-16 cm wide; dry, dull and velvety when young, with age changing to bald, fibrillose, or cracked; flesh pale yellow, bluing erratic. TASTE and ODOR mild. TUBES and PORES yellow, darkening with age; bluing immediately on exposure. STEM color partly red and partly yellow usually, but variable; 6-16 cm long, 1-3.5 cm thick, +/- equal. Often there is a bright red band at the apex. HABITAT in mixed or coniferous forests. DISTRIBUTION British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California. EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 14.5-19.2 x 4-5 um; pileus cuticle a loose trichodermium, sometimes with numerous laticifers.Boletus smithii
Boletus smithii
John Davis

32a (29b) Basal mycelium bright yellow, taste peppery

32b Basal mycelium not bright yellow or taste not peppery

33a Pore surface staining blackish blue to greenish blue when bruised, (spores 6-10 x 3-4 microns)

................................................................................Chalciporus piperatoides

(See 23a for description.)

33b Pore surface not staining blue, (spores 9-12 x 4-5 microns)

................................................................................Chalciporus piperatus

(See 23b for description.)


34a (32b) Spore print red-brown to chocolate-brown or gray-brown

34b Spore print yellow to olivaceous or olive-brown (When in doubt, use this.)

35a Cap, pores and stem chocolate-brown (stem base often whitish)

................................................................................Porphyrellus porphyrosporus

CAP olive-brown to dark earth brown or dark vinaceous brown; 6-15 cm; velvety, at times slightly areolate; flesh white, turning weakly blue then reddish brown and finally dull brown when cut, staining paper blue-green. TASTE mild or weakly bitter. ODOR pungent, clove-like or resembling coal tar when fresh, stem base sometimes with chlorine odor. TUBES and PORES pores dark reddish brown to dark brown or blackish brown, when bruised often staining dark greenish blue and then reddish brown to dark grayish brown. STEM colored like cap, often whitish at base; longitudinally ridged, with or without reticulation; 5-15 cm long, 1-3 cm thick, equal to clavate. HABITAT along roads and in open woods of mixed woods and conifer woods in the fall. DISTRIBUTION Washington, Oregon, California, on foray lists from British Columbia. EDIBILITY unknown. SPORE DEPOSIT pale to dark chocolate color. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 14-18 x 6-8 um. Porphyrellus porphyrosporus
Porphyrellus porphyrosporus
Steve Trudell

35b Cap olive-brown to gray-brown; stem olive gray, typically reddish in places, tubes yellow

................................................................................Boletus amylosporus

CAP olive-brown to gray-brown; 4-12 cm, velvety, cracking; flesh yellow to dull whitish, +/- bluing, may be red under cap surface and around larval tunnels. TASTE and ODOR mild. TUBES and PORES yellow; mature pores large and irregular, readily bluing. STEM usually olive-gray, reddish in places or dots, not reticulate; 4-9 cm long, 1-1.5 cm thick; reddish inside. HABITAT under Red Alder or oak in the fall. DISTRIBUTION at least Idaho and California. EDIBILITY unknown. SPORE DEPOSIT dark reddish brown. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 12-17 x 4.5-6 um, truncate at apex (or notched), dextrinoid or weakly to distinctly amyloid.

36a (34b) Cap very viscid, red-brown; under oaks and other hardwoods

................................................................................% Boletus flaviporus

(See also 8a.)

CAP reddish brown; 7-15 cm wide; surface tomentose (woolly) to fibrillose but viscid to subviscid at all ages, also uneven and irregular; flesh pinkish buff, unchanging or slowly turning pinkish vinaceous on exposure. TASTE acid and rather unpleasant. ODOR mild. TUBES and PORES yellow, pores large and angular (1 mm or more broad), intense yellow, unchanging or darkening slightly when bruised. STEM yellow at apex, usually white at base; tubes forming a distinct raised yellow network at top, ornamentation variable below; 6-15 cm x 1-3 cm; surface viscid in wet weather; conspicuous white mycelium at base. HABITAT associated with madrone or oaks in coastal forests. DISTRIBUTION known from Oregon and California, reported from British Columbia. EDIBILITY unknown; probably edible but not of pleasing taste or texture. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 11-15 x 4-6 um, pileus cuticle differentiated as a pellicle or interwoven gelatinous hyphae. REMARKS Oregon State University has one Oregon collection of B. auriporus Peck, a similar species found in the east and west at least to Texas. Its pore surface usually stains dull brick red when bruised. B citrinoporus Halling, known only from California, has a brown to dark brown cap that is dry not viscid.Boletus flaviporus
Boletus flaviporus
Michael Beug

36b Cap not viscid

37a Cap almost black, rugose (bumpy-wrinkled) when young; stem red

................................................................................* Boletus zelleri

(also known as Xerocomus zelleri (Murrill) Snell)

CAP blackish brown to dark brown often with a purplish tinge and often with a reddish margin, aging more olive; 5-10 cm wide; dry, with distinctive white powdery coating when young, aging suedelike to nearly velvety and occasionally cracking with reddish or yellowish tones showing through; flesh white to pale yellow sometimes turning blue when exposed. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES yellow, blue if bruised; pores irregular, 1-2 mm. STEM yellow with reddish overlay from powdery granules, redder in age; 5-10 cm x 0.7-2.0 cm; dry, striate, powdery to granular. HABITAT under cedar, alder, spruce and fir, on ground or on decaying wood. DISTRIBUTION British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, reported from Idaho and Montana. EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 12-15 x 4-5.5 um; hyphae of cap cuticle forming a turf of inflated end cells, the hyphae often incrusted but not in spiral fashion. REMARKS when cap of B. zelleri is not white-powdery, and not very dark, it can be necessary to examine the spore shape and cap cuticle to distinguish it from B. truncatus and B. chrysenteron respectively.Boletus zelleri
Boletus zelleri
Steve Trudell

37b Not combining features above

38a Stem scurfy, yellow when young (like a yellow Leccinum), red when old; cap chestnut to yellowish brown; under birch; no part bluing

................................................................................% Boletus subglabripes

CAP dull yellow to clay-color to dull cinnamon or reddish brown; 4.5-10 cm wide; glabrous (bald), moist; flesh becoming pale yellow, rarely changing to slightly bluish when cut, stem cortex at times reddish with age. TASTE and ODOR mild. TUBES and PORES bright yellow, unchanging when bruised; pores small. STEM "furfuraceous" (scurfy, covered with bran-like particles), yellowish with occasional reddish or reddish brown tinges on lower part; 5-10 cm x 1-2 cm. HABITAT under birch. DISTRIBUTION reported from Washington (H. Thiers 1986, pers. comm. to L. Norvell), and Smith et al. cited as very rare in Pacific Northwest in 1981. EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 11-14 x 3-5 um; pileus cuticle an epithelium of cells 10-24 um wide.Boletus subglabripes
Boletus subglabripes
Michael Beug

38b Not combining features above

39a Cap +/- 5 cm wide, bright red granular, yellow background; not bluing

................................................................................% Boletus coccyginus

CAP bright rosy red when young, with age granular tomentose cuticle cracking to reveal yellow background; small (3-5 cm wide); flesh pale lemon yellow, not bluing on exposure. TUBES and PORES bright greenish yellow, sometimes slowly turning +/- greenish on cutting; pores large for such a small bolete. STEM pale yellow-buff with a little red at top; not reticulate; 4-7 cm x 0.5-1.0 cm; flesh slowly turning reddish-brown on cutting but not blue. HABITAT soil under conifers. DISTRIBUTION rare, known from only two locations in the Pacific Northwest, described from California. EDIBILITY unknown, but too small to be of much value. MICROSTRUCTURES 11.2-17.6 x 5.3-7 um; pileus cuticle a tangled trichodermium staining dark yellow in KOH, walls asperulate to faintly encrusted.

39b Not combining these features

40a Cap dry, chestnut brown to yellow-brown or orange-brown; flesh white, not staining when cut or bruised; pores whitish to buff or yellowish; stem with cavities or hollow, and colored like cap; spore deposit yellowish

................................................................................% Gyroporus castaneus

CAP chestnut brown to yellow-brown or orange-brown; 3-10 cm wide; dry, velvety-subtomentose to nearly bald; flesh brittle, white, not staining when cut or bruised. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. PORES whitish to buff or yellowish, not colored like flesh, circular to angular, not turning blue. STEM colored like cap or slightly paler toward top, equal or often swollen in the middle or below, 3-9 cm x 0.6-1.6 cm, hollow at least when old, surface uneven but not reticulate. EDIBILITY edible. HABITAT under mixed conifers and hardwoods. DISTRIBUTION fairly rare, Washington, Oregon, California. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 8-13 x 5-6 microns, clamp connections present.Gyroporus castaneus
Gyroporus castaneus
Michael Beug

40b Not combining these features

41a Cap cracking readily, even when young; tubes bluing readily on injury

41b Cap +/- cracking with age or dry weather; bluing only slightly

42a Cap tan, brown, or olive; cap slightly darker or red-brown with ammonia

................................................................................Boletus subtomentosus

(also known as Xerocomus subtomentosus (Linne) Quélet)

CAP dark olive to yellow-olive, olive-brown, or yellow-brown; 6-15 cm wide; dry dull velvety to matted, usually not conspicuously cracked but splitting near margin, and if so, there is not much development of red pigments in the flesh beneath; flesh whitish to pale yellow, may turn blue when exposed. TASTE mild to slightly acid. ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES yellow, darkening with age, and typically bluing somewhat on injury; pores large (1-2 mm broad), angular to highly irregular in outline, often compound ("having tubes within tubes"). STEM yellow at apex, rust-colored in center and paler at base; 5-11 cm long x 1-2.5 cm thick at top; equal or maybe smaller below; often with whitish to yellow mycelium and yellow rhizoids ("rootlets") arising from base; surface dry but variously ornamented from glabrous to granular to longitudinally fibrillose or ridged or even obscurely reticulate at apex. HABITAT usually along road banks and hummocks in conifer forests. DISTRIBUTION Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California, reported from British Columbia. EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 11.5-16 x 3.5-5 um; pileus cuticle a +/- tangled trichodermium with numerous free, septate hyphae; tips which are strongly encrusted.Boletus subtomentosus
Boletus subtomentosus
Michael Beug

42b Cap brown, sometimes red-brown; blue-green briefly then dark when ammonia is put on cap

................................................................................Boletus spadiceus

(also known as Xerocomus spadiceus (Fr.) Quélet)

(See also 18a.)

CAP date-colored (that is the meaning of the name, described by Bessette et al. as "dark olive to olive-yellow with reddish tints, yellow-brown, reddish brown, or date-brown"); 4-10 cm wide; dry, dull, velvety to matted; flesh mostly white to pale yellow, around larval tunnels bright yellow then pinkish, unchanging or blueing slightly when bruised. TASTE and ODOR mild. TUBES and PORES yellow, often but not always changing to blue when exposed; pores large (1-2 mm broad), often compound ("tubes within tubes") and angular. STEM yellowish or whitish with brown marks and stains; often coarsely reticulate near top; 5-15 cm long x 1-2 cm thick; +/- equal to slightly smaller below. HABITAT in mixed woods and under conifers. DISTRIBUTION California, and reported also from Washington, Oregon, Idaho all according to H. Thiers 1986 in pers. comm. to L. Norvell. EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 9-11 x 4-5.5 um; pileus cuticle is a trichodermium. REMARKS This species will probably be confused with B. subtomentosus, but the latter does not turn blue-green when NH4OH (ammonium hydroxide) is applied to it, as does B. spadiceus, per Smith, Singer & Thiers. B. spadiceus also tends to have more red brown on cap especially when wet.Boletus spadiceus
Boletus spadiceus
Michael Beug

43a (41a) Spores not truncate

................................................................................Boletus chrysenteron

CAP dark brown to olive gray; 6-8 cm wide; dull velvety cuticle cracking early and showing pallid flesh beneath which usually reddens with age; dry. TASTE mild to slightly acid and unpleasant. ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES yellow, usually changing to blue when bruised; pores large (1-1.5 mm broad), very irregular. STEM usually yellow at top becoming rusty or reddish near base; dry, lacking ornamentation, except often longitudinally ridged or striate; 7-10 cm long x 1-1.7 cm thick at apex, equal to tapering slightly at the base. HABITAT in mixed forests. DISTRIBUTION British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, and reported from Idaho and Montana. EDIBILITY edible (but there are many close lookalikes). MICROSTRUCTURES spores 12-13.5 x 5-6 um; pileus cuticle staining dark cinnamon brown in KOH, a trichodermium with slightly differentiated (not inflated) hyphal tips, the hyphae often heavily and spirally encrusted. REMARKS Collections known under this name may constitute more than one species. See also B. zelleri.Boletus chrysenteron
Boletus chrysenteron
Michael Beug

43b Spores truncate

44a Cracks in cap reddish or pallid, cap dark olive to olive brown, (spores 4.5-7 microns wide)

................................................................................Boletus truncatus

(also known as Xerocomus truncatus Singer, Snell, and Dick)

CAP dark olive to olive-brown with red line under cuticle; 3-12 cm wide; dry suedelike, strongly areolate (cracked like mud) in age; flesh whitish then slowly yellowish, staining blue or blue-green when cut or bruised. TASTE and ODOR mild. TUBES and PORES yellow aging more olive; pores irregular 0.5-2mm - staining blue-green on exposure. STEM yellow above, red below; 4-8 cm long x 0.5-2.0 cm thick; naked to pruinose; base with dingy ochraceous mycelium. HABITAT on ground or sometimes decaying wood, under conifers and in mixed woods. DISTRIBUTION British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California. EDIBILITY unknown: MICROSTRUCTURES spores 10-15 x 4.5-6.5 microns, many distinctly truncate; pileus cuticle a trichodermium having hyphae 8-14 microns wide with brown incrustations, end cells tapered to an obtuse apex. REMARKS See also B. zelleri.Boletus truncatus
Boletus truncatus
Boleslaw Kuznik

44b Cracks in cap pallid to yellow; cap gray brown to dingy yellowish brown, (spores 4-5 microns wide)

................................................................................% B. porosporus var. americanus

(See Excluded Species.)

 

KEY TO SPECIES OF GASTROBOLETUS

Gastroboletus is the name given to a group of fungi which look like aborted boletes. Often they are short and may even be covered by a peridial membrane. Their spores are formed in tubes which are so angled that spore discharge is impossible, or else outgrowth of tube walls or a peridial membrane blocks normal spore discharge. Propagation is probably accomplished through consumption and dispersal of spores by insects and animals. Like regular boletes, these semi-boletes are also mycorrhizal, usually with conifers. Most species are found at high elevations (usually over 5000 feet), giving rise to the theory that a short growing season, with the added handicap of dry conditions, often prevented normal growth of regular boletes in the distant past, causing development of these semi-bolete, semi-gastroid forms. Although only four species are currently on record for the Pacific Northwest, this key-maker thinks that PNW amateurs, who often hunt mushrooms in the mountains, could add to that list if they knew what to look for and recognized the fruitbodies, when found, as distinct species and not merely aborted boletes. Such finds should be taken to the regional or club bolete specialist, if possible. If not, field notes should be made on colors (plus changes on cutting or bruising, if any), tree association, elevation, etc.

 

1a Flesh not changing to blue when cut or bruised

1b Flesh quickly changing to blue on exposure

2a Surface yellow to red

................................................................................Gastroboletus vividus

"CAP" bolete-like in appearance but with cap margins strongly turned up when mature, yellow with red areas or blushed overall; 3-6 cm broad; flesh pale yellow, slowly staining pale red where exposed. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES / GLEBA 10-20 mm long, adnate-seceding, aligned from slightly below horizontal to nearly vertically upward, often contorted, olive; pores 0.5-2 mm, circular to elliptic, brilliant yellow soon becoming olive and then red-orange to dark red, not turning blue where bruised. STIPE-COLUMELLA (STEM) brilliant to sordid yellow, red-furfuraceous (scurfy, covered with bran-like particles) at top; 2-3 cm long x 1-3 cm, abruptly bulbous below tube layer. HABITAT underground or partly emerging, with conifers above 1650m. (5400 ft.), July to September. DISTRIBUTION Oregon and California. EDIBILITY unknown. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 13-18 x 6-7 um; spindle-shaped or occasionally oval, smooth, inamyloid.

2b Surface grayish yellow with dark olivaceous fibrils, whitish, buff, or pale brown

3a Surface whitish to buff or pale brown, no hanging veil remnants on cap margin, stem central to off-center, not rare

................................................................................Gastroboletus subalpinus

"CAP" covered by a whitish to buff membrane like the outside tissue of a puffball (which encloses the tubes / gleba also) - bolete-like in overall appearance, often pitted and irregular, usually covered by soil and debris; 6-10 cm broad; flesh 3-15 mm thick at disc, soft, usually white but occasionally with yellowish areas and rarely staining slowly pinkish to dull lilac when cut. TASTE mild, pleasant. ODOR mild to meal-like. TUBES / GLEBA 10-30 mm long, depressed to seceded from stipe-columella (stem), dingy yellow when young, aging olive brown; tubes sometimes oriented vertically near the stipe-columella but most curved and angled upwards at sides; pores small, circular to angular, concolorous with tubes, unchanging when bruised. STIPE-COLUMELLA (STEM) dirty white to buff, base sometimes orange yellow; dry but with the apex reticulate (covered with a network of raised fibrils) when the tubes have seceded enough to let it be seen; 2-5 cm long x 2-4.5 cm thick at apex, possibly enlarged in center or at base. HABITAT underground or partly emerging, with conifers in mountain and subalpine forests. DISTRIBUTION Washington, Oregon and California. EDIBILITY unknown. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 10-16 x 4.5-6 um; shape +/- variable, moderately thick-walled, with sterigmal appendages oblique, inamyloid.

3b Surface grayish yellow with dark olivaceous fibrils, giving a sordid gray appearance, hanging veil remnants on cap margin, stem laterally attached to cap, very rare

................................................................................Gastroboletus imbellus

"CAP" bolete-like in overall appearance, surface grayish yellow with dark olivaceous fibrils, giving a sordid gray appearance; 5 cm broad; hanging veil remnants on cap margin; flesh 20 mm thick, soft, white but with yellowish areas and with a rosy zone above tubes, not turning blue. TASTE slightly bitter. ODOR pungent-mealy. TUBES / GLEBA pores small, exposed but often blocked by folds and outgrowths of wall tissue; tubes not vertical, very short (up to 2mm long), pale grayish olive, unchanging. STIPE-COLUMELLA (STEM) dull yellowish in part, dingy cream in middle part, pale salmon with brown stains at base; upper half with minute blackish dots, often coalescing into patches 0.5mm across; 3.0 cm long x 1.5 cm thick at apex, equal but narrowing slightly at base. HABITAT developing underground, with conifers at 1650m. DISTRIBUTION Oregon, known from type collection. EDIBILITY unknown. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 7-10 x 2.5 um; elliptic or oboval, smooth, inamyloid. REMARKS atypical for Gastroboletus genus, and will probably be moved.

4a Distinct cap lacking, surface rose to brownish red or reddish brown, pore surface reddish orange to red, (spores 8-20 x 4-6 um)

................................................................................Gastroboletus ruber

(formerly Truncocolumella rubra Zeller)

"CAP" nearly spherical to top-shaped or lobed; rose to brownish red or reddish brown, peridium; 2-4 cm broad; dry, thin, smooth, usually disappearing over tube mouths; flesh pale yellow, staining blue instantly when exposed. TASTE not reported in the original description. ODOR not distinctive. TUBES / GLEBA tubes not vertically arranged, pores angular to irregular, up to 1 mm wide, surface irregular and uneven, tinged reddish orange to red, staining blue when bruised; spore mass pale yellow when young, becoming dark olive at maturity. STIPE / COLUMELLA (STEM) 1-2 cm long, 1-2 cm wide, tapered downward, colored like "cap", dry. HABITAT underground or emerging under hemlock with fir, spruce, and pine often present. DISTRIBUTION Cascade Mountains of Washington and Oregon, and reported from northern California. EDIBILITY unknown. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 8-20 x 4-6 um.

4b Cap distinct but typically stunted and irregularly shaped, surface yellowish brown to reddish brown or pale golden yellow, pore surface yellow to orange or red, (spores 11-18 x 7-9 um)

................................................................................Gastroboletus turbinatus

"CAP" like an aborted bolete, reddish brown to yellow brown; 2-5 cm broad; flesh yellow, quickly staining blue on exposure. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES / GLEBA 1.5-3 cm long, highly irregular and never truly vertical, separating readily from the "cap"; pores yellow to orange or red, bluing when bruised. STIPE-COLUMELLA (STEM) short (1-4 cm long), 0.8-2.0 cm thick, extending to near apex of "cap", yellow to reddish; typically staining blue when injured and later these places turning red. HABITAT under conifers on humus, along mountain trails and roadsides, not rare, summer and fall. DISTRIBUTION Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California. EDIBILITY unknown. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 13-18 x 7-9 um. REMARKS var. flammeus, known only from Idaho, grows on the ground under fir and has a pale golden yellow "cap" with red blotches, a bright red pore surface when young, and shorter spores, 11-14 x 7-9 um.Gastroboletus turbinatus
Gastroboletus turbinatus
Michael Beug

 

KEY TO SPECIES OF LECCINUM

Many species of Leccinum are choice edibles. No species are yet known to be poisonous. Fortunately it is easy to learn to recognize the genus by the distinctive tufted scabers on the stem, which usually are white when young and darken to brownish or black by maturity. Many species of Leccinum have not yet been officially identified or described from the Pacific Northwest. Hence accurate notes need to be taken on the association of trees (or shrubs) and also on the color change, or series of color changes, which take place, after cutting, on the context at the junction of the stem and cap. After collection, a specimen should promptly be cut vertically through the cap and stem, and then observed frequently for 15-30 minutes to see whether color changes include reddish or lilac shades, or merely yellowish, brownish, grayish, or olive, and whether or not the changes progress to a dark bluish gray color which is almost black and often called "fuscous" in technical works. Perhaps a species will be named for you!

 

1a Cap predominantly whitish at first, sometimes tinged buff, pinkish, or tan; associated with birch

1b Cap more strongly colored, or associated with other trees

2a Cap whitish to grayish when young, darkening in age and often developing a greenish or olive tinge; growing in bogs, cedar swamps and wet birch woods; staining of flesh with FeSO4 slightly olive (var. holopus) or unrecorded (var. americanum)

................................................................................Leccinum holopus

CAP predominantly white or whitish when young, occasionally with gray, buff, tan, or pinkish tints, often darkening in age and developing a greenish tinge; 3-10 cm wide, bald or nearly so, often viscid when moist or in age, margin with a narrow sterile band of tissue; flesh white, unchanging when cut or rubbed. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. PORES white to slightly grayish or pale dingy brown, unchanging or staining yellowish or brownish when cut or bruised. STEM whitish beneath the scabers that are whitish when young and darken to tan or darker in age, occasionally with green stains on lower part, 8-14 cm x 1-2 cm, equal or enlarging slightly downward. HABITAT on the ground in and around bogs, near swamps or wet birch woods. DISTRIBUTION of var. holopus eastern Canada south to New York, west to the northern Rocky Mountains (Bessette), of var. americanum eastern Canada south to New York, west to Minnesota; L. holopus reported from British Columbia (Schalkwijk-Barendsen), Washington (M. Seidl, pers. comm. var. americanum), Idaho (M. Beug, pers. comm.), Oregon ("what I believe to be L. holopus … with chestnuts and oaks that were probably brought in", Dick Bishop pers. comm.) EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 14-20 x 5-6.5 um. Caulocystidia dark yellow brown in KOH for var. americanum. REMARKS var. americanum is nearly the same but has cap that is white at first, soon becoming dull vinaceous buff, and white flesh that changes to reddish when cut: its known range is eastern Canada south to New York and west to Minnesota and Schalkwijk-Barendsen designated her British Columbia record as var. americanum.

2b Cap white to tan or grayish tan, becoming pinkish buff to cinnamon-buff or darker; growing under birch, including dwarf birch in cold northern habitats or high mountain bogs; flesh stains instantly dark blue with application of FeSO4

................................................................................Leccinum rotundifoliae

(See also 21a.)

CAP whitish to tan to grayish tan, darkening in age; 2-8 cm wide; dry to slightly viscid, typically wrinkled and irregularly depressed; flesh white, unchanging or slightly pinkish when exposed. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. PORES whitish when young, becoming dingy brown when old, unchanging when bruised. STEM whitish to pale tan beneath scabers that are whitish at first and brownish to grayish brown when old; 4-10 cm x 0.5-1.2 cm; flesh white, soon greenish blue in the base and brownish near the top. HABITAT under birch, July to September. DISTRIBUTION eastern Canada south to New York and west to Idaho and Alaska. EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 16-23 x 5.5-8 um. Caulocystidia lemon-yellow in KOH.

3a Cap margin appendiculate from "flaps" of sterile tissue when young

3b Cap margin naked when young

4a Cut flesh not changing color much at junction of cap and stem

4b Cut flesh changing to reddish or dull bluish-gray (or both)

5a Cap dry and fibrillose to scaly, dull orange or yellow

................................................................................% L. subfulvum

(See Excluded Species.)

5b Cap viscid by maturity, rusty-iron red to liver-colored

6a Cap surface granular-roughened like B. mirabilis, dark brown; stem base not bruising blue; under cedar, hemlock, and white pine

................................................................................Leccinum idahoense

CAP dark liver brown; 8-13cm; viscid; marginal flaps; flesh pallid, faintly lilac-gray after +/- 15 minutes. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES pores small, olive-buff when young, staining olive when lightly bruised. STEM 8-12 cm x 2.5-3.5 cm, ornamentation orange but finally black over lower half. HABITAT under cedar, hemlock and white pine. DISTRIBUTION at least Idaho. EDIBILITY probably edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 13-16 x 3.8-5.2 um, cuticular hyphae filled with orange-brown granules in Melzer’s reagent.Leccinum idahoense
Leccinum idahoense
Kit Scates Barnhart

6b Cap surface glabrous to appressed fibrillose, rusty-iron red; stem base exterior bruising blue easily; under pines

................................................................................Leccinum ponderosum

CAP rusty-iron red, massive (10-30 cm); viscidity increasing with age; young caps with marginal flaps; flesh white and not changing much when cut. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES pores minute, pallid to drab, bruising yellowish brown. STEM massive, 8-16 cm long x 2-3 cm thick at apex enlarging to 5-9 cm at base; brown to fuscous "scabers" like colored tips over prominent cottony layer, stem bruising blue especially toward base. HABITAT under pines. DISTRIBUTION at least Washington, Oregon and Idaho. EDIBILITY choice. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 14-17 x 4.5-5.5 um; cuticular hyphae forming pigment globules in Melzer’s reagent.Leccinum ponderosum
Leccinum ponderosum
Ben Woo

7a (4b) Cut flesh changing directly to dull purplish gray (= fuscous)

7b Cut flesh changing first to reddish or winey shades, then fuscous

8a Found under aspen

8b Found under other kinds of trees

9a Cap dull dark brown

................................................................................% Leccinum brunneum

CAP dull dark brown; 6-10 cm; dry, glabrous (bald) to suedelike young, aging +/- fibrillose; marginal flaps present; flesh changing to fuscous without reddish phase. TASTE and ODOR mild. TUBES and PORES white aging pale olive, bruising brown. STEM 8-15 cm long x 1.5-3 cm at apex, club-shaped; "scabers" white at first, darkening with age. HABITAT under aspen. DISTRIBUTION known from the higher elevations in the Sierra Nevada of California, but there are reports from Idaho (H. Thiers 1986, pers. comm. to L. Norvell; NAMA 1985 list). EDIBILITY unknown. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 15.5-19.5 x 4-6 microns; cuticular hyphae lacking incrustations or pigment globules in Melzer’s reagent.Leccinum brunneum
Leccinum brunneum
Michael Wood (MykoWeb)

9b Cap orange-red, dark red, or liver-colored

10a Cap orange-red to dull orange; pores white when young

................................................................................Leccinum insigne

CAP orange-red, dull orange, rusty cinnamon, dark red, or liver-colored; 4-15 cm; dry aging +/- viscid, fibrillose becoming glabrous (bald); marginal flaps present; flesh changing to fuscous without red. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES white when young, becoming dingy yellow and finally yellow-brown to olive-brown in age; pores small, not bluing when bruised, but may stain yellowish to brown, lavender or vinaceous. STEM scabers pallid young, aging dark brown to black; 8-12 cm x 1-3 cm at top and up to 4 cm at base. HABITAT under aspen. DISTRIBUTION California, reported from Washington and Idaho, (A. Parker, pers. comm.), British Columbia (M. Beug, pers. comm.), Montana (L. Evans, pers. comm.). EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 13-16 x 4-6 um; numerous short cells in cap cuticle, cuticular cells lacking pigment globules in Melzer’s.Leccinum insigne
Leccinum insigne
Steve Trudell

10b Cap very dull reddish brown; pores cinnamon when young

................................................................................% Leccinum subtestaceum

CAP very dull reddish brown; 4-12 cm, +/- glabrous (bald), marginal flaps when young; flesh white, winey-gray when cut but lacking distinct red phase. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES cinnamon-brown when young, becoming paler in age, tubes slowly staining vinaceous gray when cut. STEM scabers soon blackish, stem flesh sometimes stained bluish near base; 7-12 cm x 2-3 cm. HABITAT under aspen (and birch according to Bessette). DISTRIBUTION Massachusetts to the Great Lakes Region (Bessette et al.; Both). Kit Scates comment in the 1982 key is "Authoritative confirmation of this species in the Pacific Northwest is desirable." EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 11-15 x 4-5.5 um; some cuticular hyphae showing pigment globules in Melzer’s.

11a (8b) Only under spruce and fir, usually at high elevations; pallid; dry to somewhat viscid

................................................................................Leccinum clavatum

CAP whitish becoming pale toast (tan) color; 8-20 cm; dry becoming subviscid; appressed-fibrillose; margin with sterile flaps; flesh of young specimens staining bluish-gray directly. TUBES and PORES pores staining yellowish then brown when bruised. STEM club-shaped; 4-8 cm long x 1.5-3 cm at apex and up to 7 cm near base, which stains blue; "scabers" becoming dull brown. HABITAT under spruce and fir. DISTRIBUTION at least Idaho, California. EDIBILITY probably edible. MICROSCOPIC spores 14-18 x 4-5 microns.Leccinum clavatum
Leccinum clavatum
Kit Scates Barnhart

11b Only under manzanita and madrone near coast; dark red; viscid

................................................................................Leccinum manzanitae

CAP dark red to reddish brown; massive, 8-20 cm broad; fibrillose and viscid in all stages; young margin with flaps; flesh white, slowly and erratically changing to fuscous without reddish phase when cut. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES pale olive aging olive drab, bruising dark brown. STEM 10-16 cm long x 1.5-3.5 cm thick at top, enlarging downwards, conspicuous squamules darkening to fuscous. HABITAT along coast under manzanita and madrone. DISTRIBUTION Oregon, California, reported from British Columbia (Oluna Ceska pers. comm.) and Washington (Michelle Seidl pers. comm.). EDIBILITY choice. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 13-17 x 4-5.5 um; pigment globules forming in cuticular hyphae when mounted in Melzer’s reagent. REMARKS Ernst Both describes flesh changing to fuscous with red tones, but Thiers, Bessette, and Arora do not describe a red phase. Arora does describe a frequent blue staining on lower stem and Thiers mentions stem flesh may turn blue, but Both and Bessette do not mention this.Leccinum manzanitae
Leccinum manzanitae
Ben Woo

12a (7b) Stipe with dense coal black scabers at all stages, under birch or sometimes other hardwoods

12b Scabers less prominent, or lighter in color especially when young, (or if blackish then cap is dull tan to snuff-brown and growth is under aspen)

13a Cap at first dull orange to pinkish tan or brownish; cap scaly in age; flesh stains blue gray with application of FeSO4; (caulocystidia frequently fusoid-ventricose with elongated necks)

................................................................................Leccinum atrostipitatum

CAP dull orange to tan or brownish; 6-16 cm; dry to slightly viscid, fibrillose, breaking up to form downy patches or small scales when old; margin with thin flaps of tissue at least when young; flesh white, staining pinkish, then purple-gray to blackish when exposed, especially at junction of cap and stem. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. PORES whitish to buff or pale gray when young, becoming dingier when old, unchanging or staining olive to brownish when bruised. STEM whitish to dingy tan, with a dense layer of scabers that are coal black when young and at maturity, blue or blue-green stains occasionally on lower part; 8-15 cm x 1-2.5 cm, nearly equal or enlarging downward. HABITAT in hardwood forests, usually under birch. DISTRIBUTION eastern Canada to Minnesota, Colorado to Washington, occasional, (Bessette et al.) EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 13-17 x 4-5 um; caulocystidia clavate to fusoid ventricose; end cells of cap cuticle tubular, yellowish, lacking orange-brown globules in Melzer’s reagent.Leccinum atrostipitatum
Leccinum atrostipitatum
Michael Beug

13b Cap at first bright brick-orange, fading to dull orange to pinkish tan; cap less scaly in age; flesh stains bright green with application of FeSO4, (caulocystidia clavate, clavate-mucronate or sometimes fusoid-ventricose)

................................................................................Leccinum testaceoscabrum

(According to Breitenbach & Kränzlin (1991) the correct name is Leccinum versipelle (Snell) Fr.)

CAP bright to dull orange with a rose tinge, fading to pinkish tan when old; 4-10 cm wide; dry, nearly bald; margin with sterile tissue at least when young; flesh white, staining reddish then purple-gray to blackish when exposed, especially at junction of cap and stem. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. PORES whitish to olive-buff or pale grayish when young, becoming dingy brown when old, staining olive to olive-brown or darker when bruised, pore surface said to be darker when young that of L. atrostipitatum. STEM whitish, with a dense layer of coal-black scabers when young as well as when mature, sometimes with bluish stains near base; 5-12 cm x 1-1.6 cm, nearly equal, dry. HABITAT under beech, oak, or birch. EDIBILITY suspect, reported to cause gastric distress in some people. DISTRIBUTION northeastern North America west to Pacific Northwest and to Alaska where it is abundant (Bessette et al.) MICROSTRUCTURES spores 13-18 x 3.5-5 um; caulocystidia clavate, clavate-mucronate or sometimes fusoid-ventricose with pale fuscous content in KOH. REMARKS Smith, Thiers, & Watling (1966) give habitat as "under aspen, birch, oak, and mixed conifers". The original description by Secretan specified "under beeches and oaks". Other sources give birch as main habitat.Leccinum versipelle
Leccinum versipelle
Boleslaw Kuznik

14a (12b) Cap white, often with a pink tint, when fruiting body develops in moist weather, light brown to patchy white and brown when it develops in dry weather

................................................................................% undescribed Leccinum

CAP white (often with a pink tint) when fruiting body develops in moist conditions, pale brown or with patches of white and pale brown when it develops in dry conditions, 7-15cm; surface dry, often uneven, sparsely appressed-fibrillose, fibrils more numerous in darker-colored areas, portions of surface finely and superficially areolate in dry conditions, sterile margin 2-5mm, the tissue usually broken into segments especially when young; flesh up to 3.5cm thick, white changing to purplish pink then dark gray with a purple or violet tint at stipe apex and other random areas. TASTE and ODOR mild. PORES white changing to brown in age, bruising dark brown slowly, more than 1 pore per mm. STEM ground color and scabers white (often with pink tint), remaining so in moist weather, darkening in zones near mid-stipe to reddish orange or brown in dry weather; sometimes developing reddish or purplish stains near base after handling, 7-15 cm x 2.3-3.7 cm at apex, 3-6 cm at base, equal or enlarging evenly downward, quickly tapering to a dull point; flesh white, color changes similar to cap flesh, sometimes slowly pinkish purple in base. HABIT solitary to scattered. HABITAT soil or duff in Western Hemlock forest with occasional Douglas-fir. DISTRIBUTION known from only one site near SE side of Mt. Hood in Oregon. EDIBILITY apparently edible (several people have eaten it with no ill effects). MICROSTRUCTURES spores 11.5-18(20) x (3.5)4-5 microns, fusiform or subfusiform (somewhat spindle-shaped). REMARKS description by Richard Bishop

14b Cap orange, dull cinnamon, reddish brown, or dark red (when in doubt use this option)

15a Cap glabrous (bald), dull orange to dull cinnamon

15b Cap fibrillose to scaly while mature (may be bald when old); darker or brighter or lighter than dull orange to dull cinnamon

16a Pores exuding a watery latex (juice) when cut

................................................................................% L. truebloodii

(See Excluded Species.)

16b Pores not exuding a clear latex when cut

................................................................................Leccinum discolor

CAP orange-brown when young, aging pale cinnamon; 5-15 cm; dry, dull, glabrous (bald); marginal flaps present; flesh staining pinkish to brownish orange, then fuscous. TASTE and ODOR mild. TUBES and PORES white aging pale olive brown, bruising dark brown. STEM covered with squamules which age blackish; 7-9 cm x 1-2 cm. HABITAT under aspen; Bessette et al. give habitat as "under pine and aspen". DISTRIBUTION at least Idaho, California, and further east; reported from British Columbia. EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 15.5-20 x 4.5-6.5 um; pigment globules not present in cuticular hyphae in Melzer’s reagent. REMARKS L. aurantiacum is similar but cuticular hyphae contain abundant brown pigment globules in Melzer’s reagent and cap color is brighter. L. insigne lacks a reddish staining phase when flesh is exposed.Leccinum discolor
Leccinum discolor
Michael Beug

17a (15b) Cap dark orange to dark red

17b Cap paler than orange or darker than red

18a Stem conspicuously club-shaped and thick at base when young

................................................................................% Leccinum fallax

CAP dark orange to red; 6-20 cm wide; dry, matted-fibrillose under hand lens; marginal flaps present; flesh thick, "slowly staining dingy vinaceous then gray when cut" TUBES and PORES pores pallid, bruising yellowish to green and finally brownish. STEM short and clubshaped, 6-14 cm long and 1-4 cm at apex, up to 8cm thick at base; scabers aging brown but not black. HABITAT under spruce and fir in Rocky Mountains. DISTRIBUTION type is from Idaho. EDIBILITY probably edible. MICROSCOPIC spores 14-17 x 3-4.5 um; cuticular hyphae with pigment globules in Melzer’s reagent. REMARKS Watling included this species in a group without a reddish phase on cutting.Leccinum fallax
Leccinum fallax
Michael Beug

18b Stem not conspicuously thick at base when young

................................................................................Leccinum aurantiacum

CAP orange to apricot to brick red; 5-15 cm wide; dry, aging +/- viscid; marginal flaps present; flesh changing to wine color before fuscous. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES pallid when young, bruising olive or brown or unchanging. STEM 10-16 cm x 1-3 cm, equal or enlarging downward but not conspicuously clavate-bulbous; scabers whitish to buff, darkening to orange-brown to reddish brown and finally blackish brown, at least over lower part, occasionally with blue-green or yellowish stains on lower part. HABITAT under aspen or pine. DISTRIBUTION Washington and California, and reported from Oregon, Idaho, and Montana, fairly common in Pacific Northwest. EDIBILITY edible and considered choice by many people. MICROSCOPIC spores 13-16 x 3-4.5 um; cuticular hyphae with abundant pigment globules in Melzer’s reagent. REMARKS L. discolor is similar but has duller cap color and lacks orange brown pigment granules in hyphae in Melzer's reagent.

19a (17b) Cap pale pinkish cinnamon to vinaceous; under Whitebark Pine

................................................................................% L. incarnatum

(See Excluded Species.)

19b Cap liver-brown; fibrillose-scaly; under mixed conifers

................................................................................Leccinum fibrillosum

CAP liver brown, dry, fibrillose-scaly, 6-25cm, (Smith et al.(1981) say "dark liver brown and conspicuously fibrillose at first" and "matted-fibrillose becoming squamulose"; Bessette et al. say "finely scaly to tomentose, fibrils and scales dark reddish brown on a paler reddish brown ground color"). TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES pores dingy buff when young, bruising tan. STEM densely coated by cottony scabers that age dark blackish brown; 4-12 cm x 2-5 cm. HABITAT under conifers especially Engelmann spruce and Lodgepole Pine. DISTRIBUTION Rocky Mountains including Idaho, Montana, west to Washington, north to western Canada. EDIBILITY probably edible. MICROSCOPIC spores 14-18 x 3.8-5 microns; cuticular hyphae not having pigment globules in Melzer’s reagent.Leccinum fibrillosum
Leccinum fibrillosum
Michael Beug

20a (3b) Cut flesh not changing to reddish or purplish-gray(= fuscous)

20b Cut flesh changing to a reddish or fuscous color

21a Cap whitish to pallid becoming pale tan on disc, darkening in age; under dwarf birch in cold northern habitats or high mountain bogs

................................................................................L. rotundifoliae

(See 2b for description.)

21b Cap gray-brown to dull tan; usually under birch

................................................................................Leccinum scabrum

CAP gray-brown to dull tan, often tinted olivaceous in age; 4-10 cm; suedelike when young, aging bald and viscid; margin lacking flaps; flesh unchanging when cut or at most slightly staining brownish. TASTE and ODOR mild. TUBES and PORES tubes 8-14 mm, pores whitish at first, becoming grayish to brownish in age, not staining when bruised or slowly staining yellowish. STEM whitish, with dark brown to blackish scabers, surface ornamentation small and fine at top (+/- like dots), coarser and darker in lower part; 7-12 cm x 0.7-1.2 cm; flesh unchanging to slowly staining pinkish near surface or bluing near the base. HABITAT under hardwoods, especially birch. DISTRIBUTION fairly common: British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California. EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 15-19 x 5-7 microns, cuticular hyphae do not have pigment globules in Melzer’s reagent.Leccinum scabrum
Leccinum scabrum
Kit Scates Barnhart

22a (20b) Cap dark brown, flesh changing quickly to coral on cutting

................................................................................% Leccinum roseofractum

CAP dark brown; up to 11.5 cm; greasy then dry and +/- scaly; no marginal flaps; flesh turning immediately coral, and later faintly lilac-gray. TASTE and ODOR mild. TUBES and PORES white aging drab (dingy gray-brown). STEM robust, 8 cm long x 2.5 cm at apex and 4 cm at base; scabers light at top and fused into dense black network on lower half. HABITAT with birch. DISTRIBUTION New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio, included in the key by Kit Scates, further distribution records are desirable. EDIBILITY probably edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 14.3-16.4 x 5.0-5.7 microns.

22b Cap pale buff, flesh slowly and erratically turning winey-pink

................................................................................% L. cretaceum (?)

(See Excluded Species.)

 

KEY TO SPECIES OF SUILLUS AND FUSCOBOLETINUS

The species in this key are contained in the genera Suillus and Fuscoboletinus of Smith and Thiers, which include the genus Boletinus of some other authors.

1a Stem with persistent ring or ring-zone

1b Stem without persistent ring or ring-zone

2a Stem flesh staining bluish-green in 15-30 minutes; pores staining brown; mostly under Douglas-fir; one species under larch

2b Stem flesh not staining bluish-green, etc.

3a Tubes and pores whitish to grayish and not becoming truly yellow

................................................................................Fuscoboletinus laricinus

(also known as Fuscoboletinus aeruginascens (Secretan) Pomerleau & A.H. Sm., Fuscoboletinus viscidus (Linne) Grund & Harrison, and Suillus laricinus (Berkeley) Kuntze)

(See also 9a.)

CAP 3-12 cm broad, appearing glabrous (innate fibrils beneath gluten); viscid to slimy-viscid; smoky gray to olivaceous or olive brownish, finally with fuscous spots in age; marginal veil mostly becoming annulus as below; flesh white to yellowish, usually bluish green where bruised. TASTE and ODOR mild. TUBES and PORES tubes 6-9 mm deep; pores finally elongate radially to 1-3 mm, angular, irregular, and compound. STEM 4-10 cm long, 0.8-1.2 cm thick, pale and reticulate above the annulus, viscid and olive-grayish below the thin and membranous annulus; lacking glandular dots. SPORE DEPOSIT dingy vinaceous-brown. HABITAT always under larch, late summer and fall. DISTRIBUTION fairly common in larch habitat, at least Washington, Oregon, Idaho, reported from Montana. EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 8-12(14) x 3.5-5 um.Fuscoboletinus laricinus
Fuscoboletinus laricinus
Steve Trudell

3b Tubes and pores yellowish when young to greenish olive in age

4a Cap fibrillose-scaly, especially young, brick-red to cinnamon; spore print dull cinnamon; no rosy layer beneath

................................................................................Suillus lakei

CAP 6-15 (20) cm broad; at first covered with reddish-buff to orange-buff or brownish squamules with a gelatinous layer beneath such that at times the fibrils wash off and cap seems glabrous (bald), ground color dingy yellowish; usually looking streaked; flesh yellowish. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES 5-10 mm deep, adnate, dingy ochraceous when young; pores 1-2.5 mm wide, angular, staining brownish when bruised. STEM yellow but soon brown often staining slightly greenish at base when cut; 6-12 cm long, 1-4 cm thick. HABITAT associated with Douglas-fir. DISTRIBUTION common: British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California, and reported from Montana. EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 8-11 x 3-4 um. REMARKS A variety of this species, in which the gelatinous layer is lacking, in which the fibrils are +/- erect like squamules, and in which the cap coloring is more reddish has been named S. lakei var. pseudopictus.Suillus lakei
Suillus lakei
Michael Beug

4b Cap not both fibrillose-scaly and so colored

5a Ring gelatinous, heavy, orange

................................................................................Suillus ponderosus

CAP 9-29 cm, glabrous or with veil remnants near the margin only, viscid; yellow to cinnamon to reddish brown to purplish brown or streaked or sometimes tinged green; flesh yellow, unchanging or becoming faintly pinkish. TASTE not distinctive. ODOR sharply acidulous or not distinctive. TUBES and PORES tubes up to 1.5 cm deep, dull yellow, slightly decurrent; pores large (1-3 mm long), yellow staining brownish. STEM 9-14 cm long, 3-6 cm thick, pale yellow; annulus present and gelatinous and often stained reddish cinnamon on under side from gelatinous outer layer; lacking glandular dots; interior of base greenish when cut. HABITAT under mixed conifers with Douglas-fir present, fall. DISTRIBUTION at least Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho, reported also from British Columbia. EDIBILITY probably edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 8-10(12) x 3.8-5 um.Suillus ponderosus
Suillus ponderosus
Kit Scates Barnhart

5b Ring fibrillose, +/- whitish

6a Cap with streaks or scattered flat fibrils; buff-colored; tubes compound; under Douglas-fir

................................................................................Suillus caerulescens

CAP 6-14 cm, nearly glabrous (bald), viscid; dull vinaceous, dull orange-brown or dull yellow on the disc to brighter yellow toward the margin; margin +/- with veil remnants; flesh pale yellow, unchanging or flushing pinkish. TASTE and ODOR mild or somewhat acidulous (sour). TUBES and PORES 6-10 mm deep, yellow at first, then slightly vinaceous-brown; slightly decurrent; pores yellow, irregularly angular, sometimes compound, in age stained brown from bruising. STEM 2.5-8 cm long, 2-3 cm thick; dull ocher-brown, staining brown when bruised, yellow above the ring, often weakly reticulate at the apex, lacking glandular dots; flesh yellow, discoloring vinaceous-brown except at base, where interior stains blue or bluish green in lower part when cut; annulus bandlike, fibrillose to tomentose, whitish becoming cap color. HABITAT under mixed conifers, but Douglas-fir usually present. DISTRIBUTION common: British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California, and reported from Montana. EDIBILITY probably edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 8-11 x 3-5 um, laticiferous ducts in tube trama.Suillus caerulescens
Suillus caerulescens
Steve Trudell

6b Cap bald, orange-cinnamon to cinnamon; under spruce and true firs

................................................................................Suillus imitatus

CAP 4-12 cm, slimy and glabrous, unicolorous orange-cinnamon to dingy cinnamon; flesh pale yellow, slowly becoming dingy (Bessette et al. say it does not stain when exposed). TASTE mild ODOR mild or somewhat acidulous. TUBES and PORES 7-12 mm deep, yellowish; pores 2-3 x 1.5-2 mm (= large), angular, irregular, staining dull reddish brown. STEM 3.5-6 cm long, 1.5-2.4 cm thick, yellow with cinnamon tints, mottled discoloring overall; flesh rather bright yellow, staining bright blue in basal part only, elsewhere like cap flesh; annulus bandlike, well to weakly developed. HABITAT associated with spruce and true firs. DISTRIBUTION Washington, Oregon, Idaho. EDIBILITY unknown. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 7-9 x 4-4.5 um, no laticiferous ducts in tissues. REMARKS S. imitatus var. viridescens A.H. Sm. and Trappe also occurs in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, and has cap typically flushed olive to blackish green or dull bluish green, flesh that slowly stains brown when exposed, and spores are 8-11 x 4-4.5 um.Suillus imitatus
Suillus imitatus
Ben Woo

7a (2b) Cap dry, woolly-fibrillose-scaly; under larch

7b Cap viscid (slimy), not woolly-fibrillose-scaly; under various trees

8a Cap brown or yellow; stem hollow at base

................................................................................Suillus cavipes

CAP 3-10 cm, surface dry to moist but not viscid, typically covered by fibrils or fibrillose squamules; cinnamon-brown, orange-brown, brown or yellowish, sometimes tips paler; flesh white to yellowish. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES 3-5 mm deep, yellow, more olivaceous in age; pores angular, simple to compound, elongated radially at maturity, not turning blue. STEM 4-9 cm long, 0.8-1.5 cm thick, solid in apex but hollow in remainder; colored like cap or paler, usually with a slight annulus, yellow above the annulus. HABITAT always associated with larch. DISTRIBUTION common: British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, reported from Montana. EDIBILITY edible: one of the best. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 7-10 x 3.5-4 um; clamp connections present. REMARKS some authors retain this species in the genus Boletinus.Suillus cavipes
Suillus cavipes
John Davis

8b Cap rosy-red; stem not hollow

................................................................................Fuscoboletinus ochraceoroseus

CAP 8-20 cm, dry with fibrils or squamules (fine scales) which are whitish at first but slowly become bright rosy red; flesh thick, bright yellow with a pinkish zone near the cuticle; unchanging or becoming slightly greenish blue when injured. TASTE slightly acrid (peppery). ODOR acidulous. TUBES and PORES about 5mm deep, straw yellow or brighter, finally brownish; pores elongated 2-5 x 1-2 mm, angular, compound, in almost gill-like radial lines. STEM 3-10 cm long, 1-3 cm thick, usually slightly reticulate above and somewhat fibrillose below the annulus, yellow inside; annulus whitish and evanescent (disappearing). HABITAT under larch, spring to fall. DISTRIBUTION British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, reported from Montana. EDIBILITY not recommended -- bitter cooked. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 7-10 x 2.5-3.5 um.Fuscoboletinus ochraceoroseus
Fuscoboletinus ochraceoroseus
Ben Woo

9a (7b) Pores and tubes gray-brown; cap olive, tan or gray, viscid (slimy); under larch

................................................................................Fuscoboletinus laricinus

(See description under 3a.)

9b Not as described above

10a Ring gelatinous, colored +/- like cap

10b Ring +/- fibrillose, whitish

11a Outer surface of ring purplish in wet weather or when old

................................................................................Suillus luteus

CAP 5-12 cm, glabrous and viscid; sometimes streaked; reddish brown to yellowish brown; flesh white to pale yellow, unchanging on cutting. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES tubes 3-1.5 mm deep, whitish to yellow; pores yellow becoming dark to dotted, very small, 1-3 per mm. STEM 3-8 cm long, 1-2.5 cm thick, lower stem with a sheath which continues up into a persistent membranous sheathing annulus, both whitish but in wet weather a gelatinous outer layer with purple tones becomes evident, and dingy purple to brownish tones usually present even when dry, especially in age; glandular dotted and pale yellow above the annulus and beneath the sheathing layer. HABITAT under conifers, often associated with Scotch Pine. DISTRIBUTION reported from British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California, although A.H. Smith wrote in 1965 "In the light of our more restricted concept of S. luteus its presence in the Pacific Northwest needs further verification." EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 7-9 x 2.5-3 microns.Suillus luteus
Suillus luteus
Michael Beug

11b Outer surface of ring not purplish in wet weather or when old

12a Cap bay red with yellow edge (occasionally all yellow); under larch

................................................................................Suillus grevillei

CAP 5-15 cm, bay red with yellow extreme edge, glabrous, slimy; context yellow, soon becoming pinkish to reddish. TASTE not distinctive or slightly bitterish. ODOR not distinctive or acid-metallic. TUBES and PORES 10-15 mm deep, yellow becoming olive-ocher; decurrent; pores average, staining red brown. STEM 4-10 cm long, 1-3 cm thick, yellow at first but soon with chestnut variegations; annulus gelatinous on the outside; lacking glandular dots. HABITAT mycorrhizal with larch, fall. DISTRIBUTION common: British Columbia, Washington, Idaho and Montana, and reported from Oregon. EDIBILITY edible but not well flavored. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 8-10 x 2.5-3.5 um.Suillus grevillei
Suillus grevillei
Steve Trudell

12b Cap, stem and ring olivaceous when young, aging cinnamon; under conifers

................................................................................Suillus subolivaceus

CAP 5-10cm, glutinous, streaked, color variable from dark dingy yellow-brown to olive-brown or dingy olive; flesh up to 1 cm thick, unchanging when bruised or staining dingy pinkish. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES olive-grayish to grayish buff and beaded with drops of moisture, dingy yellow when mature; pores 1-2 mm, unchanging when bruised. STEM 6-10 cm x 0.8-1.4 cm, equal; yellowish above, pallid to brownish below, the pinkish brown glandular dots soon blackening; annulus in young specimens thick and baggy and gelatinous on outer surface, shrinking markedly by maturity. HABITAT under mixed conifers, fall. DISTRIBUTION Washington, Oregon, Idaho, reported from British Columbia and Montana. EDIBILITY not recommended. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 8-11 x 3-4.5 um.Suillus subolivaceus
Suillus subolivaceus
Michael Beug

13a (10b) Cap mustardy yellow with flat brown scales near edge

................................................................................Suillus sibiricus

(See also 18a.)

CAP 3-10 cm, ground color chamois to dingy olive-yellow or brighter yellow, with brownish appressed scales overall and patches of veil tissue hanging from margin; viscid to glutinous; flesh pale olive yellow, slowly dull cinnamon when cut. TASTE +/- acid. ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES 1-1.5 cm deep, dingy ochraceous; adnate becoming decurrent; pores 1-2 mm broad, angular and often compound ("tubes within tubes"), staining dull cinnamon when bruised, not blue. STEM 5-10 cm x 0.7-1.5 cm, yellow when young, dingy ochraceous, often stained vinaceous near base; glandular-dotted overall; sometimes with annulus. HABITAT under White Pine, fall. DISTRIBUTION very common in N. Idaho, but also Washington, Oregon, Montana, and found on foray lists from British Columbia. EDIBILITY not recommended. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 8-11 x 3.5-4.2 microns. REMARKS often mistaken for S. americanus (see Excluded species) which has a brighter yellow cap with reddish to cinnamon patches and a thinner stem that is typically less than 1 cm thick, and it does not form an annulus. S. flavidus has a smaller somewhat more umbonate cap that has fewer scales and lighter color, and has a well developed gelatinous annulus.Suillus sibiricus
Suillus sibiricus
Andrew Parker

13b Cap not mustardy yellow or not with flat brown scales near edge

14a Cap olive, umbonate when young

................................................................................Suillus flavidus

(description here from 1982 key as S. umbonatus Dick & Snell, synonymized by Moser 1997 with S. flavidus (Fr.) Singer)

CAP olive; 3-9 cm; umbonate when young, surface viscid; often streaked; flesh pale yellow, soon dingy cinnamon when cut. TASTE slightly sour. ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES 3-4 mm deep, buff staining sordid pinkish cinnamon when bruised. STEM 2.5-9 cm x 0.4-1.2 cm (= rather thin), pallid or yellowish, glandular dots +/- pale yellow; gelatinous veil soon staining cinnamon; base sometimes discoloring; base with orange tomentum at times. HABITAT under pines. DISTRIBUTION British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California, and reported from Montana. EDIBILITY not recommended. MICROSTRUCTURES spores for S. flavidus 7-10 x 4-4.5 um. REMARKS cap generally bald but according to Thiers may have some reddish brown spots or flecks on margin and according to Bessette typically has small hanging veil remnants.Suillus flavidus
Suillus flavidus
Kit Scates Barnhart

14b Cap streaked dull yellow-brown, ring fragmentary; under 2- and 3-needle pines

................................................................................Suillus pseudobrevipes

CAP 6-11 cm, appearing fibrillose-streaked beneath gluten, slimy when fresh; clay-color to yellow-brown; glabrous (bald) or at times with patches of veil near margin and/or hanging from it; flesh white or pale yellow. TASTE slightly acidic or not distinctive. ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES 6-10 mm deep, dingy yellowish; pores very small (3 per mm), round; unchanging. STEM 2-8 cm x 1-3 cm, white becoming yellowish; annulus fragile and fragmentary, often merely a fibrillose zone; lacking obvious sticky brownish dots. HABITAT under Lodgepole Pine (2-needle) or Ponderosa Pine (3-needle), summer. DISTRIBUTION Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, and California. EDIBILITY probably edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 7-9 x 2.5-3 cm. REMARKS S. brevipes lacks partial veil and tends to have a darker cap.Suillus pseudobrevipes
Suillus pseudobrevipes
Michael Beug

15a (1b) Cap margin with fringe or cottony roll when young

15b Cap margin naked when young (cap surface may be fibrillose to scaly or not)

16a Stem with a granular rash or dark brownish spots

16b Stem lacking such a granular rash

17a Cap with flat brownish scales near edges, cap mustardy yellow to brighter yellow

17b Cap without flat brown scales

18a Stem 0.6-1.5cm thick at maturity, cap mustardy yellow to ocher-yellow

................................................................................S. sibiricus

(See 13a for description.)

18b Stem typically less than 1cm thick at maturity, cap bright yellow to ocher-yellow

................................................................................S. americanus

(See Excluded species.)

 

19a Partial veil like a membrane (skin)

19b Partial veil cottony or woolly

20a Cap dark brown in all ages; fringe like dark skin; stem whitish

................................................................................* Suillus borealis

CAP 4-12 cm, glabrous (bald) and glutinous, whitish only before being exposed to light, then dark vinaceous brown to chocolate brown; veil adhering to margin and outer layer of veil soon becoming lilac-brown; flesh white becoming yellow. TASTE and ODOR mild. TUBES and PORES 4-7 mm deep; pores about 2 per mm (= small), pale dull yellow, not staining when bruised. STEM 1-5 cm x 1-3 cm, white becoming yellowish and glandular-dotted, in age the dots pinkish brown; interior staining vinaceous-red from "worms;" exterior ochraceous from handling. HABITAT under Western White Pine. DISTRIBUTION northern Rocky Mountains and Pacific Northwest including Idaho and northern California, also reported from British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. EDIBILITY edible and choice. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 6-9 x 3-5 um.Suillus borealis
Suillus borealis
Michael Beug

20b Cap white, bruising brown; with brown slime; under Sugar Pine or Lodgepole Pine

................................................................................Suillus brunnescens

CAP 5-15 cm, white at first but often streaked in age, glabrous (bald) and glutinous, the slime soon changing to chocolate brown; veil thin, membranous, white, usually adhering to cap margin, rarely leaving any particles of veil tissue on stem; flesh white when young, finally yellowish, not changing to blue. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES up to 15 mm deep but mostly 10 mm, pale ochraceous; pores small (2 per mm). STEM 3-8 cm x 1-3 cm, white, base staining vinaceous, then brownish. HABITAT under Sugar Pine, southern Oregon, (Bessette et al. say under pines). DISTRIBUTION at least Idaho, Oregon, and California. EDIBILITY probably edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 6.5-9 x 2.5-3.5 um.Suillus brunnescens
Suillus brunnescens
Michael Beug

21a (19b) Granular spots on stem conspicuous at all ages; cap yellowish young, red-orange-brown when old; under Beach Pine and Bishop Pine

................................................................................Suillus glandulosipes

CAP 7-12 cm; viscid, glabrous; buff when young, aging orangish cinnamon; margin strongly inrolled with a conspicuous cottony roll when young, disappearing; flesh white, aging yellowish, unchanging. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES yellow, pores 1-2 per mm. STEM dry, buff, densely covered during all stages with irregular glandular dots and smears that often stain hands dark; 4-11 cm x 1-2 cm. HABITAT under Bishop Pine and Beach Pine. DISTRIBUTION California, "throughout the Pacific Northwest" (Thiers). EDIBILITY probably edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 6-9 x 3-4 um.Suillus glandulosipes
Suillus glandulosipes
Kit Scates Barnhart

21b Granular spots obscure when young; cap pale pinkish-cinnamon or pale ochraceous; under Lodgepole Pine

................................................................................Suillus neoalbidipes

(formerly known as S. albidipes (Peck) Singer)

CAP 4-10 cm; gelatinous; pallid, becoming pale ochraceous or vinaceous-cinnamon; with a zone of soft cottony whitish to vinaceous-buff material along the margin when young, perhaps patchy in age; flesh white, slowly becoming yellow, not turning blue. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES about 5 mm deep, pale dingy yellow; pores round, minute (+/- 3 per mm), usually not staining when bruised. STEM 3-6 cm x 1.0-1.5 cm, white, becoming yellowish in upper part, brownish near base, glandular dots best visible in age. HABITAT under 2- and 5-needle pines, late summer and fall. DISTRIBUTION Oregon collection at Oregon State University Herbarium, reported from British Columbia. EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 6-10 x 2-3 um. REMARKS the colors of these two species are variously described, and knowledge of both species would be required to distinguish them by color. Since Beach Pine and Lodgepole pine are the same species, this distinction may be unreliable as well.

22a (16b) Veil cottony; pores small and round, not staining brown; tube length normal; cap dull yellowish

................................................................................Suillus albivelatus

CAP 4-12 cm; viscid; at first covered with a white fibrillose veil which leaves squamules or floccose patches on the cap especially near the margin, at times with a portion of the margin intergrown with the stipe; color pallid at first, becoming vinaceous-brown to dull yellow brown; flesh white but soon lemon yellow, staining reddish around worm holes. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES 5-10 mm deep, pale ocher; pores minute (up to 3 per mm), round, not changing color when bruised. STEM 1-4 cm x 1.5-2.5 cm; devoid of glandular dots except a few in age. HABITAT under conifers, usually pines, summer and fall. DISTRIBUTION abundant in northern Idaho, also Montana, Washington, and reported from British Columbia. EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES 7-8.5 x 2.8-3 um.Suillus albivelatus
Suillus albivelatus
Michael Beug

22b Veil membranous; pores angular but not large; tubes unequal so pore surface is irregular

................................................................................% S. appendiculatus

(See Excluded Species.)

 

23a (15b) Stem with granular rash of dark brownish spots

23b Stem without such a rash

24a Flesh bluing when cut, cap more or less woolly

24b Flesh not bluing when cut; cap glabrous (bald) to fibrillose-scaly

25a Cap yellow-orange; pores brownish when young; under pines or other conifers

................................................................................Suillus tomentosus

CAP 5-15 cm, yellow to orange-buff with patches of gray-brown to reddish tomentum or squamules over surface, aging more glabrous and viscid; viscid beneath tomentose layer; margin naked; flesh pallid to yellow, changing to blue when injured, slowly and erratically. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES tubes 1-2 cm deep, pale dingy yellow becoming olive-yellow; pores dingy brown when young, slowly yellow, about 2 per mm, turning blue when bruised. STEM 3-15 cm x 1-3 cm; concolorous with cap or more orange; glandular dotted. HABITAT under pines or other conifers. DISTRIBUTION British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California, and reported from Montana. EDIBILITY not recommended. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 7-12 x 3-5 microns. REMARKS fairly common.Suillus tomentosus
Suillus tomentosus
Michael Beug

25b Cap another color

26a Cap olive to brown

................................................................................Suillus tomentosus var. discolor

A variant differing mainly in having much duller colors. The buttons are covered with dense grayish fibrils; mature specimens appear olive-brown to olive-gray. By contrast, the pores of young buttons are not so brown as in the type variety. It is fairly common in Idaho, according to Bessette et al.

26b Cap red

................................................................................% S. ruber

(See Excluded Species.)

 

27a (24b) Cap conspicuously fibrillose-scaly when young, olive-brown to vinaceous brown at first, becoming paler, revealing cinnamon to ochraceous ground color, recorded Oregon and California

................................................................................Suillus fuscotomentosus

(A synonym is Suillus acerbus A.H. Sm. & Thiers.)

CAP when young densely coated with olive-brown to dark brown or vinaceous brown fibrils; when mature, with a thinner and more widely separated layer of brown fibrils on buff to yellow or pale ocher ground color; moist and slightly viscid or dry, conspicuously fibrillose to fibrillose-scaly, but sometimes nearly bald when old; flesh pale yellow to yellow, not staining when exposed. TASTE not distinctive or weakly acidic and unpleasant. ODOR not distinctive. PORES pale yellow at first, becoming yellow to olive-yellow or dull golden yellow when mature, not staining where bruised, pores angular, 1-2 per mm. STEM 4-10 cm x 1-3 cm, nearly equal or enlarged downward; yellow to pale yellow, with dense conspicuous brown to vinaceous brown glandular dots; dry. HABITAT under pine. DISTRIBUTION Oregon and California, fairly common according to Bessette et al. EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 9-12 x 3-4 um.Suillus fuscotomentosus
Suillus fuscotomentosus
Fred Stevens (MykoWeb)

27b Cap glabrous (bald)

28a Pores small (up to 1 mm); cap pallid at first, then some shade of tan, brown, cinnamon brown, yellow-brown or orange-brown; cap over 4cm when mature

................................................................................Suillus granulatus

CAP 5-15 cm; glabrous (bald) and viscid to glutinous when wet; pallid at first, soon becoming vinaceous-cinnamon to dark orange-cinnamon, often streaked or obscurely mottled, sometimes areolate; margin naked; flesh whitish but soon pale yellow then dingy yellow, not turning blue. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES yellowish becoming brownish spotted, 1-2 pores per mm, becoming elongated and sometimes radially arranged, when very young often with droplets of a cloudy liquid on them. STEM 4-8 cm x 1-2 cm, whitish but soon bright yellow above, base becoming dingy cinnamon, glandular dots becoming pinkish tan to brown. HABITAT under pines. DISTRIBUTION Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California, reported from British Columbia. EDIBILITY edible, considered good. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 7-10 x 2.5-3.5 um.Suillus granulatus
Suillus granulatus
Ben Woo

28b Pores large (over 1 mm), or cap differently colored, or cap small (less than 4cm) even when mature

29a Cap dark red-brown to pinkish cinnamon; stem usually narrowed at base; tubes decurrent, pores radially arranged and elongated

................................................................................Suillus punctatipes

CAP 8-20 cm; slimy and mostly glabrous (bald); margin naked; brown to dark brown when young, becoming orange-brown or cinnamon or violaceous-brown; flesh white at first, not turning blue. TASTE not distinctive. ODOR pungent or not distinctive. TUBES and PORES up to 1 cm deep, yellow; pores whitish at first but soon yellow, up to 1-3 (4) mm long radially (= very large). STEM 6-10 cm x 1-3 cm, white becoming yellow and with pinkish to vinaceous brown dots and large glandular smears often 1 cm or more broad. HABITAT under conifers. DISTRIBUTION at least Washington, Idaho, and California, and reported from Oregon and British Columbia. EDIBILITY not recommended. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 7-10 x 3-4 um.Suillus punctatipes
Suillus punctatipes
John Davis

29b Not combining features above

30a Cap whitish when young, becoming yellowish in age; stem with pinkish brown dots that darken with age; associated with white pine

................................................................................Suillus placidus

CAP 3-9 cm, viscid, glabrous (bald); white or whitish when young, yellowish in age; flesh white to pale yellow, slowly staining pale vinaceous when exposed, not turning blue. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. PORES white soon becoming yellowish and in age ocher-yellow, unchanging when bruised, often with pinkish droplets when moist, pores angular to irregular, 0.5-2 mm wide. STEM 4-9 cm x 0.6-1.2 cm, white, becoming yellow when old, with conspicuous pinkish brown dots and smears that become reddish brown or darker when old. HABITAT under White Pine. DISTRIBUTION reported from Washington by Isaacs & Stuntz. EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 7-9 x 2.5-3.2 um. REMARKS S. pallidiceps is similar but lacks conspicuous glandular dots, is associated with Lodgepole Pine, and is known only from Idaho.

30b Not combining features above

31a Cap convex to plane, pale yellow beneath smoky slime, becoming paler in age; stem stout; tubes depressed at stem

................................................................................% Suillus flavogranulatus

CAP 6-9 cm, glabrous (bald), viscid, pallid to pale yellow ochraceous; flesh white. TASTE and ODOR mild. TUBES and PORES yellow, pores large and may be somewhat elongated, 1-2.5 mm. STEM stout, 3-5 cm x 1.2-1.8 cm, white on surface, sulphur yellow within, slowly pinkish brown when cut; with numerous pinkish brown glandular dots over upper 2/3. HABITAT under pines. DISTRIBUTION at least British Columbia, Washington, and Idaho. EDIBILITY unknown. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 7.5-9 x 3-3.2 um; pileus cuticle an ixotrichodermium. REMARKS S. granulatus is similar but its cap develops reddish cinnamon tones when mature, and its pores are much smaller.Suillus flavogranulatus
Suillus flavogranulatus
Kit Scates Barnhart

31b Cap umbonate or bell-shaped, streaked brown & yellow; stem slender; in clumps of 40-50; under Beach Pine

................................................................................% Suillus helenae

CAP 1.5-4 cm, slimy viscid; dingy yellow streaked brown; almost conic to bellshaped to umbonate; flesh unchanging, ochraceous. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES yellow; tubes compound ("having tubes within tubes"); pores angular and radially arranged. STEM 3-6 cm x 0.4 cm (rather slender), yellowish, lacking a ring but heavily covered with concolorous resinous glandular dots, darkening slowly; base ending in copious white rhizomorphs. HABIT grows in dense clusters. HABITAT under Beach Pine. DISTRIBUTION at least Idaho and Oregon. EDIBILITY unknown. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 6-10 x 3-4 microns.

32a (23b) Cap when young white, aging pale yellow and finally dull cinnamon-buff; under Lodgepole Pine

................................................................................% Suillus pallidiceps

CAP 3-8 cm, glabrous and glutinous, when young white, aging pale yellow and finally dull cinnamon-buff, not staining when handled but in contact with waxed paper becoming purplish umber; veil absent; flesh white becoming yellow, unchanging. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES 10 mm deep, yellow; pores very small (2-3 per mm), unchanging. STEM 2-7 cm x 1.2-1.6 cm, surface pure white and naked. HABITAT under 2-needle pines, July-August. DISTRIBUTION Rocky Mountains of Idaho. REMARKS S. placidus is similar but has conspicuous glandular dots and is associated with White Pine.Suillus pallidiceps
Suillus pallidiceps
Buck McAdoo

32b Cap darker than above

33a Under 2- and 3-needle pines; cap when young brown but aging yellowish; stem often short

................................................................................Suillus brevipes

CAP 5-10 cm, naked and glutinous; dark vinaceous brown, slowly becoming pale tan to ochraceous; margin in buttons faintly white-tomentose but veil lacking and no roll of cottony material present; flesh white becoming yellow, not turning blue. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES 4-10 mm deep; dingy yellow becoming darker and more olivaceous; pores 1-2 per mm, round. STEM 2-7 cm x 1-3 cm, white becoming yellowish; a few glandular dots may be visible in age but never conspicuous or well developed. HABITAT under 2- and 3-needle pines. DISTRIBUTION British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California, reported from MT. EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 7-10 x 2.5-3.5 microns.Suillus brevipes
Suillus brevipes
Michael Beug

33b Under oaks and other hardwoods; cap red-brown, slimy

................................................................................Boletus flaviporus

(See Key to Species of Boletus etc.)

 

DESCRIPTION OF Pulveroboletus ravenelii

CAP 1-10 cm, dry and powdery at first, becoming appressed-fibrillose to fibrillose-scaly; bright sulfur-yellow, becoming orange-red to brownish red from center; typically with hanging yellow veil remnants; flesh white to pale yellow, slowly staining pale blue then dingy yellow to pale brown when cut. TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES tubes 5-8 mm deep, bright yellow, becoming dingier or grayish brown at maturity; pores small (1-3 per mm), turning blue then brown when bruised. STEM 4-15 cm x 0.6-1.6 cm, bright sulfur-yellow and powdery, at least in lower part, sometimes leaving a yellow annulus. HABITAT on ground in woods. DISTRIBUTION includes California, also recorded from Oregon (Coos Co.); rare. EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 8-10.5 x 4-5 microns, elliptic to oval, smooth. REMARKS spore deposit is olive-gray to olive-brown.

 

EXCLUDED SPECIES

Boletus fragrans Vittad.

CAP brown to olive brown on the disc, paler on the margin; 6-15 cm wide; irregular and uneven; dry and suedelike, aging +/- glabrous (bald); flesh cream color to yellow, bluing on injury. TASTE and ODOR mild, odor pleasant in Europe. TUBES and PORES all yellow when young, aging dark yellow, bluing when bruised. STEM yellow at apex (occasionally with reddish band), more tan toward base, 4-10 cm long x 1-3.5 cm thick, +/- equal; not reticulate, glabrous to granular. HABITAT in U.S. known only from high elevations under conifers, usually Red Fir. DISTRIBUTION reported by Slipp and Snell from Idaho, but Singer thought their species different from the European one; Thiers says that in California it has only been found in the Yuba Pass and Luther Pass areas; not included by Bessette et al. for North America. EDIBILITY edible in Europe, unknown for U.S. collections. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 13-17.5 x 5-7.8 microns; pileus cuticle a trichodermium of hyphae with spiral encrustations.


Boletus porosporus (Imler) Watling var. americanus A.H. Sm. & Thiers

CAP gray-brown to dingy yellowish brown; 4-6.5 cm wide; densely tomentose (plush-like), dry; flesh pallid yellowish white, unchanging when cut. TASTE and ODOR mild. TUBES and PORES tubes yellow, pores yellowish gray, staining blue on exposure; pores round, 1-2 per mm. STEM upper area roughened like a finely ornamented Leccinum, ornamentation dull brown on a reddish to brown ground color, yellowish mycelium over base, 5-6 cm long x 0.8-1.2 cm thick at top. HABITAT not specified. DISTRIBUTION described from Idaho (without a Latin diagnosis), but E. Both quotes Smith (1975), "it occurs throughout the western United States but is especially common early in the fall season in the rain forests of the coast". EDIBILITY unknown. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 13-16 x 4-5 um, amyloid at first but quickly changing, apex truncate or notched; cap cuticle a trichodermium of enlarged cells often encrusted with cinnamon brown material. REMARKS As Ernest Both indicates, there is considerable nomenclatural controversy about this taxon. There is also var. porosporus, also known as Xerocomus porosporus Imler var. porosporus, said to occur in Washington, and to have wider spores and less areolate cap: a taxon that has been treated by Grund and Harrison (1976) as a synonym of Boletus truncatus (Singer, Snell, & Dick) Pouzar. Boletus porosporus is not included by Bessette et al. for North America.


Leccinum cretaceum ?

CAP pale buff-pink to pale tan; very convex; approximately 5 cm diameter; dry and dull, becoming areolate in dry weather; flesh on cutting reddish before fuscous; TASTE and ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES white when young, aging tan; deeply depressed near stem. STEM clavate-bulbous when young, aging almost equal; ground color very pale, ornamentation very variable, upper half almost smooth to fibrillose-roughened, lower half with not-very-dense blackening scabers. HABIT and HABITAT gregarious to cespitose under birch and Trembling Aspen. DISTRIBUTION "Material described is that found in northern Idaho; it may or not be conspecific with L. cretaceum of Europe" (this comment and the query after the name are both in the original key by Kit Scates). Neither Bessette et al. nor E. Both list the species for North America. EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 14.3-16.4 x 5.0-5.7 um.


Leccinum incarnatum A.H. Sm., Thiers & Watling

CAP pale pinkish cinnamon to vinaceous; 5-15 cm; dry, matted fibrillose, cracking in age; margin flaps present when young; flesh when cut slowly vinaceous buff then vinaceous gray. TUBES and PORES small, gray-brown when young, bruising dingy tan. STEM white with vinaceous-buff scabers that become brown but not black; 4-8 cm x 2-2.5 cm at apex, 4 cm thick at base. HABITAT under Whitebark Pine (Pinus albicaulis). DISTRIBUTION described from Idaho, but not included by Bessette et al. for North America. EDIBILITY probably edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 13-16 x 3-4.5 um; cuticular hyphae not having pigment globules in Melzer’s reagent.


Leccinum subfulvum A.H. Sm., Thiers & Watling

CAP dull orange or yellow; 6-12 cm, convex, dry and fibrillose to scaly, marginal flaps; flesh white, not changing. TUBES and PORES not staining. STEM 5-10 cm long and 1-2 cm wide at top, club-shaped but pointed at base; ornamentation colored as cap. HABITAT under Lodgepole Pine, fall. DISTRIBUTION rare, described from Washington; not included by Bessette et al. for North America. EDIBILITY probably edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 13-17 x 4.5-5.5 um.


Leccinum truebloodii A.H. Sm., Thiers & Watling

CAP orange to dull tan to snuff-brown, becoming blackish when bruised; 4-9 cm; glabrous (bald) at first but cracking in age; marginal flaps present; flesh cream, becoming pinkish on cutting before changing further. TASTE mild and slightly nutty. TUBES and PORES creamy to chamois or grayish tan, bruising blackish, exuding a clear fluid when cut. STEM 6-8 cm x 3-3.5 cm; flexuous (curved both ways); covered entirely with blackish fibrillose squamules (fine scales). HABITAT under aspen, collected in Owyhee County by Ted Trueblood. DISTRIBUTION described from Idaho, but not included by Bessette et al. for North America. EDIBILITY edible. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 14-18 x 5-7.5 um; pigment globules not present in cuticular hyphae in Melzer’s reagent.


Suillus americanus (Peck) Snell ex Slipp & Snell

CAP 3-10 cm, ground color bright yellow to ocher-yellow, with brownish scales or patches especially toward margin, patches of veil tissue hanging from margin; viscid to glutinous; flesh yellow, staining vinaceous brown when cut but not in stem base. TASTE not distinctive or +/- acid. ODOR not distinctive. TUBES and PORES 0.6-1 cm deep, yellow becoming browner, staining vinaceous brown when bruised, not blue; adnate to decurrent; pores 1-2 mm broad, angular. STEM 3-9 cm x 0.3-1.0 cm, hollow when old, often crooked; yellow, with vinaceous brown stains where handled or when old; glandular-dotted overall; without annulus. HABITAT under White Pine, fall. DISTRIBUTION the presence of this species in the Pacific Northwest is debatable. There are vouchers at University of Washington (D. Stuntz 1976, D. Stuntz 1976, both from King County), and Oregon State University (including A.H. Smith 1946), but many old records are really S. sibiricus (which was described in 1938 as Ixocomus sibiricus by R. Singer). H. Thiers wrote in 1975, "it is now believed that S. americanus does not occur west of the Rocky Mountains and that many reports of its presence in the west have been based on basidiocarps of S. sibiricus". There remains also the possibility that they are really the same species, but that possibility needs to be explored further at the molecular level. EDIBILITY yes. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 8-11 x 3-4 microns. REMARKS S. sibiricus may form an annulus. According to Thiers, perhaps the most obvious difference from S. sibiricus is the tendency of stem flesh of the base to stain vinaceous in S. sibiricus. S. flavidus has a smaller somewhat more umbonate cap that has fewer scales and lighter color, and has a well developed gelatinous annulus.


Suillus appendiculatus (Peck) A.H. Sm. & Thiers

This is Suillus appendiculatus (Peck) A.H. Sm. & Thiers, or Boletinus appendiculatus Peck, (not Suillus appendiculatus (Schaeffer: Fr.) Kuntze which is the same as Boletus appendiculatus (Schaeffer: Fr.) Secretan.

CAP 10-20 cm (comparatively large); glabrous and possibly viscid; dingy yellow; flesh pale yellow, unchangeable. TUBES and PORES yellow; pores medium but angular and unequal, staining brown when injured. STEM 5-7.5 cm x 0.8-1.5 cm; slightly thickened at base, neither annulate nor glandular dotted. HABITAT under or near fir trees, late fall or winter. DISTRIBUTION collected by Yeomans in Washington state according to Smith & Thiers, but not included by Bessette for North America. MICROSTRUCTURES spore size 7.5-9.5 x 3-3.5. REMARKS not well known.


Suillus ruber Singer & Sipe

CAP bright red sprinkled with darker spots, viscid, fibrillose; flesh yellow turning blue on exposure. TUBES and PORES greenish yellow when mature, pores small. STEM yellow, ornamented with glandular dots but no veil. HABITAT under conifers. DISTRIBUTION described from Oregon, but not included by Bessette et al. for North America. EDIBILITY unknown. MICROSTRUCTURES spores 7.8-9 x 2.3-4 um; cuticle an ixotrichodermium. REMARKS It has been suggested that this may be merely old brightly colored S. tomentosus which often ages red. Anybody finding a Suillus, red when young, that turns blue, should get it to a bolete specialist.


 

REFERENCES

  1. Bessette, Alan E., William C. Roody, and Arleen R. Bessette. 2000. North American Boletes A Color Guide to the Fleshy Pored Mushrooms. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse. 400p.
  2. Both, Ernest E. 1993. The Boletes of North America A Compendium Buffalo Museum of Science, Buffalo. 436p.
  3. Castellano, Michael A., Jane E. Smith, Thom O'Dell, Efrén Cázares, Susan Nugent. 1999. Handbook to Strategy 1 Fungal Species in the Northwest Forest Plan. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-476. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland. 195p.
  4. Castellano, Michael A., Efrén Cázares, Brian Fondrick, and Tina Dreisbach. 2003. Handbook to Additional Fungal Species of Special Concern in the Northwest Forest Plan. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-572. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland. 144p.
  5. Cázares, Efrén, James M. Trappe. 1991. "Alpine and subalpine fungi of the Cascade and Olympic Mountains. 3. Gastroboletus ruber comb. nov." Mycotaxon 42: 339-345.
  6. Dick, Esther A., Walter H. Snell. 1968. "Some Boleti from Alaska." Mycologia 60: 1204-1210.
  7. Nouhra, Eduardo, Michael A. Castellano, James M. Trappe. 2002. "NATS truffle and truffle-like fungi 9: Gastroboletus molinai sp. nov. (Boletaceae, Basidiomycota), with a revised key to the species of Gastroboletus." Mycotaxon 83: 409-441.
  8. Palm, Mary E., and Elwin L. Stewart. 1984. "Suillus neoalbidipes: A new species for Suillus albidipes." Mycologia 76(3): 433-438.
  9. Redhead, S.A. 1997. "Macrofungi of British Columbia: Requirements for Inventory. Ministry of Forests of British Columbia."
  10. Smith, Alexander H 1965. "New and unusual Basidiomycetes with comments on hyphal and spore wall reactions with Melzer's solution." Mycopathol. Mycol. Appl. 32: 385-402.
  11. Smith, Alexander H. 1972. "The Higher Fungi of Oregon's Cascade Head Experimental Forest and Vicinity - I The Genus Phaeocollybia (Agaricales) and Notes and Descriptions of Other Species in the Agaricales." Mycologia 64: 1138-1153.
  12. Smith, Alexander H, Harry D. Thiers. 1964. A Contribution toward a Monograph of North American Species of Suillus (Boletaceae). Ann Arbor, Michigan. 116p.
  13. Smith, Alexander H, Harry D. Thiers. 1971. The Boletes of Michigan. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. 428p.
  14. Smith, Alexander H, Harry D. Thiers, and Roy Watling 1966. "A Preliminary Account of the North American Species of Leccinum, Section Leccinum." Michigan Botanist 5(5): 131-179.
  15. Smith, Alexander H, Harry D. Thiers, and Roy Watling 1967. "A Preliminary Account of the North American Species of Leccinum, Sections Luteoscabra and Scabra." Michigan Botanist 6(3A): 107-154.
  16. Smith, Alexander H, Harry D. Thiers, and Orson K. Miller 1965. "The Species of Suillus and Fuscoboletinus of the Priest River Experimental Forest and Vicinity, Priest River, Idaho." Lloydia 28(2): 120-138.
  17. Smith, Alexander H, Harry D. Thiers, and Roy Watling 1968. "Notes on Species of Leccinum. Additions to Section Leccinum." Lloydia 31(3): 252-267.
  18. Snell, Walter H., and Esther A. Dick. 1941. "Notes on Boletes VI." Mycologia 33: 23-37.
  19. Snell, Walter H., and Esther A. Dick. 1959. "Notes on Boletes XI." Mycologia 51: 564-577.
  20. Thiers, H.D. 1973. "A New Species of Suillus." Mycologia 65: 1375-1377.
  21. Thiers, Harry D. 1975. California Mushrooms A Field Guide to the Boletes. Hafner Press, New York. 261p.
  22. Thiers, H.D. 1976. "Boletes of the southwestern United States." Mycotaxon 3(2): 261-273.
  23. Thiers, H.D. 1976. "California Boletes V. Two New Species of Boletus" Mycologia 68: 976-983.
  24. Thiers, Harry D. 1979. "The genus Suillus in the western United States." Mycotaxon 9: 285-296.

GLOSSARY

abruptly bulbous - of stem base, having a bulb or bulging area that flares at roughly right angles to stem

acidulous - slightly acid

adnate - referring to pore surface, attached squarely to stem without a notch

adnate-seceding - adnate at first, then becoming free of stem

amyloid - staining bluish to gray to black in Melzer's reagent

angular - with corners or angles, as opposed to round

annulus - ring or collar of tissue on stem formed by rupture of the veil that initially joins the stem to the cap edge

appendiculate - margin of cap fringed with hanging fragments of the veil

appressed - flattened down

areolate - surface cracked into plaques or blocks, like the cracking that occurs when mud dries in the sun

asperulate - appearing roughened with tiny points or warts

bulb - a part shaped like the underground part of an onion or daffodil or similar plant

bulbous - having a bulb or bulging area; of stem, with an enlarged base

button - young fruiting body before it has opened up

caulocystidia - cystidia on stem

cespitose - growing in tufts or close clusters from a common base, but not grown together

clavate - of stem, implies base is thicker and stem tapers upward, same as club-shaped; when used of cystidia or basidia, implies part that extends outward beyond the hymenium is thicker

columella - a sterile column of tissue projecting into the spore mass of Gastroboletus and other genera

context - flesh of cap or stem (excluding the surface layer)

cortex - a more or less thick outer covering

cuticle - the cap skin or surface layer of cells

cutis - type of "cuticle" (pellis), surface layer of cap cells if they are differentiated from the underlying tissue and arranged more or less parallel to cap surface

decurrent - refers to pores that run down the stem, the attachment of the tubes at stem is wider than average thickness of the tube layer

depressed - of cap, having middle lower than the edge; of pore layer, sunken below level of attachment to stem

dextrinoid - staining yellowish brown or reddish brown in Melzer's reagent

drab - brownish gray or grayish brown, sometimes with yellowish or violet overtones

equal - of a stem, the same diameter throughout its length, cylindric

fibrillose - composed of delicate fibers which are long and evenly arranged on the surface

fibril - delicate fiber

flexuous - of the stem, or of cystidia, curved alternately in opposite directions

floccose - with easily removed cottony or woolly tufts, having the appearance of cotton flannel, with a soft cottony texture

fuscous - color of a very dark storm cloud: variously described as combinations of gray, brown, purple, or black

fusiform - spindle-shaped, fairly slender and narrowing from middle to both ends

fusoid - somewhat spindle-shaped, almost spindle-shaped or fusiform

gelatinous - jelly-like in consistency or appearance; applied to tissue whose hyphae become partially dissolved and glutinous in wet weather and when mounted in water under the microscope appear more transparent and wider, loosening from one another

glabrous - bald, without hairs or raised fibers or scales or raised patches

glandular - with sticky drops or glands

gleba - the spore mass of Gastroboletus and other genera

gluten - slime, the dissolved gelatinous hyphae of certain tissues

glutinous - slimy, having a highly viscid gelatinous layer, more than viscid

gregarious - growing in close groups but not tufted or clustered

inamyloid - remaining clear or becoming yellow in Melzer's reagent, not amyloid or dextrinoid, same as nonamyloid

laticiferous - bearing latex (juice)

membranous - like a membrane or skinlike or somewhat like kleenex

mucronate - pointed, tipped with an abrupt, short point from a flatter surface

pallid - very pale in color, almost a dull whitish

pellicle - same as cuticle or as thinner and more definite

peridium - the outer covering enclosing a spore mass

pileipellis - the outer cellular layer of the cap (pileus), excluding veils, used in microscopic descriptions, also know as cap cuticle

pileus - cap of a mushroom

plane - having a flat surface

pruinose - looking finely powdered or finely granular

reticulate - covered with a network of interlacing lines, ridges, or folds

scaber - small stiff projection on stem surface, especially in Leccinum

squamule - fine scales

squamulose - with small scales

sterile - not producing spores

stuffed - containing loose material in the interior, not hollow or solid

sub- near, nearly, more or less, somewhat, slightly; below or under

tomentose - covered with soft hairs, often soft densely matted hairs, like a woollen blanket

tomentum - a covering of densely matted woolly hairs

trama - the tissue under the surface cell layers of cap or stem, or between the tube wall layers of boletes, usually referring to the flesh (context) as seen through the microscope

trichodermium (trichoderm) - a cuticle with hyphae projecting from the surface more or less perpendicularly as viewed under microscope

viscid - sticky but not slimy or lubricous: the mushroom usually feels somewhat slimy or slippery when wet but when dry may need to be wetted slightly to feel sticky

 

 

INDEX

 GENUS AND SPECIES KEY ENTRIES
   
 BOLETUS Fr.  
    B. abieticola Thiers B20b
    B. aereus - see B. regineus  
    B. amygdalinus (Thiers) Thiers B24b
       = B. puniceus Thiers  
    Boletus amylosporus (A.H. Sm.) Wolfe B35b
       = Porphyrellus amylosporus A.H. Sm.  
       = Tylopilus amylosporus (A.H. Sm.) A.H. Sm.  
    B. appendiculatus (Schaeff.) Secr. B19a
    B. barrowsii Thiers and A.H. Sm. B13a, B14b
    B. calopus Fr. B16a
    B. chrysenteron (Bull.) Fr. B37a, B43a
       = Xerocomus chrysenteron (Bull.) Quél.  
    B. coccyginus Thiers B39a
    B. coniferarum Dick and Snell B17b
    B. eastwoodiae (Murrill) Saccardo & Trotter - see B. satanus.  
       Also incorrectly for B. pulcherrimus.  
    B. edulis Bull. B11b, B13a, B14a, B14b
    B. erythropus - see B. luridiformis  
    B. fibrillosus Thiers B14b, B20a
    B. flaviporus Earle B7a, B8a, B36b, B33b
       = Xerocomus flaviporus  
    B. fragrans Vittad. B30a,  Excluded Species
    B. haematinus Halling B4b
    B. hemichrysus Berk. & Curtis B26b
    B. laricinus Berk. - see Fuscoboletinus laricinus.  
    B. luridiformis Rostk. B24a
       = B. erythropus (Fr.) Krombh.  
    B. mirabilis (Murrill) Murrill B5a, B26a
       = Xerocomus mirabilis (Murrill) Singer  
    B. mottiae Thiers B11b, B14b
    B. pinicola - see B. rex-veris  
    B. pinophilus - see B. rex-veris  
    B. piperatoides A.H. Sm. and Thiers  
       - see Chalciporus piperatoides (A.H. Sm. & Thiers) Baroni and Both  
    B. piperatus Bull. - see Chalciporus piperatus (Bull.) Bataille  
    B. porosporus (Imler) Watling var. americanus A.H. Sm. & Thiers B44b,  Excluded Species
    B. pulcherrimus Thiers and Halling B4a
    B. pulverulentus Opat. B28b
    B. puniceus - see B. amygdalinus  
    B. radicans Pers. sensu Kallenbach B17a
    B. rainisii A.E. Bessette and O.K.Miller B28a
    B. regineus D. Arora and Simonini B11a, B14b
    B. regius Krombholz B7b
    B. rex-veris D. Arora & Simonini B14a
    B. rubripes Thiers B31a
    B. satanus Lenz B3a
       = B. eastwoodiae (Murrill) Saccardo & Trotter  
    B. smithii Thiers B31b
    B. spadiceus Fr. B18a, B42b
       = Xerocomus spadiceus  
    B. speciosus Fr. B7a
    B. sphaerocephalus Barla B26b
    B. subglabripes Peck B38a
    B. subtomentosus Linne B42a
       = Xerocomus subtomentosus (Linne) Quél.  
    B. truncatus (Singer & Snell & Dick) Pouzar 37a, B44a
       = Xerocomus truncatus Singer & Snell & Dick  
    B. variipes Peck B12a
    B. zelleri (Murrill) Murrill B37a
       = Xerocomus zelleri (Murrill) Snell  
       = Boletellus zelleri  
 CHALCIPORUS J. Bataille  
    C. piperatoides (A.H. Sm. & Thiers) Baroni and Both B23a, B33a
       = B. piperatoides A.H. Sm. and Thiers  
    C. piperatus (Bull.) J. Bataille B23b, B33b
       = B. piperatus Bull.  
 FUSCOBOLETINUS Pomerl. & A.H. Sm.  
    F. aeruginascens - see F. laricinus  
    F. laricinus (Berkeley) A.E. Bessette, W.C. Roody, & A.R. Bessette S3a, S9a
       = B. laricinus Berkeley  
       = Fuscoboletinus viscidus (Linne) Grund and Harrison  
       = Fuscoboletinus aeruginascens (Secr.) Pomerl. and A.H. Sm.  
       = Suillus laricinus (Berkeley) Kuntze  
    F. ochraceoroseus (Snell) Pomerl. & A.H. Sm. S8b
    F. viscidus - see F. laricinus  
 GASTROBOLETUS Lohwag  
    G. imbellus Trappe G3b
    G. ruber (Zeller) Cazares and Trappe G4a
       = Truncocolumella rubra Zeller  
    G. subalpinus Trappe and Thiers G3a
    G. turbinatus (Snell) A.H. Sm. and Singer G4b
    G. vividus Trappe and Castellano G2a
 GYROPORUS Quél.  
    G. castaneus (Fr.) Quél. B40a
 LECCINUM Gray  
    L. atrostipitatum A.H. Sm., Thiers, and Watling L13a
    L. aurantiacum (Bull.) Gray 16b, L18b
    L. brunneum Thiers L9a
    L. clavatum A.H. Sm., Thiers, and Watling L11a
    L. cretaceum (?) L22b, Excluded species
    L. discolor A.H. Sm., Thiers, and Watling L16b, 18b
    L. fallax A.H. Sm., Thiers, and Watling L18a
    L. fibrillosum A.H. Sm., Thiers, and Watling L19b
    L. holopus (Rostk.) Watling L2a
    L. idahoense A.H. Sm., Thiers, and Watling L6a
    L. incarnatum A.H. Sm. L19a, Excluded species
    L. insigne A.H. Sm., Thiers, and Watling L10a, 16b
    L. manzanitae Thiers L11b
    L. ponderosum A.H. Sm., Thiers, and Watling L6b
    L. roseofractum Watling L22a
    L. rotundifoliae (Singer) A.H. Sm., Thiers, and Watling L2b, 21a
    L. scabrum (Bull.) Gray L21b
    L. subfulvum A.H. Sm., Thiers, and Watling L5a, Excluded Species
    L. subtestaceum A.H. Sm., Thiers, and Watling L10b
    L. testaceoscabrum (Secr.) Singer L13b
    L. truebloodii A.H. Sm., Thiers, and Watling L16a, Excluded Species
    Leccinum (undescribed) L14a
 PORPHYRELLUS E.-J. Gilbert  
    P. porphyrosporus (Fr.) E.-J. Gilbert B35a
    P. amylosporus A.H. Sm. - see Boletus amylosporus  
 SUILLUS Gray  
    S. albidipes (Peck) Singer - see S. neoalbidipes  
    S. albivelatus A.H. Sm., Thiers, and Miller S22a
    S. americanus (Peck) Snell ex Slipp & Snell S13a, S18b, Excluded Species
    S. appendiculatus (Peck) A.H. Sm. & Thiers S22b, Excluded Species
    S. borealis A.H. Sm., Thiers, and Miller S20a
    S. brevipes (Peck) Kuntze S14b, S33a
    S. brunnescens A.H. Sm. and Thiers S20b
    S. caerulescens A.H. Sm. and Thiers S6a
    S. cavipes (Opatowski) A.H. Sm. and Thiers S8a
    S. flavidus (Fr.) Singer S13a, S14a
       = Suillus umbonatus Dick & Snell  
    S. flavogranulatus A.H. Sm., Thiers, and Miller S31a
    S. fuscotomentosus A.H. Sm. and Thiers S27a
    S. glandulosipes A.H. Sm. and Thiers S21a
    S. granulatus (Linne) Kuntze S28a, S31a
    S. grevillei (Klotzch) Singer S12a
    S. helenae Thiers and A.H. Sm. S31b
    S. imitatus A.H. Sm. and Trappe S6b
    S. laricinus - see Fuscoboletinus laricinus  
    S. lakei A.H. Sm. and Thiers S4a
    S. luteus (Linne) Gray S11a
    S. neoalbidipes Palm & Stewart S21b
       = S. albidipes (Peck) Singer  
    S. pallidiceps A.H. Sm. and Thiers S30a, S32a
    S. placidus (Bonorden) Singer S30a, S32a
    S. ponderosus A.H. Sm. and Thiers S5a
    S. pseudobrevipes A.H. Sm. and Thiers S14b
    S. punctatipes (Snell and Dick) Snell & Dick S29a
    S. ruber Singer & Sipe S26b, Excluded Species
    S. sibiricus (Singer) Singer S13a, 18a
    S. subolivaceus A.H. Sm. and Thiers S12b
    S. tomentosus (Kauffman) Singer, Snell, and Dick S25a
    S. tomentosus var. discolor A.H. Sm., Thiers, and Miller S26a
    S. umbonatus Dick & Snell - see S. flavidus.  
 TYLOPILUS P. Karst.  
    T. amylosporus (A.H. Sm.) A.H. Sm. - see Boletus amylosporus.  
    T. porphyrosporus A.H. Sm. - see Porphyrellus porphyrosporus.  
    T. pseudoscaber (Secretan) A.H. Sm. and Thiers  
       - see Porphyrellus porphyrosporus.  
 XEROCOMUS Quél. - see corresponding Boletus species  

- END -

Valid XHTML 1.0 Transitional