Trial field key to the species of ENTOLOMATACEAE in the Pacific Northwest


Prepared for the Pacific Northwest Key Council
By Robert W. Ramsey and the
Puget Sound Mycological Society 1996
Copyright © 1996, 2003 Pacific Northwest Key Council

Reformat and minor revision by Ian Gibson January 2003.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction

Eliminating other pink-spores specimens from consideration as Entolomataceae

Note on stature types

Macroscopic key to the genera of Entolomataceae

Alternate generic confirmation descriptions

Generic microscopic descriptions

Descriptive key for taxa of Entolomataceae

Alboleptonia

Claudopus

Clitopiloidea

Clitopilus

Entoloma

Inocephalus

Leptonia and subgenus Leptonia

Subgenus Cyanula

Section Albidicaules

Section Caesicaules

Series Caesicaules

Series Gracilipes

Section Cereicaules

Section Cyanula

Section Rhamphocystoteae

Section Roseicaules

Section Viridicaules

Nolanea

Paraeccilia

Pouzarella

Rhodocybe

Trichopilus

Glossary

References

Acknowledgements

Table of spore sizes

Index

 

INTRODUCTION

I am not a mycologist nor an expert in Entolomataceae. In this study, I have rummaged through the work of others in order to produce a key to the taxa reported from the Northwest (Washington, Oregon, Idaho, western Montana and southern British Columbia). Not that any of this came easily. Out of a long, patient and detailed study, there evolved 12 genera and 160 species, varieties and forms, ultimately clarified by David Largent's work. To give the investigator a better chance to identify any particular specimen, there are ways to determine whether that specimen belongs in the family. There is a discussion of how to eliminate other pink spored genera, a key to genera of Entolomataceae, followGggg by a series of generic confirmations ns, followed, in turn, by a series of generic microscopic descriptions. These are followed by a descriptive key to the taxa (species, varieties and forms), by genus.

Most of the taxa in the family depend on combinations of characteristics for effective identification. Some details can vary with environmental conditions. Gills color may be overcast by whatever pinkish color the taxon releases following anthesis. (See discussion below.) Some of the characteristics given may, at times, not be sharply obvious. By following combinations of details carefully, one may arrive at the proper taxon designation anyway. Be patient. Some features are not always as described. Look over several specimens at different age levels.

If a detail has been left out of a description, it usually means it does not apply to the taxon under discussion. Or, that it may already have been used in preceding key leads. However, one cannot assume that a detail is lacking or different because others of the group have or don't have it. Good descriptions often state that certain features are not present. Of course, an author may have omitted a detail because it was like all the rest or may have simply missed it or may have studied materials collected by someone else whose notes were not complete.

For many of you, getting to the precise taxon may be an exercise in futility and perhaps a lesson in probability. Going farther than the genus may not be a priority. Placing it in the family might be a win. The observer must have sharply-honed skills to discern small differences in cap and stipe surfaces. It requires a good understanding of the language, the statures and of color. Some of the distinctive color phases show as the cap is opening as well as some of the most beautiful colorations. Colors tend to change rapidly in some taxa, both during development and following collection for study. The use of a small recorder may be important in "taking notes" for specimens at the time of collection rather than waiting for more detailed study back in the lab or at home. Note the color of the cap, whether the cap is unicolorous or of two or three colors, the color of the gills, and the color(s) of the stipe in the field as a precaution against swift color changes.

There will be references to the term "anthesis", which also appears in the glossary. In this context, it means the point that the fresh, expanded cap is in "full flower"; that it contains most of the characteristics by which it may be identified and that it is just at the brink of spore release. Some characteristics are important to see at about 75% of anthesis and some at about 125% (or "in age"). These stages are not static nor are they predictable unless one observes the environmental conditions prior to and during the development of basidiomes. Few of us have the time to watch a mushroom develop. The various taxa tend to respond to environmental conditions in different ways--fruiting in spring or fall, for example, or perhaps standing in arrested development when conditions are unfavorable. There are, of course, many other factors involved in basidiome development.

Taste and odor are important in identification but these must be used in conjunction with the cast of characters. In that light, the fact that there are taxa with no discernible taste or odor may be as important as those having distinctive tastes and odors.

The key to the 160 taxa is dependent on having first arrived at the correct family and genus. This is a descriptive key which means that a collection of characteristics has been put together to increase the probability of identification. Such descriptions contain three factors, each of which can, at times, vary to become another, depending on its comparative value. The three factors are (1) stabilizers, (2) indicators and (3) selectors. Stabilizers tell you what you are working with; for example, the diameter of a cap, given as 10-40 mm, imparts an idea of the size of the basidiome involved. If the comparative taxon shows a cap of 20-50 mm, the factor is still "stabilizer' for both. However, if the cap size of the second taxon is given as 30-60 mm, the stabilizer (though still valid) also becomes an indicator because it has become obvious that the comparative specimen is, in general, larger than the first specimen at 10-40 mm. However, this is not absolute because there is a 10 mm range into which both could fit. Thirdly, if the comparative taxon is shown as "cap 50-70 mm", the stabilizer has now become a selector. At this point, it is evident that the size of the cap is a deciding factor since there is no overlap. However, as noted earlier, because of environmental and morphological variations, it is well to show one or more selectors plus several indicators. In fact, several indicators are fairly good evidence in making identifications although no one of them is absolute. As in a civil court case, this becomes a decision based on the preponderance of the evidence.

Much of the Northwest has not been systematically searched for Entolomataceae. Many taxa in the family, which have not been reported to date, may eventually be found in the region in coming years. It is also likely that undescribed taxa will be found when the challenge of discovery links several persons to the common goal.

 

ELIMINATING OTHER PINK-SPORED
SPECIMENS FROM CONSIDERATION AS ENTOLOMATACEAE

At first blush, it appears relatively easy to accept most pink-spored mushrooms as members of the family Entolomataceae, separating a few stature types of obviously different characteristics as being non-inclusive, such as Lepiota, Pluteus and Volvariella. What begins to cloud the issue is the range of "pink" the identifier must deal with: salmon-pink, vinaceous-tawny, vinaceous-cinnamon, vinaceous-buff, dark vinaceous, fawn-colored, flesh-colored, skin-colored, grayish-pink, creamy-pink, deep pink, reddish-pink, pinkish-red, pinkish-brown, etc. This is further confused by the fact that one or more species of the following out-of-family genera are "pink"-spored representatives: Chameota, Crepidotus, Lepiota, Lepista, Leucoagaricus, Macrocystidia, Macrolepiota, Omphalina, Phyllotopsis, Pleurotellus, Pluteus, Rhodocollybia, Rhodotus, Ripartites and Volvariella. When comparing stature types, one finds that 10 of these genera share the same or similar characteristics with the Entolomataceae within six stature types.

Fortunately, there are a few other macroscopic features by which 14 genera can be eliminated from further consideration. This leaves us with 2 which cannot be surely set aside without microscopic examination of the spores. Those few mycologists who have worked in the family have developed virtual automatic recognition of the genera much as we recognize our fellow humans. However, even they would be reluctant to certify some without microscopic confirmation. And such care becomes necessary when working with species within the genera. The real key to determining whether a specimen is a member of the Entolomataceae is whether the "pink" spores are angular in some respect. Since we have taken a position that the keys produced by the Pacific Northwest Key Council should first attempt to identify specimens macroscopically, we will proceed along that line, backed up with information from the microscope.

When you discover an uncertain mushroom, what are the characters that will determine whether it belongs in the family Entolomataceae? It is best to gather at least four of the same species with which to work. Write a complete macroscopic description of the mushroom (including use of a hand lens) and write it in the proper order. This will be important for confirmation purposes. Note whether and how specimens differ from each other, particularly in age. Also note the date, location, habit, habitat, county and state or province. Cut one cap off the top of the stipe and set it up to make a spore print. Wrap two specimens in paper towels, place them in a covered plastic container and put in the refrigerator. Subject the other specimens to cut, scrape, bruise and interior tests and observations.

The following macroscopic features must be present for acceptance into the family but they are not, by themselves, definitive:

The following microscopic features are definitive for the family:

*"Isodiametric" means equal in diameter in all directions. "Sub-isodiametric" means not quite equal. "Heterodiametric" means different diameters in different directions.

 
FACTOR ELIMINATES
1. Gills free from attachment to stipe Lepiota
  Leucoagaricus
  Macrocystidia
  Macrolepiota
  Pluteus
           plus stipe with saccate volva Volvariella
   
2. Annulus present on stipe at any time Lepiota
  Leucoagaricus
  Macrolepiota
           Or stipe with a cortinate veil Ripartites
3. Stipe cleanly separable from the cap Lepiota
  Leucoagaricus
  Pluteus
4. Bright orange-yellow to yellow on cap and gills Phyllotopsis
5. Cap greasy, not viscid; cap, gills and stipe often with yellowish or reddish spots. Stipe tough, hollow older and splitting easily; pinched flat and covered with a dense, downy white mycelium at the base, spores not angular Rhodocollybia
  Leucoagaricus
  Pluteus
*6. Stature clitocyboid (8 sp.) of which 3 species also form a gill collar around the apex of the stipe; or tricholomatoid with luminous lavender (or light reddish purple) gills up to anthesis. See note below Lepista
*7. Cap umbilicate; ochraceous with darker small scales. Gills pale orange-yellow; forming collar on apex; decurrent. Chrysomphalina
8. Stipe attachment to wood substrate does not show the prominent white rhizoids exhibited by Claudopus, spore print brown to pinkish-buff Crepidotus
9. Cap rubbery and uniformly wrinkle-veined, bright red-pink becoming apricot to flesh-colored in age, not in Pacific Northwest Rhodotus
10. Cap to 10 mm across, dimidiate to reniform stipe rudimentary or absent; on dead stems of shrubs and perennials or on decaying wood, spore print pale cream to sordid brownish-yellow or slightly pinkish, spores not angular, not confirmed from Pacific Northwest Pleurotellus

 

* = See following comments for further discussion.

 

Although a single feature may be sufficient to eliminate many species from consideration, such as having gills free from the stipe, a Lepista with pink spores will probably require several. Eleven of the 14 genera above can probably be eliminated by using this list. The remaining three, Rhodocollybia, Lepista, and Pleurotellus may require assistance via microscope: angular spores or not.

Further notes on the above:

6. Lepista. Some researchers consider this group to be included under Clitocybe. The stature may be clitocyboid or tricholomatoid. The clitocyboid group develops decurrent gills, probably 8 species in the Northwest. As such, that excludes them from the Entolomataceae which has only 3 species in 3 genera that are clitocyboid: Clitopiloidea 912. a provisional species which is rare, still under study and found in moss on living or dead maple trees: Clitopilus prunulus, cap 30-100 mm, white to grey; stipe solid and fibrous; taste and odor strongly farinaceous; Rhodocybe lepistoides, cap 22-32 mm, warm even tan; disagreeable strong nutty taste; growing on wood chips. Those Lepistas that are typically tricholomatoid and have luminous lavender gills are also ruled out of the family because this color is not found in the taxa of Entolomataceae. In fact, any of the Lepistas with bright lavender gills would be out regardless of stature. A species with other exclusionary features is L. praemagna which is a large white species found in high sagebrush desert.

7. Chrysomphalina. There are several omphalinoid taxa in Entolomataceae. They have gills ranging through white, blue-gray, gray-black, drab, gray-brown, red-brown, pale gray and sordid. One taxon not is Entolomataceae that produces pale salmon spores is Chrysomphalina chrysophylla v. salmonispora. It has pale yellow-orange gills which form a collar around the stipe apex.

 

NOTE ON STATURE TYPES

The stature types are defined as follows in Largent (1994). Each has some resemblance to the genus after which it is named.

 "Mycenoid: pileus conic to campanulate; lamellar attachment variable but not decurrent; annulus absent; volva absent; stipe consistency cartilaginous
 Collybioid: pileus convex to broadly convex; lamellar attachment variable but not decurrent; annulus absent; volva absent; stipe consistency cartilaginous
 Omphalinoid: pileus convex to broadly convex to plane, at times umbilicate; lamellar attachment subdecurrent to decurrent; annulus absent; volva absent; stipe consistency cartilaginous
 Tricholomatoid: pileus convex to broadly convex or plane, rarely campanulate; lamellar attachment variable but not decurrent; annulus absent; volva absent; stipe consistency fleshy fibrous
 Clitocyboid: pileus convex to broadly convex or plane, rarely campanulate; lamellar attachment subdecurrent to decurrent; annulus absent; volva absent; stipe consistency fleshy fibrous
 Pleurotoid: stipe excentrically or laterally attached or stipe absent"

 

The line of demarcation between Collybioid and Mycenoid is subtle and sometimes indeterminate, especially if attention has not been paid to the details that separate them. Occasionally, descriptions are omitted that would confirm one or the other. Needed are the shape of the cap, the curve of the margin and the attachment of the gills. The stipe is cartilaginous or brittle, stuffed or hollow, in both statures. The attachment of the gills to the stipe is only partially useful. A Mycenoid basidiome will have attachment at the line of the gills or above for this group, while a Collybioid basidiome can have attachment above or below the line. Occasionally, Collybioid specimens show decurrent teeth at the point of attachment or they may be subdecurrent. They will not be wholly decurrent. These seem to be concurrent with Collybioid caps and margins. In other words, the decision should not be based on the decurrency alone but it may be a useful factor.

The margin of the cap is next up the ladder of importance. Collybioid basidiomes have inrolled, incurved, or decurved margins at "anthesis" which is defined here as at early maturity and just before spores begin to discolor the gills with the various "pink" colors. When many Collybioid caps age, the margins tend to expand past decurved to straight then decurved or to plane and uplifted. Mycenoid basidiomes have decurved or straight margins at anthesis. When they age, they can also be recurved or uplifted. Thus there is a point of conflict at the decurved position which must then be resolved by the cap shape.

Collybioid caps are typically convex, mostly centrally depressed and often umbilicate. Mycenoid caps are conic or campanulate, rarely with a slight central depression, (sometimes occurs with Pouzarella fulvostrigosus.) Occasionally a description will read "convex and umbilicate". Since "umbilicus", by definition, sits in a depression, the describer has left out the term "depression" in the interest of brevity. A Collybioid cap may be slightly to deeply depressed -- a Mycenoid cap is rarely slightly depressed. (See above.) However, a Mycenoid cap may sometimes be truncated, suggesting a high convex shape. A number of Collybioid species have a high convex cap. If the gill attachment is not conclusive, then a careful observation of the curve of the margin will be important. Mycenoid basidiomes may also be campanulate (bell-shaped) but the other factors still apply, that is, no depression, straight or decurved margin and non-decurrent gills. Occasionally, it will be difficult to make a decision. When that happens, read the descriptions of closely-related species.

 

MACROSCOPIC KEY TO THE GENERA OF ENTOLOMATACEAE

1a Growing on wood, decayed wood, woody debris or other mushrooms.

(At least some species of each of 5 genera: Rhodocybe, 4/12; Claudopus, 2/2; Clitopilus, 1/2; Paraeccilia, 2/6; Leptonia, 5/58 (4/12 = 4 out of 12 taxa, etc.)

1b Growing terrestrially (rarely lignicolous), out of soil or humus from moss, leaves, needles, branchlets, etc. (Some species in all 12 genera.).

2a Growing on other mushrooms.

2b Growing on wood, decayed wood or woody debris.

3a (Parasitic-2a) Growing out of living basidiomes of Cantharellus subalbidus

................................................................................Claudopus

(1 species, Claudopus parasiticus).

3b (Saprophytic-2a) Growing out of decayed remains of fleshy fungi.

................................................................................Rhodocybe

(1 species Rhodocybe olympiana)

4a (Lignicolous-2b) Cap of various pleurotoid shapes. Stipe absent, or small and not central.

4b (Lignicolous-2b) Cap not pleurotoid. Stipe substantial and central or nearly central.

5a (Lignicolous-4a) Cap 0.3-3(4) cm wide, whitish; bald, silky or finely downy-tomentulose; margin remaining incurved for a long time. Gills whitish.

................................................................................Clitopilus

(1 species, Clitopilus hobsonii)

5b (Lignicolous-4a) Cap 0.5-7.5 cm wide, dark brown, with dense whitish to grayish fibrils of veil over a glabrous surface; margin mostly undulate, eroded later. Gills grayish to gray-brown, not concolorous with cap.

................................................................................Claudopus

(1 species, Claudopus bysissedus)

6a (Lignicolous-4b) Cap glabrous, at most hoary, convex to plane to depressed; no veil; margin smooth (= flat), not eroding. Gills usually concolorous with cap. Stipe straight, mostly solid to maturity then some species stuffed to hollow; attachment central to slightly off-center.

................................................................................Rhodocybe

(3 species, R. lepistoides, R. roseiavellanea, R. speciosa; R. caelata has been found on wood chips, rarely.)

6b (Lignicolous-4b) Cap not glabrous.

7a (Lignicolous-6b) Basidiomes not omphalinoid. Cap convex to depressed or umbilicate; surface either tomentulose on the disc, appressed-squamulose from disc to margin and appressed-fibrillose to glabrous at the margin or entirely appressed-squamulose-scaly or punctate-squamulose, punctate-fibrillose or punctate-tomentulose; margin not inrolled, smooth (flat). In general a genus found below 2,000 feet.

................................................................................Leptonia

(Five taxa out of 58: L. coacta, L. cyanea v. occidentalis, L. formosa v. formosa, L. subeuchroa (Mycenoid), L. violaceonigra).

7b (Lignicolous-6b) Basidiomes omphalinoid. Cap depressed to infundibuliform; surface radially fibrillose or squamulose or densely appressed-fibrillose; gray or fuliginous; margin even to undulate, inrolled. In general, a genus found above 2,000 feet elevation

................................................................................Paraeccilia

(2 sp. lignicolous, P. minutissima and P. sericeonitida var. ligniphila)

8a (Terrestrial-1b) Stipe attachment always, often or sometimes eccentric, lateral or sessile.

8b (Terrestrial-1b) Stipe attachment typically central (occasional specimen may be eccentric).

9a (Terrestrial-8a) Cap with pleurotoid shape. Stipe always eccentric, lateral or sessile on the cap; curved when present; stuffed then hollow. Basidiome fragile.

................................................................................Claudopus

(One species, C. bysissedus, also found lignicolous)

9b (Terrestrial-8a) Cap convex to depressed; typically not pleurotoid. Stipe some-times eccentric but not lateral or sessile; crooked or straight, seldom curved; solid to maturity (a few specimens may change to stuffed then hollow).

10a (Terrestrial-9b) Cap white, pale gray or medium gray; margin often undulate (wavy), often irregular in outline; flesh over 3 mm thick, white. Stipe central or eccentric.

................................................................................Clitopilus

(One species, Clitopilus prunulus)

10b (Terrestrial-9b) Cap dark gray or, if lighter gray, mixed with yellowish, brownish or reddish tones; margin mostly smooth (flat), occasionally undulate in old specimens; seldom irregular in outline; flesh not over 3 mm thick, typically concolorous with cap

................................................................................Rhodocybe

(Because Rhodocybe can have a pale cap which is somewhat pleurotoid, be in the size range, be glabrous and have a glabrous, solid, fibrous stipe, it may be a good idea to resort to the microscope to confirm the spore characters. See discussion on spore characteristics in the initial remarks or in "Generic Microscopic Descriptions". Even though 5 genera have been keyed out under those growing on wood or other mushrooms and those without central stipe attachment, 4 of them will still be found among those with central attachment and terrestrial growth.)

11a (Central stipe-8b) Basidiomes clitocyboid: No veil on cap. Gills attached; sub-decurrent to decurrent; not waxy. Stipe fleshy fibrous; no volva; no ring.

11b (Central stipe-8b) Basidiomes tricholomatoid, omphalinoid, collybioid or mycenoid.

12a (Clitocyboid-11a) Stipe striate fibrillose.

................................................................................Clitopiloidea

(1 species C.912)

12b (Clitocyboid-11a) Stipe glabrous.

13a (Clitocyboid-12b) Cap white, pale gray or medium gray; margin often undulate, (wavy) often irregular in outline; flesh over 3 mm thick, white. Stipe central or eccentric.

................................................................................Clitopilus

(one species, C. prunulus)

13b (Clitocyboid-12b) Cap warm even tan, hardly changing color on drying; convex to plane to shallow depressed; margin smooth to undulant, occasionally undulate in old specimens; seldom irregular in outline; flesh not over 3 mm thick, typically pallid to sordid. Stipe typically central. (Cap is smaller than C. prunulus at 25-35 mm vs 30-120 mm.).

................................................................................Rhodocybe

(1 species R. lepistoides)

14a (11b) Basidiomes tricholomatoid: No veil on cap. Gills attached, not decurrent, sinuate (notched); not waxy. Stipe fleshy-fibrous; no volva; no ring.

14b Basidiomes omphalinoid, collybioid or mycenoid

15a (Tricholomatoid-14a) Cap distinctly ornamented. (Very young specimens may not have developed projecting fibrils or squamules.)

15b (Tricholomatoid-14a) Cap typically glabrous.

16a (Tricholomatoid-15a) Cap broadly campanulate to broadly convex to plane; margin incurved to decurved, eroded in age; surface entirely punctate-tomentulose when young, sometimes remaining so only on the disc; color drab gray to gray-brown with age. Gills dark gray to gray-brown with paler serrulate margin. Odor indistinct to fabaceous (bean).

................................................................................Trichopilus

(One species, T. jubatus)

16b (Tricholomatoid-15a) Cap broadly convex to plane, often with a low, broad umbo; margin decurved to plane to uplifted in age; surface with densely appressed to semi-erect squamulose scales on the disc, becoming densely appressed-fibrillose at the margin. Gills white to pale yellow, margin concolorous, entire, may erode in age. Taste sweet; odor fragrant. Rarely terrestrial.

................................................................................Leptonia

(1 species, L. cyanea var. occidentalis.)

17a (Tricholomatoid-15b) Cap averaging 31.5 mm across in smallest species to 110 mm in largest species; mostly umbonate to some degree (4 taxa are not); margins begin incurved and become decurved; flesh of mature specimens more than 3 mm thick. Gills white, yellowish, grayish or brown. Stipe of mature specimens more than 7 mm at apex. Basidiomes larger than entry below.

................................................................................Entoloma

17b (Tricholomatoid-15b) Cap averaging 19 and 22 mm across, none over 30mm; not umbonate; margins remain inrolled; flesh less than 3 mm thick. Gills pinkish orange and fuscous pinkish brown. Stipe less than 7 mm diameter at apex. Smaller than in entry above.

................................................................................Rhodocybe

(Two species may exhibit tricholomatoid stature: R. speciosa and R. aureicystidiata.)

Three species of Nolanea from the northwest exhibit tricholomatoid features at times. Nolanea sericea and N. substrictia often show uncinate or sinuate gills but have cartilaginous stipes. Conversely, N. subviolaceoverna has a solid, fleshy-fibrous stipe but is very small and has ascending and deeply adnexed attachment of gills. Nolanea has no truly tricholomatoid species in the Pacific Northwest to date.

18a (14b) Basidiomes Omphalinoid: Cap convex to depressed, no veil; some umbilicate; margins variable. Gills attached and decurrent; not waxy. Stipe central and cartilaginous, stuffed to hollow; no volva; no ring.

18b Basidiomes Collybioid or Mycenoid. Gills not decurrent.

19a (Omphalinoid-18a) Cap tomentulose on the disc, appressed-squamulose from disc to margin and appressed-fibrillose to glabrous at the margin; margin incurved through uplifted in age. Gills blue-gray to gray black. Stipe blue-gray, blue-black or gray-black.

................................................................................Leptonia

(3 species, L. nigricans, L. diversa, L. yatesii. None of these have been reported north of California, but L. yatesii could well be in S.W. Oregon. There are other species close to Omphalinoid but lack fully decurrent gills.)

19b (Omphalinoid-18a) Cap glabrous or with ornamentation not as above; margin inrolled to decurved on young mature specimens. Gills and stipe colors different from above.

20a (Omphalinoid-19b) Cap brownish orange. Gills white. Stipe pale-orange.

(2 species: E. politum and E. subpolitum)

20b (Omphalinoid-19b) Cap brown, gray-brown to fuliginous. Gills drab, gray-brown, red-brown, pale gray or sordid. Stipe gray, light brown, dark brown to fuscous.

................................................................................Paraeccilia

(5 species and 1 variety in the northwest. One sp., one var. lignicolous.)

21a (18b) Basidiomes Collybioid: Cap parabolic to convex to plane; no veil (except 1 species of Alboleptonia); margin inrolled to decurved at first. Gills attached, not decurrent; not waxy. Stipe central and cartilaginous or brittle; no volva; no ring.

(For a comparison of the differences between Collybioid and Mycenoid see Note on Stature Types.)

21b Basidiomes Mycenoid: Cap conic or campanulate; no veil; margin straight or decurved. Gills attached, not decurrent. Stipe central and cartilaginous or brittle; no volva; no ring.

22a (Collybioid-21a) Cap ornamented in distinctive ways.

22b (Collybioid-21a) Cap typically glabrous or nearly so.

23a (Collybioid-22a) Basidiomes white (1 sp. becoming light orange in age and 1 sp. becoming yellowish in age). Cap typically appressed-squamulose, appressed-fibrillose or appressed tomentulose becoming orange brown where handled; flesh white, unchanging 1 to 9 mm thick. Gills attachment variable; white at first, changing to pink to salmon as spores mature. Stipe white, unchanging; solid or stuffed to hollow; fragile.

................................................................................Alboleptonia

(4 species, A. ochracea, A. sericella, A. earlei, A. subsericella)

23b (Collybioid-22a) Basidiomes not white (except Leptonia albinella and L. albida).Cap surface ornamented but unlike Alboleptonia above. (See Leptonia and Inocephalus below). Cap flesh color variable. Gills color often not white. Stipe color variable, often concolorous with cap or similar color to cap.

24a (Collybioid-23b) Cap often depressed, occasionally umbilicate; margin incurved to decurved, often uplifted in age; surface either tomentulose on the disc, appressed-squamulose from disc to margin and appressed-fibrillose to glabrous at the margin or entirely appressed-squamulose scaly or punctate-squamulose, punctate-fibrillose or punctate-tomentulose. Stipe may be glabrous or ornamented. Micro: pileocystidia well-developed and greater than 10 microns across.

................................................................................Leptonia

24b (Collybioid-23b) Cap seldom depressed or umbilicate; margins incurved to decurved; surface either with a scummy to scurfy disc and superficially appressed fibrils outside this or entirely and distinctly appressed-fibrillose. Stipe typically glabrous. Micro: pileocystidia less than 10 microns across.

................................................................................Inocephalus

25a (Collybioid-22b) Cap moderately centrally depressed at maturity; not hygrophanous. Stipe solid or stuffed.

................................................................................Rhodocybe

(2 species hollow in age and R. olympiana stipe is hollow to begin but grows on remains of other mushrooms)

25b (Collybioid-22b) Cap not centrally depressed; most species hygrophanous. Stipe hollow.

26a (Collybioid-25b) Cap ranges from even dark brown, fading to streaked cinnamon drab; drab to mouse gray to buffy brown with a dark olive margin when older; or greenish-fuliginous with a darker center. Gills always subdistant. Stipe glabrous, hollow and brittle/fragile. Urea concentration near zero.

................................................................................Entoloma

(3 species, E. alnobetulae, E. alpicola and E. heracleodora)

26b (Collybioid-25b) Cap colors differing from above although quite varied. Gills close to moderate, occasionally subdistant. Stipe hollow, brittle to mostly tougher; typically pruinose, at least at apex, and/or silky-silvery and longitudinally striate. Urea concentration +4 to +5.

................................................................................Nolanea

There are microscopic differences between 26a and 26b. The first has clamps abundant on hyphae of pileipellis and puzzle-shaped elements in the cap trama which are rounded and less than 150 microns in length. The second does not have clamps on the hyphae of the pileipellis and the gill trama is composed of fusiform elements 150 to 200 microns long.

27a (Mycenoid-21b) Cap to 70 mm across; drab gray; disc fibrillose, disc to margin fibrillose-squamulose; button stage often showing rudimentary veil. Gills drab gray. Stipe with a drab gray canescent, appressed-fibrillose layer which is glabrescent; hollow, fragile. Micro: cheilocystidia absent; clamps present in the pileipellis. Pigmentation strongly incrusting.

................................................................................Trichopilus

(One species, T. plebeioides)

27b (Mycenoid-21b) Cap other colors or combinations of colors; differing in ornamentation. Gills mostly concolorous with cap. Stipe glabrous to variously ornamented. Taste and odor often distinctive.

28a (Mycenoid-27b) Cap typically under 40 mm broad; dark brown, dark gray-brown or dark greenish-brown. Gills dark brown. Stipe glabrous, pruinose, punctate, appressed fibril-lose or squamulose; often with reddish radiating hairs at base. Odor unpleasant (fishy, grassy, rancid farinaceous).

................................................................................Pouzarella

(3 species, P. fernandae, P. versatilis, P. fulvostrigosa) (Micro: cheilocystidia absent in P. fernandae and present in other two species. Clamps absent in pileipellis. Pigmentation intracellular.)

28b (Mycenoid-27b) Cap under 25 mm broad; colors mostly variations of dark violet, blackish-blue, dark blue-gray, gray-violet or (one species) a dull yellowish brown (drab). Gills white (3), blue-gray (1) and drab (1). Stipe glabrous (4) or appressed-fibrillose (1). Taste and odor indistinct except one is "peculiar".

................................................................................Leptonia

(Five species, L. subeuchroa, L. coelestina, L. subcoelestina, L. violacea, L. lutulenta)

 

 

ALTERNATE GENERIC CONFIRMATION DESCRIPTIONS

There are 12 genera in the family Entolomataceae which are represented in northwest mycoflora, half of which contain more than one stature type. Even within a stature there are often variations on the features which make up a stature. In turn, these genera contain a total of 160 taxa (127 species, 33 varieties and forms) to be separated in the keys. Only by familiarizing oneself with the stature elements can a person make sense out of this complicated family. Because the foregoing key cannot cover all the possible variations, this alternate "key" may confirm (or reject) your earlier choice. If that does not work, you may have to go to the microscope. See Generic Microscopic Descriptions.

One anomaly will be obvious: If a genus exhibits more than one stature type, how can it be considered a single genus? The answer is in the microscopic details. Professional mycologists believe that features seen under the microscope reveal as much about the relationships of fungi as do the macroscopic details, if not more. However, they are not about to abandon the characteristics seen by the eye and hand lens -- the microscope is basically an extension of those. Neither will they drop reliance on taste, odor, habit, habitat, chemical reactions or distribution. Today, we have a greater range of detail available for decisions on genera, the result being that seemingly different species, macroscopically, have the same details internally. If the preponderance of microscopic detail overrides the normal Friesian characteristics, then two or more stature types may be placed into the same genus. On the other hand, mycology is a somewhat fluid science and what prevails today may be undone tomorrow, particularly by molecular science.

Decisions are often made on the basis of considered opinion, not consensus. It may take many years but there will eventually be equilibrium. When you have reached a decision on a particular genus in the foregoing key, and wish to check it further, then compare the following descriptions of stature types under that genus. Note also that as few as one species may occur under a particular stature type. This is not absolute, however, as we are dealing only with mushrooms reported in the northwestern U.S. We may yet find others and rescue them from anonymity!

  1. From Mushrooms to Genus VI - Largent & T.J.Baroni 1988
  2. From foregoing generic key +/-

 

ALBOLEPTONIA

Collybioid (A. earlei, A. ochracea, A. sericella, A. subsericella)

a. Cap convex to parabolic; margin inrolled or incurved at first. Gills attached to stipe, not decurrent; not waxy. Stipe central, cartilaginous or brittle; no volva; no ring. b. Basidiomes white (2 sp. changing to tints of orange and yellow), becoming orange-brown where handled; flesh white, unchanging, 1 to 9 mm thick; may exhibit an evanescent membranous partial veil on young specimens (A. ochracea only?). Gills white varied. Stipe white, unchanging; solid or stuffed to hollow; fragile.

 

CLAUDOPUS

Pleurotoid (C. parasiticus, C. bysissedus)

a. Cap may be shaped ovoid, spathulate, fanshaped, semicircular or kidney-shaped; attached to stipe eccentrically or laterally or without a stipe (sessile) or effuso-reflexed. Gills attached to stipe when present. b. Growing out of other living mushrooms, C parasiticus, which is very fragile; or C. bysissedus which is out of wood or soil. Many specimens may be found with the glabrous cap covered with the whitish fibrils of a veil; margin mostly undulate, eroded later. Gills grayish. Stipe, when present, curved; flesh stuffed then hollow; prominent white rhizoids at base.

 

CLITOPILOIDEA (Clitopiloidea 912)

a. No veil. Gills attached, subdecurrent, decurrent or arcuate, not waxy. Stipe fleshy-fibrous, central; no volva, no ring. b. Stipe striate-fibrillose.

 

CLITOPILUS

Clitocyboid (C. prunulus)

a. No veil. Gills attached, subdecurrent, decurrent or arcuate, not waxy. Stipe fleshy-fibrous, central or eccentric; no volva; no ring. b. Cap convex to depressed; white or pale gray or medium gray; margin often undulate and irregular in outline; flesh over 3 mm thick, white. Stipe central or eccentric, crooked or straight but not curved one direction; solid interior.

Pleurotoid (C. hobsonii)

a. Small, with cap 0.3-3(4)cm wide, whitish, bald, silky or finely downy-tomentulose. Stipe usually absent. b. Cap commonly lobed or shell-shaped, margin incurved for a long time and not striate. Stipe usually absent, but when present eccentric or lateral, whitish, and downy.

 

ENTOLOMA

Collybioid (E. alnobetulae, E. alpicola, E. heracleodora)

a. No veil. Cap convex to parabolic; margin inrolled or incurved at first. Gills attached to stipe, not decurrent; not waxy. Stipe central; cartilaginous or brittle; no volva; no ring. b. Cap glabrous; hygrophanous; not centrally depressed or only faintly so; color even dark brown fading to streaked cinnamon drab or drab to mouse gray to buffy brown with a dark olive margin when older or greenish fuliginous with a dark center. Gills subdistant. Stipe glabrous; hollow; brittle/fragile. Urea concentration zero.

Omphalinoid (E. politum, E. subpolitum)

a. Cap broadly convex with a slightly to markedly depressed cap disc. Gills sub-decurrent to decurrent; not waxy. Stipe central; cartilaginous; no volva; no ring. Partial veil, one species. b. Cap glabrous, brownish orange; margin inrolled decurved, entire, smooth, exceeding gills about 1 mm, eroded later. Gills white. Stipe pale orange.

Tricholomatoid (20 taxa)

a. Cap varied; no veil. Gills attached, not decurrent; sinuate or notched; not waxy. Stipe central; fleshy fibrous; no volva; no ring. b. Among the largest basidiomes in the family, averaging 31.5 mm in smallest sp. to 110 mm in largest; mostly umbonate (4 taxa are not); mostly opaque (4 taxa are translucent-striate away from the margin); mostly glabrous (2 sp. viscid, 2 with aeriferous fibrils and 1with a wrinkled skin). Flesh of mature specimens more than 3 mm thick. Gills white, grayish, brown or yellowish. Stipe typically more than 7 mm diameter at apex; however, see Section Polita.

 

INOCEPHALUS

Collybioid (I. appressus, I. azureus, *I. fabaceolus, I. furfuraceodiscus, I. minutopilus, I. perfuscus, I. rhombisporus)

a. Cap convex to parabolic; no veil; margin inrolled to decurved older. Gills attached to stipe, not decurrent; not waxy. Stipe central; cartilaginous or brittle; no volva; no ring. b. Basidiomes not white. Cap seldom depressed or umbilicate; surface either with a scummy to scurfy disc and superficially appressed fibrils outside this or entirely and distinctly appressed-fibrillose. Stipe typically glabrous. Urea concentration 0 to + 0.5. *Also has mycenoid stature at times.

 

LEPTONIA

Collybioid (52 taxa)

a. Cap convex to parabolic; no veil; margin inrolled to decurved. Gills attached to stipe, not decurrent, rarely subdecurrent; not waxy. Stipe central; cartilaginous or brittle; no volva; no ring. b. Cap occasionally depressed or umbilicate and/or with upturned margins; surface either tomentulose on the disc, appressed-squamulose from disc to margin and appressed-fibrillose to glabrous at the margin or entirely appressed-squamulose scaly or punctate squamulose, punctate fibrillose or punctate tomentulose. Stipe glabrous or ornamented, often striate.

Mycenoid (L. coelestina, L. lutulenta, L. subcoelestina, L. subeuchroa, L. violacea)

a. Cap conic to campanulate; margin straight or decurved. Gills attached, not decurrent, not waxy. Stipe central; cartilaginous or brittle; no volva; no ring. No veil. b. Cap colors gray violet to blackish blue or drab (1); 5 to 18 mm across except one to 25 mm. Gills white (3), blue gray (1), drab (1). stipe 20-40 mm x 1-2 mm (to 3.5 one sp.); glabrous (3) pubescent to appressed-fibrillose (2); concolorous with cap +/-. Taste and odor indistinct except L. lutulenta "peculiar".

Omphalinoid (None present in Pacific Northwest but L. yatesii could be found in S.W. Oregon)

a. Cap broadly convex and with a slightly to markedly depressed cap disc. Gills sub-decurrent to decurrent; not waxy. Stipe central; cartilaginous; no volva; no ring. No veil. b. (No species in Northwest to date.)

Tricholomatoid (L. cyanea v. occidentalis)

a. No veil. Gills attached, not decurrent; sinuate or notched; not waxy. Stipe central, fleshy fibrous; no volva; no ring. b. Cap convex; margin decurved to uplifted; surface densely appressed to semi-erect squamulose on disc, becoming densely appressed-fibrillose at the margin. Gills white to faintly pale yellow; margin concolorous, entire, may erode in age. Taste sweet; odor fragrant. Mostly lignicolous.

 

NOLANEA

Collybioid (36 taxa)

a. Cap convex to parabolic; no veil; margin inrolled to incurved. Gills attached to stipe, not decurrent; not waxy. Stipe central: cartilaginous or brittle; no volva; no ring. b. Cap typically glabrous, not centrally depressed; mostly hygrophanous. Gills close to moderate, occasionally subdistant. Stipe hollow, brittle to mostly tougher; typically pruinose at least at apex, and/or silky-silvery and longitudinally striate. Urea concentration +4 to +5.

Tricholomatoid (N. subviolaceoverna in part)

a. No veil. Cap conic to campanulate. Gills attached, not decurrent; notched; not waxy. Stipe fleshy fibrous; no volva; no ring. b. Cap umbonate to nearly cuspidate; opaque; fuscous black with purple tinge, at first frosted with white silvery fibrils. Gills ascending and deeply adnexed, close, gray to brown. Stipe silvery white over fuscous black with violet tinges; longitudinally striate.

 

PARAECCILIA

Omphalinoid (*P. minutissima, P. nucisapora, P. perundata, P. rustcoides, P. sericeonitida, *P. sericeonitida v. ligniphila) *2 sp. lignicolous.

a. No veil. Cap broadly convex and with a slightly to markedly depressed disc. Gills subdecurrent to decurrent; not waxy. Stipe central, cartilaginous; no volva; no ring. b. Cap often infundibuliform; surface often densely appressed-fibrillose; margin inrolled and often undulate; colored brown, gray-brown to fuliginous; flesh 0.5 to 2 mm thick, fragile. Gills drab gray-brown, red brown, gray or sordid. Stipe hollow; not orange.

 

POUZARELLA

Mycenoid (P. fernandae, P. fulvostrigosa, P. versatilis)

a. Cap conic to campanulate; margin straight or decurved. Gills attached not decurrent; not waxy. Stipe central; cartilaginous or brittle; no volva; no ring. No veil. b. Cap typically under 40 mm broad; dark brown, dark gray-brown or dark greenish brown; appressed-fibrillose, fibrillose-hairy, or fibrillose-squamulose over entire cap. Gills dark brown. Stipe glabrous, pruinose, punctate, appressed-fibrillose or squamulose; often with reddish radiating hairs at base; hollow or stuffed to hollow. Odor unpleasant (fishy, grassy, or rancid farinaceous).

 

RHODOCYBE

Clitocyboid (R. lepistoides)

a. No veil. Cap convex. Gills attached, decurrent, not waxy. Stipe fleshy fibrous; no volva; no ring. b. Cap to 32 mm; convex then plane, shallowly depressed; warm even tan; glabrous; flesh 3 mm, pallid, tough. Gills pinkish tan; crowded. Stipe white with innate silvery fibrillose coating entire length; solid, tough-fibrous; with fragile white rhizomorphs. Lignicolous on wood chips. b. Description would not work to include R. aureicystidiata. (see under Tricholomatoid).

Collybioid (R. hirneola, R. nitellina, R. olympians, R. roseiavellenea, R. trachyospora, R. trachyospora v. griseoviolacea, R. trachyospora v. purpureoviolacea, R. trachyospora v. vinacea)

a. No veil. Cap convex to parabolic; margin inrolled to decurved. Gills attached to stipe, not decurrent; not waxy. Stipe central; cartilaginous or brittle; no volva; no ring. b. Cap convex and centrally depressed at maturity; glabrous; not hygrophanous. Gills notched or not. Stipe solid, stuffed or hollow; 2 species become hollow in age; R. olympiana is hollow to start but grows on the remains of other mushrooms. Some of these species have partial characteristics for other statures but seem best served under Collybioid.

Omphalinoid (R. caelata)

a. No veil. Cap convex with a slightly to markedly depressed cap disc. Gills attached and subdecurrent to decurrent; not waxy. Stipe central and cartilaginous; no volva; no ring, b. Cap glabrescent; margin inrolled to decurved; smooth, often wrinkled, areolate or reticulate cracked in age: sometimes lobed. Original pubescence collapsing as basidiome matures. Gills often seceding; gray or gray-brown at first. Stipe covered with dense white hoary pubescence at first, collapsing and becoming fibrillose or glabrous in age; more or less cap color; flesh solid, eventually hollow, tough +./-

Tricholomatoid (R. speciosa, R. aureicystidiata)

a. No veil. Cap convex; margin inrolled at first. Gills attached, sinuate (notched); not decurrent; not waxy. Stipe fleshy fibrous; no volva; no ring. b. Cap tan or dark brown; glabrous; not umbonate; flesh 2-3 mm; concolorous. Gills white to pink-orange or hair brown; subdistant; seceding. Stipe under 8 mm diameter at apex; solid and tough fibrous (sometimes hollow in age); light yellow to pale orange, darkens down to fuscous brown, staining red; mostly glabrous. Taste and odor farinaceous in R. speciosa and indistinct in the other.

 

TRICHOPILUS

Mycenoid (T. plebeioides)

a. Cap conic or campanulate; margin straight or decurved. Gills attached; not decurrent; not waxy. Stipe central and cartilaginous; no volva; no ring. b. Cap 10-70 mm across; drab gray; disc fibrillose, disc to margin fibrillose-squamulose; button stage sometimes showing a rudimentary veil. Gills drab gray, adnate, ventricose. Stipe with a drab gray, canescent, appressed-fibrillose layer which is glabrescent; hollow, fragile. Taste and odor not distinctive.

Tricholomatoid (T. jubatus)

a. No veil. Cap shape varied. Gills attached, sinuate (notched); not waxy. Stipe fleshy fibrous; no volva; no ring. b. Cap broadly campanulate at first; to 50 mm diameter; dry, dull, not hygrophanous; margin incurved to decurved; surface punctate-tomentulose when young, often remaining so only on the disc and becoming appressed-squamulose toward the margin and radially appressed at the margin; color drab gray to gray-brown; flesh to 4 mm, whitish. Gills dark gray with pale serrulate margin. Stipe to 9 mm at apex; straight; surface punctate at apex; becoming appressed-fibrillose, longitudinally rimose and striate; fibrils agglutinating to squamule-like clumps; dark brown than orange-gray to orange. Taste and odor indistinct to beanlike.

 

 

GENERIC MICROSCOPIC DESCRIPTIONS

Occasionally the macroscopic descriptions can leave the reviewer puzzled. A specimen may have developed a different stature from what it normally does. Colors may have been interpreted differently. Weather may have caused surface ornamentation to be displayed in an unusual manner or to be missing. Many variations can occur which cause the specimens to be searched down the wrong track. However, if you have made certain the specimen is in the family, there is another way to determine the genus. The problem, of course, is that many persons do not have access to a microscope nor the expertise to deal with microscopic details.

The alternatives to buying a scope and learning microscopy are:

(1) Call a member who does such research and ask for help. Be prepared to do something in return for the help.

(2) Dry the specimen(s) to take to a later microscopy workshop. Follow the procedures for drying as explained in several books.

(3) Pay a graduate student in mycology to help with the job. Most can use the money but are usually short of time to work on other projects.

The microscopic descriptions on the following pages are not set up for a dichotomous key. The way to use it is to observe and write a description of the microscopic features much the same as you would a macroscopic one. Then compare that set of information against the following sets of descriptions. Seek out the basic elements which separate each genus from the others. On the other hand, if you think you may have reached the probable genus through the macroscopic key, you can verify it by checking the microscopic details of the specimen against the appropriate micro-set.

 

ALBOLEPTONIA (4 taxa)

Collybioid (A. earlei, A. ochracea, A. sericella, A. subsericella)

Spores angular in all views: typically heterodiametric but occasionally isodiametric. Pileipellis typically a layer of entangled hyphae, at times nearly a cutis with a few upturned ends. Cheilocystidia present or absent. Stipitipellis often with clusters of caulocystidia or a cutis. Clamps present in pileipellis or not. Alboleptonias are recognizable, being white, with one soon tinged yellow and one orange. Be careful not to confuse them with the 2 white Leptonias, L. albinella and L. albida.

 

CLAUDOPUS (2 taxa)

Pleurotoid (C. parasiticus, *C. bysissedus)

*Lignicolous .

(C. parasiticus)

Basidia 4-spored, clavate. Spores 9.6-13.2 x 8.1-10.7 microns; 4-7-sided, angular all views. Pileipellis composed of 3 layers, an outer distinct entangled layer up to 100 microns deep with slender hyphae 2-4 microns broad; a second, rather indistinct periclinally arranged layer, 1 to 4 hyphae thick, same diameter; a third periclinally arranged layer with hyphae 8-12 microns broad; pileocystidia cylindro-clavate, 41.9-78.8 x 9.8-11.1 microns. Cheilocystidia and pleurocystidia absent. Stipitipellis composed of abundant entangled hyphae with solitary as well as clustered caulocystidia projecting. Vascular hyphae absent. Clamps scattered on slender hyphae of pileipellis; rare in stipitipellis. Pigmentation colorless; incrustations absent. Basidiomes parasitic on other mushrooms.

(C. bysissedus)

Spores 7.4-11.5 x 5.3-8.2 microns; angular all views. Pilepellis covered with a loosely entangled hyphal layer representing a veil (or not). Beneath the veil, the pileipellis is a densely entangled layer 5 to 10 hyphae thick. Pileocystidia cylindro-clavate, 31-59 x 8.3-12.2 microns; tramal hyphae of cap 64-170 x 4-14 microns. Cheilocystidia mostly absent--none on some edges and scattered on others, cylindric to cylindro-clavate. Pleurocystidia absent. Tramal hyphae of gills short, 56-150 x 4-16 microns. Stipitipellis a hymeniform layer of cells in pubescent stipes. Clamps abundant at base of basidia but rare in pileipellis. Pigmentation intracellular and pale in loose hyphae and pileipellis.

 

CLITOPILOIDEA (1 taxon)

Clitocyboid (Clitopiloidea 912)

Spores 9.3-12.4 x 6.0-8.6 microns; 5-6 sided, distinctly angular all views. Pileipellis a narrow layer of entangled hyphae; pileocystidia cylindro-clavate. Tramal hyphae of cap puzzle-shaped. Cheilocystidia and pleurocystidia absent. Stipitipellis a cutis; caulocystidia absent. Clamps absent all tissues. Pigment intracellular.

 

CLITOPILUS (2 taxa)

Clitocyboid (C. prunulus)

Spores 9-12 x 5-7 microns; elliptical in outline; longitudinally ridged; angular only in end view. Cheilocystidia and pleurocystidia absent; Cap cuticle an ixocutis composed of irregular hyphae 3-6 microns wide, all slightly gelatinized. Clamps absent in cap cuticle.

Pleurotoid (C. hobsonii)

Spores 6.5-10 x 4-5.5 microns, elliptic almond-shaped with 7-12 longitudinal ridges in side-view, angular with several distinct faces when viewed end-on. Pleurocystidia absent, cheilocystidia absent or replaced by filamentous hyphae 1.5-2 micron broad. Clamps absent.

 

ENTOLOMA (30 taxa)

Collybioid

Sec. PSEUDONOLANEA (E. alnobetulae, E. alpicola, E. heracleodora)

Spores 6.4-11.4 x 5.3-9.9 microns; 5-6-sided and distinctly angular in all views, mostly isodiametric or nearly so. Pileipellis varied. Cheilocystidia and pleurocystidia absent. Stipitipellis varied; caulocystidia absent. Clamps frequent to abundant in pileipellis. Pigment intracellular (cytoplasmic) in pileipellis, not incrusting.

Omphalinoid

Sec. POLITA (E. politum, E. subpolitum)

Spores 6.0-10.2 x 5.2-8.4 microns; 5-6 sided, distinctly angular all views. Pileipellis a cutis; pileocystidia cylindric. Cheilocystidia and pleurocystidia absent. Stipitipellis a cutis; caulocystidia absent. Clamps rare but present in pileipellis. Pigment intracellular, not incrusting.

Tricholomatoid (25 taxa)

Sec. LIVIDOALBUM (4 taxa)

Sec. NOLANIDEA (3 taxa)

Sec. POLITA (3 taxa)

Sec. PSEUDONOLANEA (3 taxa)

Sec. RHODOPOLIA (9 taxa)

Sec. SUBSAUNDERSI (1 taxon)

Sec. TYPODOCHROA (2 taxa)

Spores isodiametric or heterodiametric; angular all views. Pileipellis a cutis or ixocutis; pileocystidia typically cylindric to cylindro-clavate and often less than 10 microns broad; trama typically puzzle-shaped above the stipe apex, i.e. composed of interlocking. short, broad elements between 40 and 150 microns long. Clamps present and often abundant on hyphae of pileipellis. Pigment mostly colorless and intracellular or incrusted.

 

INOCEPHALUS (7 taxa)

Collybioid

Sec. INOCEPHALUS (I. appressus, I. azureus, I. fabaceolus, I. furfuraceodiscus, I. minutopilus, I. perfuscus)

Sec. RHOMBISPORUS (I. rhombisporus)

Spores 4-5-6-7-sided, angular all views. Pileipellis a layer of entangled hyphae, at times with terminal elements upright, thus nearly a trichodermium; subpellis with hyphae indistinct from the hyphae of the cap trama; pileocystidia 3.7-24.3 microns, averaging less than 18 microns broad. Clamps absent or abundant in pileipellis. Pigment either intracellular or intracellular and distinctly incrusting the hyphae of the pileipellis.

 

LEPTONIA (59 taxa)

Subgenus LEPTONIA (15 taxa)

(Collybioid 14 taxa)

(Tricholomatoid l taxon)

Spores 5-6-sided; distinctly angled all views. Pileipellis a layer of entangled hyphae with the cells often agglutinated into clumps; submoniliform or not; pileocystidia cylindro-clavate, or clavate, or bullet-shaped, fusiform, or broadly cylindro-clavate and inflated, well-developed and greater than 10 microns in width. Clamps absent, rare, scattered or abundant in the pileipellis. Pigment intracellular sometimes incrusting the external walls of the hyphae of pileipellis.

Subgenus CYANULA (44 taxa)

(Collybioid 39 taxa)

(Mycenoid 5 taxa)

Sec. ALBIDICAULES (3 taxa)

Sec. CAESIES (21 taxa)

Sec. CEREICAULES (12 taxa)

Sec. CYANULA (2 taxa)

Sec. RAMPHOCYSTOTAE (4 taxa)

Sec. ROSEICAULES (1 taxon)

Sec. VIRIDICAULES (1 taxon)

Spores 5-6-sided; distinctly angled all views. Pileipellis a palisadoderm, a palisade-trichodermium or a trichodermium (at least on the cap disc); pileocystidia versiform but well-developed and greater than 10 microns in width. Clamps absent in the pileipellis. Pigment intracellular and colored or colorless, not incrusted.

 

NOLANEA (37 taxa)

(Collybioid 36)

(Tricholomatoid l)

Sec. AMEIDES (1 taxon)

Sec. COSMEOEXONEMA (15 taxa)

Sac. ENDOCHROMONEMA (13 taxa)

Sec. HOLOCONIOTAE (1 taxon)

Sec. INFULARIA (3 taxa)

Sec. NOLANEA (2 taxa)

Sec. STAUROSPORI (2 taxa)

Spores 4-5-6-7-sided or stellate; isodiametric, sub-isodiametric or heterodiametric; angular in all views. Pileipellis a cutis or an entangled layer; subpellis typically composed of inflated hyphae thus differing from the suprapellis and the cap trama; pileocystidia typically cylindric or cylindro-clavate and only up to 10 microns broad. Cheilocystidia present or absent; pleurocystidia present or absent: gill trama composed of long, typically fusiform elements 150-500 microns long. Clamps absent from pileipellis. Pigment intracellular, intracellular and incrusting or externally incrusting only, depending on section involved.

 

PARAECCILIA (6 taxa)

(Omphalinoid)

(P. nucisapora, *P. minutissima, P. perundata, P. rusticoides, P. sericeonitida, *P. sericeonitida v. ligniphila)

*Lignicolous.

Spores isodiametric or heterodiametric, angular in all views. Pileipellis a layer of entangled hyphae or a trichodermium; cheilocystidia present or absent, depending on species. Clamps absent on the hyphae of the pileipellis. Incrusting pigment dominant (over intracellular) and distinct, often in easily visible rings.

 

POUZARELLA (3 taxa)

(Mycenoid)

(P. fernandae, P. fulvostrigosa, P. versatilis)

Spores heterodiametric, angular in all views, 5-6-8-sided. Pileipellis a layer of entangled hyphae to nearly a trichodermium (P. fernandae). Clamps absent. Pigment strongly incrusted, coarse and distinct, and often intracellular as well. Thick-walled caulocystidia present on the stipe.

 

RHODOCYBE (12 taxa)

(Collybioid - 9 taxa)

(Omphalinoid - l taxon)

(Clitocyboid - 1 taxon)

(Tricholomatoid - l taxon)

Sec. ECHINOSPORAE (R. olympiana)

Sec. RHODOCYBE (R. aureicystidiata, R. caelata)

Sec. RHODOPHANA (R. hirneola, *R. lepistoides, R. nitellina, *R. roseiavellanea, R. speciosa, R. trachyospora, R. trachyospora v. griseoviolacea, R. trachyospora v. purpureoviolacea, R. trachyospora v. vinacea)

*Lignicolous.

Spores generally globose to ellipsoid; echinulate (1), individually pustulate and sometimes undulate surfaces of the 7 to 10 small facets. Spores sharply to rounded angular in polar (end) view. Not angular in profile (face) view, except that globose spores are occasionally seen as slightly angular in profile views. Pileipellis a cutis, radially arranged: all tissues non-amyloid. Gill trama regular, consisting of long filamentous, parallel or subparallel hyphae; cheilocystidia and pleurocystidia present or absent. Clamps present or absent in pileipellis.

No other genus has "bumps" on the surface of the spores. This, in itself, is definitive. Section Echinosporae has echinulate spores with short, coarse, blunt-pointed projections. Section Rhodocybe has abundant cheilocystidia and pleurocystidia striking in color (yellow), and clamp connections absent in pileipellis. Section Rhodophana has spores similar to Section Rhodocybe but hymenial cystidia not differentiated, and clamp connections present in pileipellis.

 

TRICHOPILUS (2 taxa)

Mycenoid (T. plebeioides)

Tricholomatoid (T. jubatus)

Spores 7.4-11.5 x 4.7-9.3 microns; 5-6-7-sided, obscurely angled all views, heterodiametric. Cheilocystidia and pleurocystidia absent in T. plebeioides and present in T. jubatus. Pileipellis a layer of entangled hyphae becoming erect and a trichodermium on the disc. Clamps large and broad on hyphae of pileipellis, rare to frequent. Pigment intracellular in hyphae of pileipellis; brown.

 

 

DESCRIPTIVE KEY FOR TAXA OF ENTOLOMATACEAE BY GENUS

 


ALBOLEPTONIA Largent and R.G. Benedict

Collybioid. No veil*. CAP convex to parabolic; margin inrolled or incurved at first. GILLS attached to stipe, not decurrent**; not waxy. STIPE central, cartilaginous or brittle; no volva; no ring. Other common features, this group: Basidiomes white when young. CAP appressed-fibrillose to appressed-squamulose except A. earlei; flesh white, unchanging. STIPE white; fragile; mostly hollow. Urea concentration 0 + 1.

1a Basidiomes becoming tinged yellowish or pale orange to orange-brown on aging and/or handling.

................................................................................2

1b Basidiomes remaining white to whitish as they age.

................................................................................3

2a Basidiomes white, becoming tinged with yellow. Cap 6-80 mm; opaque; finely appressed-fibrillose to densely matted fibrillose, becoming more or less glabrous on drying; flesh up to 9 mm thick. Gills crowded to subdistant; white at first. Stipe 25-85 mm; pruinose to flocculose at apex; mostly glabrous; basal tomentum absent. Taste mild to slightly unpleasant; odor mild, at times fungoid to slightly pungent. Remarks common in Pacific Northwest.

................................................................................A. sericella v. lutescens

2b Basidiomes white, becoming pale orange to pale orange brown. Cap 10-35 mm; surface at first covered with a fugacious (evanescent) whitish superficial veil; soon becoming appressed-fibrillose to appressed-squamulose; opaque; flesh up to 5 mm. Gills subdistant; white. Stipe 25-90 mm; pruinose to squamulose at apex; appressed-fibrillose and striate below; basal tomentum white and abundant. Taste indistinct; odor indistinct to raphanoid or pungent.

................................................................................A. ochracea

3a (1b) Cap 10-20 mm; convex-umbilicate; glabrous; pure white. Gills short-decurrent; close; pure white. Stipe 20-30 mm; minutely pruinose to glabrous; basal tomentum present; hollow. Taste and odor indistinct. Spores average less than 9 microns long.

................................................................................A. earlei

3b Cap 15-30 mm; convex, depressed or umbilicate, to plane; glabrous to appressed tomentose; uniformly pallid to white; opaque. Gills sinuate to short decurrent; crowded to subdistant; white. Stipe 30-60 mm; smooth but fibrillose; basal tomentum absent; flesh solid to spongy. Taste indistinct to unpleasant; odor farinaceous. Spores average more than 9 microns long.

................................................................................A. subsericella

 

*A few species of the family have a fugacious (evanescent), white superficial veil which is mostly unseen. See A. ochracea above.

**Some specimens may have sub-decurrent to short decurrent gills but none are fully decurrent.

Two species in Leptonia, which are also all white, are L. albida and L. albinella. The cap of L. albida is 20-30 mm across and has a surface that is finely squamulose. Its color changes from white to a creamy tan at maturity. The stipe is 30-65 mm; glabrous; hollow and tough. Taste is woody and bitter. The cap of L. albinella is only up to 10 mm broad; squamulose over the disc to fibrillose at the margin; turning yellowish as it matures. Stipe 25 mm. The pileipellis of both is a trichodermium as opposed to Alboleptonia which have a pileipellis composed of a layer of entangled hyphae. See Section Albidicaules under Subgenus Cyanula.

 


CLAUDOPUS Gillet

Pleurotoid: Veil present. Cap may be shaped ovoid, spathulate, fanshaped, semicircular, or kidney-shaped; either attached to stipe eccentrically or laterally or without a stipe (sessile) or effuso-reflexed. Gills attached to stipe when present, adnate to adnexed. Other common features in this group are as follows: many specimens may be found with the glabrous cap covered with the whitish fibrils of a veil; margin mostly undulate, eroded when older. Stipe, when present, curved; flesh stuffed then hollow; prominent white rhizoids at attachments to substrate.

1a Basidiomes growing on basidiocarps of other species. Cap densely covered with a veil of light-colored, matted-fibrillose fibrils. Stipe eccentrically attached and originating from a mat of mycelium on the cap of a host.

................................................................................C. parasiticus

1b Basidiomes growing out of wood or soil. Cap 5-75 mm; variously shaped as in pleurotoid discussion above; typically with a whitish to grayish fibrillose layer over the glabrous dark brown, translucent-striate cap. Gills adnexed; close to subdistant; grayish to gray-brown. Stipe 3-8 mm; tapered to base; pale tan; densely appressed-fibrillose. Taste and odor farinaceous.

................................................................................C. bysissedus

 


CLITOPILOIDEA (Romagn.) Largent

Clitocyboid: No veil. Cap slightly to distinctly depressed; glabrous; hygrophanous. Gills decurrent; not waxy. Stipe central, fleshy fibrous; no volva; no ring.

1a Cap light gray (?). Stipe longitudinally striate. Lignicolous and in mosses on live or dead Bigleaf Maple.

................................................................................Clitopiloidea 912

Species provisional. Macroscopic notes scant-incomplete.

 


CLITOPILUS (Fr. ex Rabenh.) P. Kumm.

Clitocyboid: No veil. Cap 30-100 mm in diameter, slightly to distinctly depressed; glabrous; hygrophanous. Gills decurrent; not waxy. Stipe central; fleshy fibrous; no volva; no ring. Other features, this species: Cap convex to depressed; white to medium gray; margin often undulate and irregular in outline; flesh over 3 mm thick, white. Stipe central or eccentric; crooked or straight but not curved as in Claudopus; flesh stuffed then hollow.

1a Spore print pink. Taste and odor farinaceous. (This also distinguishes from species such as Clitocybe dilatata.) Growing on the ground.

................................................................................C. prunulus

Pleurotoid: a. Small. Cap 3-30(40) mm wide, lobed or shell-shaped or almost circular, margin incurved for a long time and not striate; color whitish; bald, silky or finely downy-tomentulose. Stipe usually absent, when present small and either eccentric or lateral, whitish, and downy.

1a Spore print pink. Taste and odor none to strongly farinaceous. Growing on wood.

................................................................................C. hobsonii

 


ENTOLOMA (Fr.) P. Kumm.

Collybioid: No veil. Cap convex to parabolic; margin inrolled or incurved at first. Gills attached to stipe, not decurrent; not waxy. Stipe central, cartilaginous or brittle; no volva; no ring. Other common features in this group as follows. Cap glabrous; hygrophanous; not centrally depressed or only faintly so. Gills subdistant. Stipe glabrous; hollow; brittle/fragile. Urea concentration zero.

1a Cap 10-45 mm; campanulate to plane; not viscid; greenish fuliginous with a dark center; opaque; margin undulate with age. Gills adnate; white. Stipe 25-45 mm; white. Taste and odor strong with cucumber/celery combination.

................................................................................E. heracleodora

1b Cap not greenish; gills not white; stipe not usually white. Taste farinaceous or none; Odor farinaceous or unpleasant.

................................................................................2

2a Cap 10-35 mm; opaque; evenly very dark brown, fading to cinnamon drab. Gills adnate and decurrent toothed to short-decurrent; dark gray-brown. Stipe 25-75 mm; "drab". Taste and odor farinaceous.

................................................................................E. alnobetulae

2b Cap 25-60 mm; convex with slight umbo; opaque; drab to mouse gray when young, becoming buffy brown with an olive margin; margin becomes undulate as it ages. Gills adnate; serrulate; pale gray. Stipe 40-90 mm; striate and with a pale gray metallic sheen; may also be glabrous, white. Taste none; odor unpleasant.

................................................................................E. alpicola

Omphalinoid: Partial veil one species. Cap broadly convex with a slightly to markedly depressed cap disc. Gills sub-decurrent, not waxy. Stipe central; cartilaginous; no volva; no ring. Other common features in this group as follows. Cap glabrous; brownish orange; margin inrolled to decurved, entire, smooth, exceeding gills about 1 mm, eroded later. Gills white. Stipe pale orange.

1a Cap 10-35 mm; convex and distinctly depressed; translucent-striate; darkening in a mottled fashion to dark brown. Flesh 1-3 mm near gill attachment. Gills adnexed to emarginate with a decurrent tooth; subdistant to distant. Stipe 25-95 mm; 2-5 mm at apex; glabrous; pale orange to light orange, darkening from base upward to brownish orange or light-brown. Taste mild; odor mild or nitrous or chlorine-like or slightly farinaceous. Remarks E. nidorosum may have similar odor and color, but has adnate to adnexed moderately broad to broad gills, thicker cap flesh (4-7 mm) and tends to be larger; E. sericatum also has nitrous odor but cap darker in color and thicker cap flesh (6-9 mm).

................................................................................E. politum

1b Cap 10-35 mm; convex and shallowly depressed; darkening to dark brown; opaque. Gills subdecurrent to decurrent; close. Stipe 35-65; 2-5 mm at apex; distinctly striate; orange-white, darkening to brownish gray. Taste and odor farinaceous.

................................................................................E. subpolitum

Tricholomatoid: No veil. Cap mostly umbonate; convex to plane, rarely depressed; mostly over 40 mm up to 180 mm across; mostly opaque (4 taxa are not and 7 exhibit translucence only at the margin); mostly hygrophanous; mostly glabrous (3 are partially so); flesh is more than 3 mm thick up to 22 mm; Gills attached, not decurrent but sinuate or notched; margins concolorous; not waxy. Stipe central; fleshy fibrous, stuffed or hollow; no volva; no ring; mostly over 8 mm at apex although some specimens of a few species can be smaller. All but 2 species exhibit distinct tastes and odors.

1a Gills white, pallid, off-white, or dull white at first.

................................................................................6

1b Gills pallid gray, pale gray, buff, avellaneous, to lurid yellow-gray.

................................................................................2

2a Gills somewhat grayish, pallid gray or pale gray. Habit caespitose.

................................................................................3

2b Gills gray with a yellow or brown component. Habit scattered to gregarious.

................................................................................5

3a Gills somewhat gray, often white; adnexed to sinuate; close to subdistant. Cap up to 150 mm; brownish orange to grayish orange when young to dark gray to gray-brown when older; at first covered with pale gray aeriferous hyphae then becoming rivulose-fibrillose with the fibrils dark gray to dark gray-brown mixed with pale gray aeriferous patches. Stipe 55-140 mm; 11-40 mm at apex when mature; pruinose on apical third; striate and rimose lower portion; white becoming brownish where handled. Taste and odor strongly farinaceous. Habit and habitat in clusters of 2 to 6 basidiomes under oaks; often not protruding much above the soil surface; soon infested with larvae. Remarks common in Pacific Northwest.

................................................................................E. subsaundersi

3b Gills never white, more distinct gray; cap different.

................................................................................4

4a Gills pallid gray, distinctly not white. Cap 13-50 mm; dark brown to darkish "honey-isabelline", later fading entirely to medium brown; glabrous with a dull surface; opaque; not hygrophanous; margin undulate with age. Gills adnate to sinuate. Stipe 35-75 mm; 4-10 mm at apex; dingy gray becoming brownish gray, base pale orange in age. Taste and odor farinaceous or of cucumber when cut or crushed. Habit and habitat scattered to caespitose in woods. Remarks E. myrmecophilum has a matted-fibrillose blackish brown cap and white stipe.

................................................................................E. brunnescipes

4b Gills pale gray. Cap 30-60 mm; bister to fuliginous to nearly black as in the dark Lyophyllums; glabrous; hygrophanous; mostly opaque. Gills deeply adnexed with a decurrent tooth and seceding with age; close. Stipe 40-80 mm; 5-10 mm at apex; hollow; fragile; concolorous with cap except lighter below; silvery striate from fine appressed fibrils; glabrescent; basal tomentum scarce to absent. Taste and odor strongly farinaceous. Habit and habitat caespitose under Abies (true fir) above 3,500 feet.

................................................................................E. lyophylloidium

5a (2b) Gills lurid yellowish gray to pale yellowish. Cap 50-125 mm; deep brown to dark yellowish brown with a reddish tint, fading to a medium brown or "dresden brown"; glabrous with a viscid surface which becomes shiny on drying; opaque; hygrophanous; margins remaining involute. Gills abruptly sinuate; close; wavy. Stipe 30-180 mm; 8-13 mm at apex; clavate, tapering to a point at the base; glabrous but striate; white, becoming pale pinkish buff; flesh solid to stuffed to hollow in age. Taste farinaceous; odor farinaceous or cucumber.

................................................................................E. pseudolividum

5b Gills "tilleul buff" (pallid or whitish) to grayish avellaneous (hazelnut brown). Cap 30-60 mm; pallid grayish avellaneous when moist, near tilleul buff when faded; when moist obscurely fibrillose-squamulose under a lens, when faded nearly glabrous to the naked eye; mostly opaque except margin on occasion; hygrophanous; shiny becoming dull on the surface. Gills adnate; close to subdistant. Stipe 40-80 mm; 8-14 mm apex; clavate; striate and rimose; pallid to concolorous with cap; hollow; fragile. Taste none; odor fragrant. Habit and habitat gregarious under alder, late August.

................................................................................E. griseoavellaneum

6a (1a Gills white) Cap ornamented or somewhat ornamented at times.

................................................................................7

6b Cap always glabrous.

................................................................................11

7a Cap exhibiting aeriferous hyphae (as if containing air) and a rivulose (riverlike) pattern.

................................................................................8

7b Cap exhibiting other ornamentation.

................................................................................9

8a Cap up to 150 mm; brownish orange to grayish orange when young to dark gray to gray-brown when older; at first covered with pale gray aeriferous hyphae then becoming rivulose-fibrillose with the fibrils dark gray to dark gray-brown mixed with pale gray aeriferous patches. Gills gray or white; adnexed to sinuate; close to subdistant. Stipe 55-140 mm; 11-40 mm at apex; pruinose on apical third, striate and rimose lower portion; white becoming brownish where handled. Taste and odor strongly farinaceous. Habit and habitat found in clusters of 2-6 under oaks; often barely breaking soil surface; soon infested with larvae.

................................................................................E. subsaundersi

8b Cap 40-110 mm; uniformly dark bluish gray to dark purplish blue, at times a lighter bluish gray toward the margin and lighter at the margin; distinctly radially rivulose to corrugate-rivulose and frosted with grayish aeriferous hyphae; glabrous otherwise, with a dull surface; opaque. Gills white or tinged cap color; sinuate; close then subdistant. Stipe 40-100 mm; 12-28 mm at apex; striate and rimose; pale bluish gray to bluish gray except at base silvery white, staining yellow-orange; flesh hard. Taste and odor distinctly farinaceous. Habit and habitat single, scattered, or gregarious under hardwoods or conifers. Remarks common in Pacific Northwest. [compare also with the smaller, less fleshy Entoloma nitidum, with mild to radish-like odor - I.G.]

................................................................................E. bloxami

9a (7b) Cap 70-150 mm; convex and slightly depressed; dull white, in some becoming slightly tan on the umbo; shiny subviscid; may be parchment-like, wrinkled and lubricous to the touch, otherwise glabrous; opaque; margin upturned, often split. Gills adnexed to nearly free, dull white. Stipe 60-95 mm; 23-34 mm at apex; broader toward base; smooth with finely appressed fibrils. Taste and odor farinaceous. Remarks the only large, whitish species of Entoloma with a viscid cap in the Pacific Northwest.

................................................................................E. grande

9b Cap dark brown; not viscid.

................................................................................10

10a Cap 40-110 mm; convex and obscurely umbonate; very hard; matted-felty to matted villose over the disc area, glabrous elsewhere; dull, dry; opaque; very dark brown to nearly black; with age, remaining so on the disc, becoming lighter elsewhere. Gills adnexed to sinuate. Stipe 65-130 mm; apex 7-20 mm; may be enlarged at base or in middle; very base may be pointed; strongly striate and rimose; white and discoloring slightly brownish. Taste and odor farinaceous. Remarks E. brunnescipes has a dark brown bald cap.

................................................................................E. myrmecophilum v. myrmecophilum

10b Cap 70-150 mm; convex and distinctly umbonate; opaque; glabrous becoming somewhat silky fibrillose on drying; dark brown (tawny olive to Saccardo's umber) entirely at first, fading to light brown on the margin. Gills deeply notched to adnate; margins entire, becoming strongly eroded and uneven. Stipe 70-150 mm; apex 10-25 mm; striate; white; basal tomentum present, white. Taste indistinct; odor indistinct. Remarks relatively common in Pacific Northwest but not as common as f. lividoalbum

................................................................................E. lividoalbum f. inodoratum

The following species are separated partly on the basis of taste and odor. However, keep in mind that this group is first based on white gills and glabrous cap. The preceding group also had taste and odor characteristics that were similar to some of these but were not used in key determinations.

11a (6b glabrous cap) Taste and odor of basidiomes farinaceous to some degree and under certain circumstances.

................................................................................16

11b Taste and/or odor of basidiomes other than farinaceous.

................................................................................12

12a Taste and odor grassy. Cap 45-70 mm; plane and broadly depressed becoming irregularly uplifted, convoluted or undulate with age; hygrophanous and dull; translucent-striate 1/5 the way to the disc; fading on the disc to pale grayish orange. Gills adnexed and with a slight decurrent tooth. Stipe 65-90 mm; apex 8-12 mm; glabrous apex, slight striate below; white becoming sordid. Habitat under oaks or Western Hemlock.

................................................................................E. rhodopolium f. 8954

12b Taste and odor other than grassy.

................................................................................13

13a Taste mild; odor nitrous (may become somewhat fragrant with age). If odor is nitrous, but taste is farinaceous, go to 21a. Cap 20-85 mm; convex becoming plane in age, at times broadly depressed; glabrous; hygrophanous; translucent-striate about halfway to disc; pale honey tan or brownish orange to light brown, fading to gray-orange, dingy pink to pale pinkish buff. Flesh 4-7 mm thick. Gills adnexed to adnate, seceding with age; close to subdistant. Stipe 40-80 mm; apex 4-9 mm; finely flocculose at apex, glabrous except occasionally faintly striate; pallid, often yellowish orange at base. Remarks E. speculum has cap light colored to nearly white (as opposed to whitish tan or yellowish gray) and farinaceous odor; E. politum shares same color and odor but has adnexed to notched narrow (1-4 mm) gills, thinner cap flesh (1-3 mm near gill attachment), and tends to be smaller; E. sericatum also has nitrous odor when first picked, but has darker cap, stipe tends to be thicker and clubshaped, and grows under conifers.

................................................................................E. nidorosum

13b Taste and odor mild or indistinct.

................................................................................14

14a Taste indistinct; odor indistinct to, at times, a bit pungent. Cap 25-60 mm; convex to plane; hygrophanous with age, dull; opaque except at margin; dark yellowish brown, at times with a reddish tint, when faded becoming grayish orange; margin extending beyond gills at least 1 mm. Gills close to subdistant. Stipe 55-90 mm; apex 5.5-10 mm; slightly striate; white to pallid becoming brownish at base; basal tomentum absent to scarce. Habitat under oaks, maple, mixed woods. Remarks numbered forms are unnamed collections.

................................................................................E. rhodopolium f. 8700

14b Taste and odor mild. Not with the above characters. ("Mild" is applied to a taste or odor that seems not suggestive of a comparison and because it is neither strong nor faint, "mild" seems to fit its peculiarity.)

................................................................................15

15a Cap 30-35 mm; plane and broadly depressed; hygrophanous; opaque; yellowish brown fading to grayish orange or orange-white; margin somewhat undulate. Stipe 30-35 mm; apex 4-5 mm; short, clavate; at first covered with a dense, abundant, fine, white tomentum; becoming brownish orange from base upward.

................................................................................E. clavaformipes

15b Cap 70-150 mm; convex and distinctly umbonate; opaque becoming somewhat silky fibrillose on drying; dark brown (tawny olive to Saccardo's umber) entirely at first, fading to light brown on the margin. Gills deeply notched to adnate; margins entire, becoming strongly eroded and uneven. Stipe 70-150 mm; apex 10-25 mm; striate; white; basal tomentum present, white. Habitat under oaks, conifers, mixed woods. Remarks relatively common in Pacific Northwest but not as common as f. lividoalbum. (See lead 10b.)

................................................................................E. lividoalbum f. inodoratum

16a (11a odor farinaceous and with glabrous cap). Taste strongly and/or distinctly farinaceous; odor varied.

................................................................................18

16b Taste and odor faintly farinaceous, detectable but weak.

................................................................................17

17a Cap 25-82 mm; broadly convex; hygrophanous, shiny; opaque except for translucent-striate margin; medium to dark yellow-brown in the button stage or when covered with leaves, on exposure becoming dark brown fading to orange-gray on drying; unicolorous when dark brown. Margin typically extending past gills by 1 mm or more; wavy, undulate and lobed. Gills close or subdistant. Stipe 50-120 mm; apex 5-12 mm; hollow and fragile; slightly striate; off-white to faintly brownish; basal tomentum moderate. Taste faintly farinaceous; odor faintly farinaceous, more noticeable when crushed, not at all nitrous or chlorine-like. Habit and habitat gregarious to nearly caespitose under Red Alder. Remarks if all forms are taken together, quite common in the Pacific Northwest; E. nidorosum and E. speculum are separated by light-colored cap and odor; E. sericatum is more fleshy, has a medium brown to dark brown, obscurely umbonate cap which is translucent-striate only at the margin, thicker cap flesh (typically 6-9 mm), a more clubshaped stipe 9-20 mm wide at base, and distinctly nitrous odor when first picked.

................................................................................E. rhodopolium f. rhodopolium

17b Cap 30-95 mm; convex to broadly convex; hygrophanous, dull; opaque except for translucent-striate at the very edge; dark brown to dark gray-brown at first, soon fading to medium brown with disc remaining dark brown; margin irregularly wavy in age. Gills sinuate; subdistant. Stipe 40-100 mm; apex 3-10 mm; enlarged at base; slightly striate and rimose; white to faintly brown in age. Taste weakly farinaceous; odor farinaceous when crushed. Habit and habitat scattered under Western Red Cedar or Red Alder.

................................................................................E. rhodopolium f. 9107

18a (16a) Both taste and odor strongly or distinctly farinaceous.

................................................................................19

18b Taste strongly farinaceous; odor varying.

................................................................................21

19a Farinaceous taste and odor present without having to cut or crush specimens. Cap 35-70 mm; convex to plane; not hygrophanous; opaque; dark brown at first, soon becoming dark yellow-brown, or dark yellow-brown from the beginning. Gills sinuate to finely adnexed; close then subdistant; with interconnecting veins on the surface. Stipe 50-70 mm; apex 8-10 mm; striate; white and discoloring yellowish orange at the base; basal tomentum scarce to absent; flesh stuffed. Habit and habitat caespitose in soil, lawns or grassy areas under or near conifers. If the specimen under study does not fit this description well, go to lead 21a.

................................................................................E. pseudocostatum

19b Taste farinaceous but odor present only when material cut or crushed.

................................................................................20

20a Cap 57-90 mm; to broadly convex; slightly hygrophanous, at first shiny then dull; opaque except translucent-striate on the margin in age; dark yellow brown (pale yellowish white when covered with debris); flesh 12-14 mm thick. Gills adnate to sinuate; subdistant. Stipe 75-205 mm; apex 10-24 mm; striate; white, brownish at base; basal tomentum scarce to abundant; flesh stuffed. Habit and habitat scattered to gregarious under deciduous trees. Remarks common in Pacific Northwest; E. rhodopolium has less fleshy cap up to 6 mm thick, stipe 10 mm or less at apex, and translucent striate cap; E. sericatum has translucent-striate margin, nitrous odor when first picked, cap flesh up to 6 mm thick; E. pseudocostatum has veined gills and smaller stipe.

................................................................................E. lividoalbum f. lividoalbum

20b Cap 30-75 mm; broadly convex to plane to uplifted; hygrophanous in a mottled fashion; translucent-striate halfway to the disc; dingy grayish straw to grayish orange, remaining so on the disc, elsewhere becoming orange-white to near white when faded; flesh 3-7 mm thick; margin eventually plane to upturned; entire to eroded, often exceeding the gills; fragile and splitting radially with ease. Gills adnate to uncinate; subdistant. Stipe 50-95 mm; apex 4-8 mm; clavate, glabrous; white becoming pallid, occasionally pale orange at base. Habit and habitat scattered to gregarious under conifers. Remarks E. nidorosum has cap whitish tan or yellowish gray (as opposed to light colored to nearly white), and nitrous or fragrant odor.

................................................................................E. speculum

21a (18b) Taste farinaceous; odor faintly but distinctly nitrous when first collected; soon changing to farinaceous. (If not tested early, this species could wind up under 19a then be referred here.) Cap 25-80 mm; convex to broadly campanulate, often with a truncate disc; hygrophanous; opaque except on very margin; dark brown to dark yellow brown, remaining so on the disc but becoming elsewhere a medium dark brown, eventually fading to brownish orange. Gills sinuate; subdistant. Stipe 55-150 mm; apex 7-15 mm; clavate; pruinose to scabrous at apex; striate and rimose below; white becoming pale orange to orange gray on handling and brownish with age; basal tomentum scarce to moderate. Habitat under hardwoods. Remarks E. rhodopolium lacks the nitrous odor when first picked (most reliable differentiating feature), see E. rhodopolium f. rhodopolium for further details; E. nidorosum also has nitrous odor when first picked, but has lighter colored cap and equal stipe, and grows under conifers; E. politum may have nitrous odor, but has narrower gills (1-4 mm), narrower equal stipe, and tends to be smaller, growing under Western Red Cedar or Red Alder.

................................................................................E. sericatum

21b Taste farinaceous; odor faintly farinaceous only when crushed. Cap 20-45 mm; to plano-convex, acutely umbonate; hygrophanous, shiny; translucent-striate from halfway to entirely to the disc; dark to medium yellowish brown at first, remaining so on the disc but fading to medium brown elsewhere, often with the very margin light brown, eventually fading to orange-white; margin often exceeding gills 1 mm or more. Gills variously attached. Stipe 40-90 mm; apex 3-8 mm; slightly striate and rimose; white, discoloring to gray with handling.

................................................................................E. rhodopolium f. 9278

 


INOCEPHALUS (Noordl.) P. D. Orton

Collybioid: No veil. Cap convex to parabolic; margin inrolled to decurved older. Gills attached to stipe; not decurrent; not waxy. Stipe central; cartilaginous or brittle; no volva; no ring. Other common features, this group: Basidiomes not white. Cap mostly depressed as it ages; surface either with a scummy to scurfy disc and superficially appressed fibrils outside this or entirely and distinctly appressed-fibrillose. Stipe typically glabrous. Seven species in Pacific Northwest

1a Cap entirely and distinctly appressed fibrillose; 20-35 mm; convex, slightly depressed; hygrophanous; opaque except at margin; dark brown fading to brownish orange; flesh to 1.5 mm. Gills with slight decurrent tooth; distant; whitish to pallid. Stipe 30-40 mm; apex 3.5-5 mm; pale orange darkening to grayish orange with age; basal tomentum scarce to moderate. Taste and odor farinaceous.

................................................................................I. appressus

1b Cap scummy, scurfy, scabrous or matted on disc and distinctly appressed-fibrillose elsewhere.

................................................................................2

2a Cap disc scabrous (lip-touch test). If blue-gilled, follow 4.

................................................................................3

2b Cap disc scummy, scurfy or matted.

................................................................................4

3a Cap 10-45 mm; blackish brown on disc and dark gray-brown elsewhere; convex to plane with a slight depression at the disc; opaque; usually rimose; not hygrophanous. Gills dark gray-brown to fuscous. Stipe 20-60 mm; apex 2.5-4 mm; dark brownish gray becoming medium brownish gray; basal tomentum present, white becoming orange-white to pale orange when bruised. Taste not distinctive; odor farinaceous often faint.

................................................................................I. perfuscus

3b Cap 10-35 mm; dark gray-brown to fuscous on the disc and dark-brown to orange-brown elsewhere; convex to parabolic, depressed; hygrophanous; opaque except at margin; virgate and rimose at the margin. Gills with a decurrent tooth; close; white. Stipe: 45-60 mm; apex 2-4.5 mm; pruinose to flocculose at apex; light brown to medium brown. Taste indistinct; odor fabaceous (bean-like).

................................................................................I. fabaceolus

4a (2b) Gills gray-brown or grayish pallid. Cap 8-20 mm.

................................................................................5

4b Gills white or bluish at first. Cap 10-30 mm.

................................................................................6

5a Cap 9-16 mm; convex to plane; disc matted fibrillose to matted tomentose; almost black on the disc, more brown elsewhere. Gills gray-brown; subdistant. Stipe 25-50 mm; apex 1.5-2 mm; very dark gray-brown. Taste mild, suggestively farinaceous; odor mild, suggestively fragrant.

................................................................................I. minutopilus

5b Cap 8-20 mm; convex to plane, depressed slightly; hygrophanous; watery gray fading to paler gray; disc squamulose or scurfy; opaque. Gills distant; grayish pallid. Stipe 15-25 mm; apex 2-3 mm; pallid gray. Taste and odor farinaceous.

................................................................................I. furfuraceodiscus

6a (4b) Cap 13-30 mm; varying shape from conic to plane, rarely depressed slightly; hygrophanous; translucent-striate halfway or more to the disc; dark brown to medium brown to orange-brown. Gills adnexed; subdistant; white. Stipe 55-130 mm; apex 1.5-3.5 mm; very fragile; pruinose to scabrulose from apex to mid-length, glabrous below; very pale brown to pale tan to almost white, often darkening to medium brown from base up; basal tomentum scarce to absent. Taste indistinct to faintly farinaceous; odor indistinct to fungoid, grassy, spermatic or farinaceous, never strong.

................................................................................I. rhombisporus

6b Cap 10-30 mm; convex; hygrophanous; opaque; dark gray-brown to fuliginous, at times bluish tinted, fading to light grayish orange, darker colors in streaks. Gills adnexed to uncinate; subdistant; pale blue at first. Stipe 35-70 mm; apex 2-3 mm; light gray to gray. Taste and odor indistinct. Cap may at times have a scabrous-like disc but this species is easily separated by its bluish gills.

................................................................................I. azureus

 


LEPTONIA (Fr.) P. Kumm.

(For B. Subgenus Cyanula see below)

A. Subgenus Leptonia: Mostly Collybioid, rarely Mycenoid and rarely Tricholomatoid. Fifteen species described from the Pacific Northwest. Subgenus characterized by a cap surface which is typically entirely appressed-squamulose, squamose, fibrillose-scaly or tomentulose and by a pileipellis with submoniliform hyphae when clamps are absent or composed of entangled hyphae, at least on the cap disc, when clamps are present.

1a Basidiomes lignicolous, growing from rotten or underground wood.

................................................................................2

1b Basidiomes terrestrial, growing from soil or humus from moss, needles, branchlets, etc.

................................................................................5

2a Mycenoid. Cap 14-18 mm; margin extending beyond gills 1 mm; dark violet to blackish blue. Gills white. Stipe 25-32 mm; glabrous except may be minutely pubescent; dark blue to dark bluish gray. Taste and odor indistinct.

................................................................................L. subeuchroa

2b Not Mycenoid. Cap larger; margin flush with gills; colors with shades of violet, blue gray, and/or black. Gills colors various. Stipe typically longer; not glabrous.

................................................................................3

3a Collybioid. Gills bluish violet to dark gray-lavender. Cap 25-50 mm; shallowly depressed over the disc; margin smooth; dark bluish gray to bluish black. Stipe 30-65 mm; somewhat brittle; surface at first covered with a thin layer of vinaceous purple tomentum, fibrous-streaked and longitudinally rimose; lavender-purple at first; soon steel blue; swollen basal portion white. Taste and Odor indistinct.

................................................................................L. violaceonigra

3b Collybioid or Tricholomatoid. Gills white to pale yellow, may turn gray-brown when bruised. Cap 9-85 mm; convex to plane; margin often undulate; either appearing dark brown and with blackish squamules on a very faint and pale violaceous background, or with dark bluish gray to blackish blue squamules on a violaceous background. Stipe 20-85 mm; fragile; furfuraceous to densely fibrillose or densely squamulose; fibrils and squamules violet or blackish blue, background bluish gray to pale violet; iridescent. Taste indistinct to sweetish. Odor indistinct to distinctly fragrant or somewhat pungent or unpleasant.

................................................................................4

4a Collybioid. Cap 9-20mm; convex to broadly convex; margin incurved to inrolled, often undulate and finely fibrillose at extreme edge; not umbonate or depressed; appearing dark brown and with blackish squamules on a very faint and pale violaceous background; dull, opaque, not hygrophanous, appressed-squamulose. Gills white. Stipe 20-44 mm; fragile; densely fibrillose at button stage becoming entirely punctate-squamulose with age; the punctae and squamules dark blackish blue on an iridescent bluish gray background; base of stipe white then somewhat yellowish-orange with age, basal mycelium absent. Taste indistinct. Odor somewhat pungent or unpleasant. Remarks found by Andrew Parker in Washington and confirmed by David Largent.

................................................................................L. tjallingiorum

4b Collybioid or Tricholomatoid. Cap 15-85 mm; convex to plane; margin often undulate; with dark bluish gray to blackish blue squamules on a violaceous background; irregularly virgate. Gills white to pale yellow; often turning gray-brown when bruised; Stipe 25-60(-85) mm; very fragile; surface furfuraceous to densely squamulose or almost tomentulose at the apex, becoming densely appressed-fibrillose, in places becoming loosely dotted by recurved to appressed squamules; shiny, somewhat iridescent, at times longitudinally rimose; squamules and fibrils dark violet to blackish blue on a pale violet ground that eventually becomes brownish orange. Taste often sweetish. Odor faint to distinctly fragrant.

................................................................................L. cyanea v. occidentalis

5a (1b) Gills blue-gray.

................................................................................6

5b Gills white or yellow.

................................................................................8

6a Stipe glabrous, cap 10-15 mm; at first covered by silvery colorless fibrils which are easily removed, then densely appressed-fibrillose with squamules at the apex; at first silvery blackish blue to dark bluish gray becoming dark grayish violet; margin undulate in age. Gills bluish gray. Stipe 45 mm; concolorous with cap, silvery. Taste and odor indistinct. Remarks L. coelestina has dark blackish blue cap, and described in Pacific Northwest from a single specimen.

................................................................................L. subcoelestina

6b Stipe ornamented (not glabrous).

................................................................................7

7a Cap 15-35 mm; may be slightly depressed; fibrils dark bluish gray to blackish blue on a grayish violet to light bluish gray back-ground; margin even to undulate. Gills bluish-gray; often with a decurrent tooth. Stipe 35-85 mm; surface densely appressed-fibrillose, the fibrils bluish black on a bluish gray background that is strongly iridescent or metallic at first; basal tomentum copious, white becoming orangish when bruised. Taste often sweetish; odor fragrant or mild.

................................................................................L. occidentalis v. metallica

7b Cap 10-30 mm; not depressed; color evenly dark bluish black; margin not undulate. Gills dark bluish gray or dull bluish violet; not with a decurrent tooth. Stipe 40-50 mm; evenly covered to apex with a coating of fibrils, the free ends of which give a rough character to the surface; blackish blue to dark grayish blue violet, not iridescent; at base may be pallid violaceous. Taste and odor not distinctive.

................................................................................L. occidentalis v. fibrillosipes

8a (5b) Gills either yellow, or white becoming yellow.

................................................................................9

8b Gills neither yellow nor becoming yellow; mostly white.

................................................................................12

9a Gills beginning white, changing to pale yellow.

................................................................................10

9b Gills beginning pale yellow.

................................................................................11

10a Cap small, at about 12 mm; squamules dark blackish blue on a reddish brown background. Gills adnexed and distant; becoming pinkish yellow as spores mature. Stipe 50-60 mm; surface glabrous and shiny; dark bluish gray to bluish black; basal tomentum absent. Taste and odor indistinct.

................................................................................L. convexa v. badiodorsa

10b Cap 16-35 mm; central area and squamules blackish blue to almost black, elsewhere dark bluish gray to blackish blue. Gills adnexed to adnate to subdecurrent; subdistant; becoming pinkish yellow as spores mature. Stipe 30-80 mm; glabrous but at times with shiny fibrils agglutinated into clumps; violaceous gray to bluish gray; basal tomentum abundant, white, unchanging on bruising. Taste and odor indistinct to faintly grassy.

................................................................................L. convexa v. convexa

11a (9b) Cap 15 mm; plane to uplifted; becoming concentrically grooved toward the margin; overall color appears dark brown to almost fuscous; flesh near orange-white. Stipe 45 mm +; 3mm at apex; surface densely tomentose at apex, appressed-fibrillose below; tomentum and fibrils dark blue. Taste and odor farinaceous. Remarks L. insueta is similar in color, size, and habitat, and has blackish brown to reddish brown cap, stipe with blackish blue fibrils and scales on pale orange to grayish orange background, and white gills.

................................................................................L. subgracilis

11b Cap 10-15 mm; convex; blackish blue with a violaceous background; flesh silvery white to violaceous. Stipe 30-60 mm; 1-2 mm at apex; glabrous to appressed-fibrillose, often longitudinally rimose; medium bluish gray, usually with a violaceous background. Taste indistinct; odor unpleasant to indistinct.

................................................................................L. zanthophylla

12a (8b) Cap up to 10 mm broad. Stipe typically under 35 mm long and not more than 1 mm diameter at the apex.

................................................................................13

12b Cap more than 10 mm broad. Stipe typically greater than 35 mm long and 1.5 to 3 mm diameter at the apex.

................................................................................14

13a Cap 5-10 mm; dark blackish blue ("steel blue"). Stipe dark steel-blue. The description is incomplete and was taken from a single specimen collected in Washington State prior to 1977. Solitary in lawn.

................................................................................L. coelestina

13b Cap 5 mm; grayish violet. Stipe dark bluish gray. Solitary among mosses under Devil's Club near Mountain Hemlock.

................................................................................L. violacea

14a (12b) Cap 15-30 mm; convex to plane, at times slightly depressed; upturned margin in age, becoming undulate; dark blackish brown to reddish brown. Gills adnate; subdistant; white. Stipe 35-55 mm; densely appressed-fibrillose, often longitudinally rimose; fibrils and squamules dark blackish blue on pale to grayish orange background; basal tomentum absent. Taste and odor indistinct to faintly pungent. Remarks similar in size, color and habitat to L. convexa var. badiodorsa which has broadly parabolic reddish brown cap, and L. subgracilis which has dark brown to fuscous cap, pale yellow gills at first, dark blue stipe, and farinaceous odor.

................................................................................L. insueta

14b Cap 20-30 mm; convex to plane but not depressed; margin entire and not undulate; uniformly very dark steel blue-violet or lilac-black. Gills adnexed with a slight decurrent tooth; distant; white to lilac (white or lilac?). Stipe 40-50 mm; glabrous; concolorous with cap; basal tomentum whitish. Taste and odor not noted.

................................................................................L. occidentalis v. occidentalis

B. Subgenus Cyanula. Stature Collybioid or occasionally Mycenoid. Cap typically convex to broadly convex, shallowly to deeply depressed; tomentulose on the disc, appressed-squamulose toward the margin and appressed-fibrillose or even glabrous at the margin. Pileipellis hymeniform, a palisade-trichodermium or a trichodermium. Clamps absent in the pileipellis.

Key to Sections (access these alphabetically)

1a Cheilocystidia (cystidia along the edge of a gill) colorless; well differentiated with at least some rostrate (beaked) to fusoid-ventricose (broadly spindle-shaped, tapering towards the ends).

................................................................................Rhamphocystoteae

(At present, this seems the best feature by which to segregate this small group of four Leptonias from the others. If microscopic details not available try 1b first.)

1b Cheilocystidia usually absent; if present, cylindric to cylindro-clavate and either colorless or with intracellular pigments.

................................................................................2

2a Gill edge blackish serrulate; cheilocystidia with an intracellular pigment. Two species.

................................................................................Cyanula

(See also L. subviduense var. subviduense and var. marginata below.)

2b Gill edge, if marginate, of a different color, not blackish.

................................................................................3

(Cheilocystidia may be present or absent and with or without intracellular pigment.)

3a Stipe white, pallid, rose, or, if a vivid greenish-yellow, bruising blue-green.

................................................................................4

3b Stipe some shade of gray, black, blue or brown.

................................................................................6

4a Stipe white to pallid to begin, two species becoming pale yellow or pale orange. Three species.

................................................................................Albidicaules

4b Stipe rose or greenish yellow.

................................................................................5

5a Stipe pale red (rosy red to reddish pink). One taxon.

................................................................................Roseicaules

5b Stipe yellow-green, bruising blue-green. One species.

................................................................................Viridicaules

6a (3b) Stipe some shade of blue, blue-gray, gray or black, at first.

................................................................................Caesicaules

6b Stipe some shade of brown, avellaneous or brownish-orange at first.

................................................................................Cereicaules

Section Albidicaules (white stems, 3 species)

1a Cap 10-50 mm; depressed to umbilicate; dark brown on the disc and dark yellow-brown on the remainder; margin undulate in age. Gills white; often decurrent by a short tooth. Stipe 45-96 mm and 1.5-5 mm at apex; enlarged at base; glabrous; white, darkening to pale orange. Taste and odor indistinct.

................................................................................L. exalbida

1b Cap white to maturity.

................................................................................2

2a Cap 10 mm; convex, not depressed; white becoming pale yellowish in age; margin not undulate. Gills white; adnate; distant. Stipe 25 mm; probably glabrous (no information); white, becoming pale yellowish in age. Taste and odor unknown.

................................................................................L. albinella

2b Cap 20-30 mm; convex-depressed, umbilicate; white becoming pale creamy-tan in age; margin not undulate. Gills white; + sinuate, occasionally with a decurrent tooth; close. Stipe 30-65 mm; glabrous; tough; white, unchanging. Taste woody and slightly bitter.

................................................................................L. albida

Section Caesicaules (blue stems, 21 taxa)

Key to Series

1a Cap, when young, grayish black, black, bluish black, dark bluish gray, fuscous violet or dark reddish gray with a purplish cast, or with blackish squamules distinct from the background.

................................................................................Series Caesicaules

1b Cap, when young, some shade of brown, squamules not black, thus not distinct from the background.

................................................................................Series Gracilipes

Series Caesicaules (13 taxa) (For Series Gracilipes, see below.)

1a Cap, when young, exhibiting a black basal component modified with gray, blue, violet or purple and further modified with age.

................................................................................5

1b Cap, when young, exhibiting dark reddish gray or dark blue gray and modified with age.

................................................................................2

2a Cap dark reddish gray with a dark purplish brown component.

................................................................................3

2b Cap dark bluish gray to medium bluish gray.

................................................................................4

3a Gills white. Cap 10-45 mm; broadly convex to uplifted and shallowly depressed in age; opaque at first, quickly becoming translucent-striate to the disc; marginal area becoming grayish brown with a violet component; scales remaining dark as background becomes brownish orange; margin even, smooth then undulate. Gills adnexed becoming subdecurrent to uncinate with a decurrent tooth; white, not bruising (may become slightly brownish). Stipe 20-75 mm; glabrous with occasional loose fibrils; medium bluish gray becoming light bluish gray, often base lighter. Taste and odor not distinctive although odor may be fragrant at times.

................................................................................L. foliocontusa v. discolor

3b Gills distinctly tinted bluish, color fading soon to white. Otherwise, the characteristics are the same as 3a.

................................................................................L. foliocontusa v. caeruleotincta

4a (2b) Cap 15 mm; umbilicate; translucent-striate to the disc; very dark bluish gray. Gills seceding with age; close; pallid to white; margin changing to blue gray with age. Stipe 50 mm; glabrous; dark bluish gray to turquoise; basal tomentum absent. Taste and odor farinaceous, odor especially when crushed.

................................................................................L. striatula f. farinacea

4b Cap 10-65 mm; opaque; centrally depressed; at first uniformly dark bluish gray, on expansion becoming medium bluish gray; margin undulate then. Gills not seceding; subdistant; white, sometimes with a pale bluish tinge; margin darkening with age and bruising. Stipe 25-80 mm; surface densely tomentose to densely pruinose at apex, the lower portion glabrous; dark bluish gray becoming medium bluish gray toward base in age; basal tomentum moderate, disappearing with age. Taste and odor indistinct to slightly farinaceous. Remarks common in Pacific Northwest but not as common as var. decolorans.

................................................................................L. decolorans f. cystidiosa

5a (1a) Gills white.

................................................................................9

5b Gills blue white, blue gray or gray.

................................................................................6

6a Gills blue-gray or gray, adnate, not marginate.

................................................................................7

6b Gills blue-white, adnexed, to adnate mostly with a decurrent tooth, either marginate or becoming marginate.

................................................................................8

7a Cap 8-40 mm; 4-sided with + parallel sides; to deeply depressed; blackish to dark gray. Gills adnate; distant; gray when young, discoloring brownish in age. Stipe 30-100 mm; glabrous; bluish gray when young, fading to gray in age; basal tomentum moderate to scarce. Taste and odor mild and indistinct.

................................................................................L. rectangula

7b Cap 12-30 mm; convex to broadly convex to broadly campanulate, slightly depressed; fuscous violaceous to dark blackish blue; margin entire then undulate. Gills adnate; close to subdistant; bluish gray when young. Stipe 20-60 mm; glabrous; fragile; dark gray-blue to violaceous blue; basal tomentum scarce to absent. Taste and odor indistinct.

................................................................................L. chalybaea v. chalybaea

8a (6b) Cap 10-50 mm; broadly convex and shallowly depressed, if at all; very dark blackish blue; margin even, becoming undulate. Gills adnexed to adnate mostly with a decurrent tooth; bluish white to bluish gray; margin concolorous at first, becoming bluish to bluish black with bruising and age. Stipe 20-115 mm; glabrous at first but typically becoming striate-rimose, particularly at base; very fragile; medium bluish gray to grayish blue; basal tomentum scarce to absent. Taste and odor indistinct.

................................................................................L. subviduense v. subviduense

8b Cap 3-22 mm; plano-convex and broadly depressed; dark blackish blue; margin strongly inrolled and at first attached to the stipe apex, opening, at most, to incurved. Gills adnate with slight decurrent tooth; pale blue tint to bluish white; margin bluish black and serrulate. Stipe 35-60 mm; more or less pruinose at apex, elsewhere with minute aeriferous hyphae making surface look striate; very fragile; dark bluish gray becoming reddish gray with age; basal tomentum scarce. Taste indistinct; odor indistinct to faintly pungent.

................................................................................L. subviduense v. marginata

9a (5a) Stipe ornamented or hoary (not glabrous) at least when young and fresh.

................................................................................10

9b Stipe glabrous.

................................................................................11

10a Stipe 25-60 mm; typically with a distinct hoariness when young and fresh which is quickly lost, making stipe glabrous; decidedly gray, without any blue, fading to brownish gray; no basal tomentum. Cap 9-22 mm; broadly convex to plane, depressed; very dark blackish to very dark turquoise black or, at times, developing purplish to purplish red tints. Gills adnexed; subdistant to distant; white to pallid. Taste and odor indistinct. Remarks L. subnigra has larger spores and no cheilocystidia (scattered to abundant cylindroclavate for L. trichomata).

................................................................................L. trichomata

10b Stipe 25-60 mm; densely tomentulose to canescent or hairy or downy, particularly at apex, longitudinally rimose-striate or with agglutinated fibrils on lower portion; dark bluish gray, color at first obscured by colorless down or hairs, fading to a medium gray; basal tomentum moderately abundant. Cap 10-35 mm; broadly convex and shallowly depressed; dark blackish blue, this color remaining on the disc in age and elsewhere changing to reddish brown or grayish brown. Gills adnexed to adnate; subdistant; white to pallid. Taste indistinct; odor indistinct to faintly spermatic or fragrant.

................................................................................L. nigrosquamosa v. californica

11a (9b) Stipe 25-60 mm; may be slightly longitudinally striate, otherwise glabrous; medium light bluish gray; basal tomentum absent. Cap 10-40 mm; broadly convex and shallowly depressed; blackish blue at first, remaining so on disc, becoming dark bluish gray elsewhere. Gills adnate, without decurrent tooth. Taste indistinct; odor indistinct or faintly farinaceous. Remarks common in Pacific Northwest.

................................................................................L. decolorans f. decolorans

11b Stipe typically longer than 11a; glabrous; darker colored; basal tomentum present. Gills often with decurrent tooth.

................................................................................12

12a Cap 5-35 mm; broadly convex and shallowly depressed; bluish fuscous to bluish black; margin even, then crenate. Gills close to subdistant; white. Stipe 60-80 mm; glabrous; fuscous to dark bluish gray; basal tomentum moderate. Taste and odor indistinct. Remarks L. trichomata which has lost the hoariness on the stipe is differentiated by smaller spores and scattered to abundant cystidia, cap is black with at times purple tints.

................................................................................L. subnigra

12b Cap 5-25 mm; broadly convex and umbilicate or shallowly depressed; dark blackish blue, remaining so on disc, becoming bluish black to dark gray brown with a bluish tinge; margin entire, becoming eroded in age and becoming rimose-striate at the edge, though not translucent. Gills subdistant. Stipe 12-85 mm; glabrous; dark bluish gray to blackish blue, becoming pale bluish gray to gray with age; basal tomentum moderate to scarce. Taste and odor indistinct.

................................................................................L. parva

Series Gracilipes (8 species)

1a Stipe reddish gray to pale gray; 25-60 mm; glabrous, at times with a squamulose-pruinose apex. Cap 10-38 mm; broadly convex and shallowly depressed to umbilicate; translucent-striate nearly to disc when moist; dark reddish brown to dark violaceous brown. Gills first white, pallid brownish older. Taste and odor indistinct.

................................................................................L. microspora

1b Stipe distinctly bluish gray to violaceous gray.

................................................................................2

2a Stipe longitudinally striate or covered with silvery appressed fibrils at first then striate and rimose.

................................................................................3

2b Stipe typically glabrous.

................................................................................4

3a Cap 20-40 mm; broadly convex and depressed; dark gray-brown; tomentulose on the disc; opaque; margin even. Gills adnate to subdecurrent, white. Stipe 40-50 mm, faintly longitudinally striate; bluish gray becoming gray with a bluish cast; basal mycelium scarce. No notation on taste and odor. Habit and habitat gregarious, terrestrial.

................................................................................L. anatina

3b Cap 13-30 mm; broadly convex and faintly depressed in some; disc at first almost blackish brown becoming gray brown to dark brown with age, fibrils gray brown to dark reddish brown, background orange gray to grayish orange; felted on the disc; opaque; margin smooth becoming undulate. Gills adnexed, white. Stipe 25-40 mm; at first covered with silvery appressed fibrils which rub off easily or become matted; surface longitudinally striate and rimose; at first near violaceous white due to fibrils, bluish gray beneath the fibrils. Taste indistinct; odor somewhat fragrant. Habit and habitat scattered to gregarious from buried pieces of wood.

................................................................................L. coacta

4a (2b) Cap opaque; 15-55 mm; broadly convex and acutely umbonate; dark yellow-brown with umbo slightly darker. Gills adnexed to uncinate; white to pallid. Stipe 35-60 mm; glabrous; medium bluish gray soon becoming gray. Taste and odor indistinct.

................................................................................L. acutoumbonata

4b Cap translucent-striate and shallowly depressed.

................................................................................5

5a Cap dark brown to reddish brown on the disc and medium to light brown elsewhere. Stipe without basal tomentum.

................................................................................6

5b Cap medium to dark yellow brown on the disc and light brown, medium brown or orange brown elsewhere. Stipe with some basal tomentum.

................................................................................7

6a Cap 11-25 mm; broadly convex to broadly parabolic, shallowly depressed; translucent-striate to the disc, becoming opaque with age and expansion; margin incurved to decurved, even; flesh 2-3 mm thick at the disc. Gills adnexed; distant to subdistant; pallid to brownish. Stipe 25-55 mm; glabrous; bluish gray. Taste indistinct to slightly bitter; odor indistinct to slightly fabaceous. Microstructures cheilocystidia absent.

................................................................................L. asprella

6b Cap 10-40 mm; broadly convex and shallowly depressed; translucent-striate or opaque-striate at least halfway to the disc; margin decurved, entire then eroded; flesh to 1 mm thick. Gills adnexed; subdistant; white or pallid to pale brownish. Stipe 20-60 mm; glabrous, becoming slightly longitudinally striate on drying; dark bluish gray, lightening somewhat with age. Taste and odor indistinct. Microstructures cheilocystidia present.

................................................................................L. gracilipes

7a (5b) Cap 14-35 mm; convex to plano-convex to broadly campanulate, shallowly depressed; translucent-striate to the disc; dark yellow-brown on the disc, medium to dark yellow-brown between disc and margin, and brownish orange in the marginal area; margin incurved to decurved, entire then eroded. Gills adnate to adnexed, often with a slight decurrent tooth; pallid to off-white or faintly grayish. Stipe 35-80 mm; glabrous to faintly longitudinally striate; distinctly bluish gray; basal tomentum scarce to absent. Taste indistinct; odor indistinct to unpleasant. Microstructures average spore length less than 10 microns, cheilocystidia absent

................................................................................L. lividocyanula

7b Cap 15-37 mm; broadly convex to plano-convex to broadly campanulate, shallowly depressed; translucent-striate to the disc; medium to dark yellow-brown, fading to a lighter brown away from the disc, becoming light brown eventually; margin decurved, even. Gills adnexed; white or pallid to pale brownish at first. Stipe 42-85 mm, glabrous; dark bluish gray fading to medium bluish gray becoming gray with a faint bluish tinge; basal tomentum scarce. Taste indistinct; odor indistinct to somewhat spermatic. Microstructures average spore length greater than 10 microns, cheilocystidia present but sometimes difficult to find.

................................................................................L. sodalis

Section Cereicaules (brown, yellow-green or orange stems, 12 taxa)

The species in this section are differentiated by the average spore length, variations in cap color; taste and odor; whether translucent-striate in some regard and color and condition of the stipe. The use of cheilocystidia may or may not be of use. Color changes of cap and stipe under various conditions may make identification difficult. The color of some taxa change rapidly after specimens are picked. Therefore, it will be important to make use of indicators to increase the probability of identification when colors are in question. Young, fresh, moist specimens, 1/2 to 3/4 to anthesis, color-noted in the field, are helpful to identification.

1a Stipe greenish yellow when young, not becoming blue-green toward the base or when bruised, (See L. incana, Sec. Viridicaules). Cap 11-45 mm; convex to broadly convex to parabolic and shallowly depressed; opaque at first, then translucent to the disc; dark yellowish brown with a distinct reddish tint on the disc and squamules, fading to bright brownish orange to bright grayish orange, background pale orange; margin incurved and eroded, smooth to undulate; opaque when young, soon becoming translucent-striate. Gills adnexed to adnate, often with a decurrent tooth; white, becoming brownish marginate. Stipe 40-100 mm; glabrous; becoming yellowish white to orange-white to light orange on collecting; basal tomentum scarce to moderate. Taste and odor mild and indistinct.

................................................................................L. exilis

1b Stipe neither greenish yellow nor becoming blue-green.

................................................................................2

2a Cap translucent-striate. Note that L. badissima and L. umbilicata are virgate, i.e. striate from the presence of dark fibrils, not translucence.

................................................................................3

2b Cap opaque or translucent only at the very edge in age.

................................................................................7

3a Cap fulvous (deep orange to reddish orange) soon becoming dark yellow-brown on the disc and dark brown to yellow-brown elsewhere. Stipe concolorous but paler.

................................................................................4

3b Cap and stipe involving more brown coloration.

................................................................................5

4a Average spore length greater than 10 microns; basidia 4-spored. Cap 10-70 mm; convex to broad convex becoming plane to uplifted; mostly not depressed; translucent-striate to the disc, often becoming opaque on fading; margin incurved, entire, smooth when young, becoming decurved, eroded and typically undulate. Gills variable in attachment; close to subdistant; white to very pale yellowish at first. Stipe 30-85 mm; glabrous; at first orange-white to pale orange to light orange to grayish orange; basal tomentum scarce. Taste and odor mild and indistinct but at times unpleasant. Often on or near decayed wood or fallen logs. Remarks common in Pacific Northwest.

................................................................................L. formosa v. formosa

4b Average spore length less than 10 microns; basidia 2-spored. Cap 15-35 mm, otherwise similar to 4a. Gills adnate and some with a slight decurrent tooth; subdistant; white at first. Stipe 60-105 mm; glabrous; very fragile; light orange becoming orange-brown; basal tomentum scarce to moderate. Taste and odor indistinct. Remarks not as common in Pacific Northwest as var. formosa.

................................................................................L. formosa v. microspora

5a (3b) Cap convex to plano-convex but not depressed or umbilicate; dark yellowish brown on the disc and striations, dark brown to light brown elsewhere; becoming translucent-striate to the disc in age. Gills white. Stipe 60-100 mm; glabrous except at times faintly longitudinally striate; light yellowish brown, darkening somewhat with age; basal tomentum moderate. Taste and odor indistinct. Remarks common in Pacific Northwest.

................................................................................L. strictipes

5b Cap convex and depressed-umbilicate. Stipe light grayish brown to grayish orange becoming dark brown in age.

................................................................................6

6a Cap 20-45 mm; grayish brown to dark brown on the disc and light grayish brown to light brown, background between fibrils gray-orange to pale orange; translucent-striate to the disc; margin eroded. Gills adnexed; white to pallid, sometimes pale gray. Margin paler than face at first, becoming concolorous with age. Stipe 20-80 mm; apex 2-5 mm; + glabrous; grayish orange young, becoming dark brown to gray brown in age; basal tomentum scarce. Taste and odor indistinct. Habitat in mossy humus or in grass, under Red Cedar or Red Alder.

................................................................................L. grisea

6b Cap 10-30 mm; dark brown to dark yellowish brown or nearly grayish brown at first, remaining so on disc but fading to light brown or beige elsewhere; translucent-striate to the disc; margin even to irregular, not eroded. Gills uncinate to emarginate; white to pallid; margin concolorous. Stipe 15-40 mm; apex 1-2 mm; glabrous; light grayish brown to light grayish orange, becoming dark brown with age; basal tomentum absent. Taste and odor indistinct. Habitat in hard-packed soil under Western Red Cedar.

................................................................................L. undulatella

7a (2b) Gills white. Stipe glabrous.

................................................................................9

7b Gills not white. Stipe ornamented (not glabrous).

................................................................................8

8a Cap 12-30 mm; convex-depressed; opaque; dark chocolate brown with a dark gray-brown to fuscous disc; margin even to undulate; becoming translucent-striate only at the very edge in age. Gills adnate; distant; distinctly gray. Stipe 30-55 mm; densely appressed-fibrillose, with small pale brown squamules at apex; light brown to brownish orange becoming almost same gray-brown as cap; basal tomentum absent. Taste mild to slightly bitter or slightly farinaceous. Odor indistinct to faint farinaceous. Habitat September to October in needle humus under Douglas-fir.

................................................................................L. badissima

8b Cap 10-25 mm; conic to plane but not depressed; opaque; evenly "drab" (yellow-brown), slowly fading to "pale drab"; margin undescribed. Gills adnate; subdistant to close; "drab". Stipe 20-40 mm; fragile; longitudinally striate with appressed fibrils; concolorous with cap; basal tomentum scant. Taste and odor distinct and peculiar. Distribution Valley Co., Idaho. Habitat September, under conifers.

................................................................................L. lutulenta

9a (7a) Cap convex-depressed-umbilicate. Gills attached uncinate, sinuate or marginate. Taste and odor distinct.

................................................................................10

9b Cap convex-depressed but not umbilicate. Gills adnexed. Taste and odor indistinct.

................................................................................11

10a Cap 5-50 mm; opaque; disc and squamules violet-brown to dark reddish brown, becoming grayish red-brown, fading to dark grayish brown, the background brownish orange to orange-gray; margin becoming eroded and slightly translucent-striate at the edge. Gills seceding; subdistant to distant; white with a fuliginous to dark reddish brown margin that fades to grayish brown with a reddish tint. Stipe 15-70 mm; glabrous except pruinose to flocculose at apex, sometimes faintly appressed-fibrillose along the stipe; fuliginous to dark reddish brown, changing through reddish brown, brownish gray, reddish gray to pale gray-brown with a reddish gray tint; basal tomentum absent. Taste and odor mild to slightly fragrant or pungent. Remarks common in Pacific Northwest.

................................................................................L. fuligineomarginata

10b Cap 6-45 mm; opaque; ornamentation dark grayish brown to gray-brown on the disc, light brown elsewhere, background grayish orange to light orange; margin not eroded and not translucent-striate. Gills seceding; subdistant; pallid to white, margin concolorous. Stipe 20-40 mm; glabrous, except pruinose at apex; grayish orange, soon darkening to brownish orange; basal tomentum absent. Taste and odor faintly farinaceous.

................................................................................L. umbilicata

11a (9b) Cap 20mm; opaque; squamules and fibrils dark to medium grayish brown, background areas near orange-gray to pale orange; margin eroded. Gills adnexed, distant; white, margin concolorous. Stipe 40 mm; glabrous except pruinose at apex and where superficial hyphae agglutinate into clumps; light brownish gray or tan which does not darken; basal tomentum undescribed. Taste and odor mild and indistinct.

................................................................................L. earlei

11b Cap 7-45 mm; opaque; squamules and fibrils dark brown to dark chocolate brown or reddish brown on the disc, dark to medium brown or medium reddish brown elsewhere, the background color grayish orange to light orange; margin eroded. Gills adnexed; close to subdistant; white to pallid, rarely very pale brown, margin at first lighter then concolorous. Stipe 20-40 mm; glabrous but at times with a few superficial fibrils; grayish orange, soon darkening to medium to dark brown, basal tomentum absent. Taste and odor indistinct. Sometimes in soil over rotting wood.

................................................................................L. turci

Section Cyanula (black gill margins, 2 species) (See also L. subviduense 8a and 8b Section Caesicaules Series Caesicaules.)

1a Cap 6-35 mm; convex to plane, sometimes depressed; margin incurved to decurved to plane and, at times, uplifted, even, smooth then undulate; dark bluish black to dark blackish blue becoming bluish gray. Gills adnexed to emarginate to most often decurrent by a tooth; dark bluish gray; margins serrulate and blackish blue. Stipe 25-70 mm; concolorous with cap, becoming bluish gray to gray in age; apex pruinose to flocculose, lower part may be slightly striate, at times the whole appearing glabrous; basal tomentum absent. Taste indistinct to unpleasant to slightly farinaceous. Odor indistinct to slightly farinaceous. Remarks common in Pacific Northwest.

................................................................................L. serrulata

1b Cap 15-30 mm; convex and shallowly depressed; margin incurved to decurved, undulate; dark brown to dark reddish brown with a bluish black tinge at the margin. Gills adnate to subdecurrent; pallid to grayish to bluish gray; margins crenulate and grayish black to bluish black. Stipe 50 mm; dark bluish gray; glabrous; fragile; with white basal tomentum. Taste not distinctive; odor usually not distinctive, occasionally slightly spermatic or fragrant.

................................................................................L. caesiocincta

Section Rhamphocystoteae. (Gill edges with well-differentiated cheilocystidia, 4 species)

1a Gills white. Taste and odor distinctly farinaceous.

................................................................................2

1b Gills brown or gray. Taste and odor not distinctly farinaceous.

................................................................................3

2a Cap 7.5-18 mm; convex to plane, shallowly to deeply depressed; black to very dark bluish black. Gills pallid, emarginate. Stipe 14-20 mm; glabrous but with scattered clusters of superficial fibrils; gray. Taste and odor farinaceous.

................................................................................L. atrifucata

2b Cap 17-22 mm; broadly convex to plane, slightly depressed; dark gray to dark brownish gray. Gills white; adnate. Stipe 35-55 mm; glabrous or somewhat longitudinally appressed-fibrillose; dark gray to dark brownish gray; somewhat fragile. Taste and odor farinaceous.

................................................................................L. rostrata

3a (1b) Cap 15 mm; broadly convex and shallowly depressed; opaque; dark grayish brown to fuliginous to nearly black on the disc, becoming dark grayish brown toward the margin. Gills pale gray; broadly adnexed to emarginate. Stipe 40 mm; pruinose to squamulose at the apex, glabrous elsewhere; light brown; basal tomentum absent. Taste mild to unpleasant; odor not distinctive or faint farinaceous. Remarks L. badissima somewhat similar but has no cheilocystidia

................................................................................L. ovatospora

3b Cap 12-25 mm; broadly convex to plane, deeply depressed to umbilicate; virgate; dark yellow brown to medium yellow brown; margin translucent-striate when moist. Gills pale brown to brown; adnexed to uncinate, occasionally with a decurrent tooth. Stipe 15-30 mm; minutely flocculose at apex, glabrous elsewhere; dark yellow brown to medium yellow brown; base + bulbous, abundant basal tomentum. Taste and odor not distinctive.

................................................................................L. pseudobulbipes

Section Roseicaules (rosy stems) One variety in Pacific Northwest

Cap 30-50 mm; broadly convex to plane, shallowly depressed; rosy red to reddish pink; margin translucent-striate when moist. Gills white; adnate to uncinate or decurrent with a short tooth; margin pale red to pastel red when moist. Stipe 40-65 mm; pruinose at apex, glabrous below; pale red. Taste and odor not distinctive. Remarks L. subrubinea reported from Idaho without good notes, found in California, has cap ruby red rather than pink to rose red, and stipe reddish white to reddish gray instead of pink to rose red, and has white gill edges which stay the same color as the gills or become brown with grayish red tinge on bruising.

................................................................................L. rosea v. marginata

Section Viridicaules (green stems) One species in Pacific Northwest

Cap 10-40 mm; depressed; yellow-green; brownish on disc. Flesh pale green staining greenish blue. Gills white to very pale green; adnate to slightly decurrent. Stipe 10-40 mm; yellow-green, bruising bluish green; basal mycelium bruises greenish blue. Odor strong like "cheese, sweat, mice, or rancid buttered popcorn". Distribution one report from ID.

................................................................................L. incana

 


NOLANEA (Fr.) P. Kumm.

Collybioid: No veil. Cap convex to parabolic; margin inrolled or incurved at first. Gills attached to stipe, not decurrent; not waxy. Stipe central; cartilaginous to brittle; no volva; no ring. Other common features, this group: Cap colors mostly in browns to almost black; convex, campanulate, sometimes conic (or progressing from one to another), often umbonate; hygrophanous; mostly glabrous and translucent-striate. Gills attached adnate to adnexed; close to subdistant; white, brown or gray. Stipe mostly hollow; apex diameters small and not usually significant. Taste and odor varied and often significant.

1a Stipe flesh solid; surface silvery white with striations of fuscous black, clove brown or brownish gray, with violaceous tinges. Cap 6-14 mm; frosted with silvery hyphae on the umbo, fuscous black to clove brown with purplish tints. In soil and moss near Subalpine Fir at high elevations.

................................................................................N. subviolaceoverna

1b Stipe hollow, or stuffed then hollow.

................................................................................2

2a Taste sweet; odor fragrant and candy-like. Cap 10-20 mm; unicolorous grayish brown. Gills light brown. Stipe glabrous except pruinose to flocculose at apex; pale tan.

................................................................................N. fructufragrans

2b Taste and odor unlike above description.

................................................................................3

3a Cap 20-50 mm; olive-gray and concentrically rivulose; one of the few taxa with a depressed cap and starting with an inrolled margin; pale avellaneous when dry. Stipe dark gray and hoary from a pruinose covering. This is the only taxon with a concentrically rivulose cap. Remarks N. edulis v. edulis has fuscous cap which may be convex-depressed but is not rivulose.

................................................................................N. edulis v. concentrica

3b Cap not concentrically rivulose.

................................................................................4

4a Gills beginning white.

................................................................................5

(Of the 19 taxa showing white gills, there are 6 which may be, or soon will change to "slightly", "pale", "very pale" or "somewhat" brownish, sordid-avellaneous, off-white, pallid or buff. Since these appear to develop from a whitish beginning, they will be processed here in that flesh. However, they will be double-keyed in the brown and gray gills sections to assist identification.)

4b Gills beginning as browns or grays.

................................................................................23

5a Cap 10-45 mm; at first covered with abundant superficial fibrils, becoming glabrous with age; orange-white to orange-gray, darkening to light brown to dark yellowish brown; most often beveled and zoned, umbo lighter, opaque at first quickly becoming translucent-striate then again opaque when faded. Stipe 35-150 mm; glabrous and, though hollow, is distinct in being quite hard in handling; color orange-white becoming dark yellowish brown from the base upward. Taste indistinct; odor mostly indistinct, at times like gun oil. Remarks common in Pacific Northwest; N. pusillipapillata and N. subsolstitialis have bald translucent-striate cap which is not beveled and zoned, shorter stipe 50 mm or less, and latter has grayish gills.

................................................................................N. bicoloripes

5b Cap glabrous from the beginning.

................................................................................6

6a Cap margin undulate. Only 4 taxa of this group are described with irregular margins: N. bicoloripes, which is described in other terms in 5a above; N. staurospora var. incrustata, which often becomes irregularly lobed; and 2 other species described below in.

................................................................................7

6b Margin more-or-less even, smooth and entire.

................................................................................8

7a Cap 42-100 mm; unicolorous dark brown, shiny; extremely fragile (usually collected as fragments); margin often wavy, extending beyond gills about 1 mm. Stipe 50-200 mm; yellowish orange, soon darkening with dark brown striations and grayish-canescent interstices; extremely fragile. Taste indistinct to somewhat acidulous; odor indistinct to somewhat grassy. Remarks fruits in winter and spring; N. holoconiota has lighter color, bicolorous cap, pruinose stem, caulocystidia that typically originate from the middle of the hyphae, and heterodiametric spores; N. strictia has longer heterodiametric spores (those of N. pseudostrictia are isodiametric), and lacks both clamps and coarsely incrusted pigmentation; N. substrictia (rare) has brown gills when young, farinaceous odor, and heterodiametric spores; N. verna has brown gills when young and heterodiametric spores. N. undulata has brown gills when young, heterodiametric spores and pigment only minutely incrusting. N. subcapitata has at most minutely incrusting pigment, and an early phase of lighter colored stipe is not noted. (See also 30a for N. pseudostrictia.)

................................................................................N. pseudostrictia

7b Cap 8-35 mm; dark yellow-brown, dull; with a minute papilla. Stipe 30-45 mm; fragile; off-white, darkening to light brownish orange in age or on handling. Taste indistinct to farinaceous; odor somewhat pungent to farinaceous, especially crushed. Remarks N. subsolstitialis has olive-brown cap, dark brownish gray stem, and shorter spores. N. bicoloripes is larger, with a long hard stipe that darkens with age, and has dominant intracellular pigment.

................................................................................N. pusillipapillata

8a (6b) Cap translucent-striate only at the margin.

................................................................................9

8b Cap translucent-striate part or all the way to the disc.

................................................................................11

9a Cap 15-35 mm; convex to broadly campanulate but not depressed; dark brown with the disc darker. Gills whitish but also may be slightly brownish at first. Stipe 35-70 mm; glabrous but slightly striate; off-white to whitish orange at first, darkening with dark brown striations; not fragile; basal tomentum absent. Taste indistinct; odor like mild cucumber when crushed. (See 38a.)

................................................................................N. staurospora v. staurospora f. discoloripes

9b Cap becoming convex-depressed. Stipe grayish or grayish brown; fragile. Taste nutty to indistinct.

................................................................................10

10a Cap 25-50 mm; convex-depressed; unicolorous dark brown. Gills changing from whitish to light drab. Stipe 40-50 mm; striate; grayish at first; basal tomentum abundant. Taste nutty; odor indistinct to a bit raphanoid at most. Remarks N. edulis v. concentrica has and olive-gray, concentrically rivulose cap. N. sericea has even to umbonate cap, drab to dark gray gills, and rancid-farinaceous odor; N. proxima has bicolorous cap, brownish gills, and stipe darkening in age.

................................................................................N. edulis v. edulis

10b Cap 10-30 mm; bicolorous, the disc dark brown (bister) and the remainder medium brown, the margin dingy gray when faded. Gills adnate, becoming subdecurrent; may be white or pale gray to grayish. Stipe 30-50 mm; glabrous except for a pruinose apex; grayish brown and paler than the cap. Taste nutty to indistinct; odor indistinct. Remarks may not be distinct from N. fusciceps, but type description of N. californica distinguished by glabrous stipe, indistinct odor, nutty taste, and white decurrent gills. (See 42a.)

................................................................................N. californica

11a (8b) Stipe fragile, easily broken transversely and/or splitting longitudinally. Of the 8 taxa with this feature, 4 have been described in 7a, 7b, 10a, and 10b above.

................................................................................12

11b Stipe not fragile but varying in degrees of toughness.

................................................................................15

12a Cap 40-85 mm,18-30 mm high; convex-conic, acutely umbonate; flesh to 7 mm thick; dark brown to fuscous-brown. Stipe 45-120 mm; dark gray-brown to fuscous, changing to dark brown in streaks; basal tomentum abundant and whitish. Taste indistinct; odor indistinct. Remarks N. strictia has larger spores and no cheilocystidia; N. undulata has a wavy margin, grows in grassy areas and lacks cheilocystidia; N. pseudostrictia, N. substrictia, and N. verna all have coarsely incrusted pigmentation (N. subcapitata at most weakly and minutely incrusted) and lack cheilocystidia

................................................................................N. subcapitata

12b Cap less than 40 mm; convex to plane with profile not over 10 mm high; flesh not over 2 mm thick; basal tomentum scarce to absent. Taste and odor various.

................................................................................13

13a Stipe glabrous; avellaneous; 60 mm; snapping readily. Cap 30-35 mm; dirty tan or sordid-avellaneous. Gills sinuate; distant. Taste ?; odor mild. Remarks may not be distinct from N. fusciceps, but type description of N. occidentalis distinguished by glabrous stipe and indistinct odor. (See 28a.)

................................................................................N. occidentalis

13b Stipe longitudinally striate due to scattered silky fibers. Cap colors not as above. Gills adnate and/or adnexed; close to subdistant. Taste and odor various.

................................................................................14

14a Cap 10-40 mm; bicolorous, with disc medium yellow brown and elsewhere medium brownish to brownish orange; splitting radially readily; flesh pallid, 1-2 mm thick. Stipe 20-90 mm; yellowish white to a very pale yellow, becoming brownish on handling; very fragile. Taste and odor indistinct to faintly or even distinctly farinaceous. Microstructures spores average less than 9.1 microns long, mostly with 4-spored basidia rarely 1-2-spored. Remarks common in Pacific Northwest; N. farinogusta has smaller cap (10-12 mm), bald stipe, and 2-spored basidia. N. proxima has dark brown to gray brown cap and isodiametric spores; other taxa with bicolorous caps include N. minutostriata (below), N. proxima, N. holoconiota, and N. strictia. The other forms of N. cetrata may also key out here. (See 21a, 21b, 21c.).

................................................................................N. cetrata f. minimospora

14b Cap 9-35 mm; bicolorous, with disc and the striations dark brown to medium dark brown and elsewhere medium brown eventually fading entirely to brownish orange; not splitting readily; flesh dark brown and 0.25-1 mm thick. Stipe 16-60 mm; silvery and brown striated; very fragile. Taste indistinct; odor indistinct or at most pungent when crushed or, at times, grassy.

................................................................................N. minutostriata

15a (11b) Cap splitting radially readily from the margin on handling or expansion.

................................................................................16

15b Cap not splitting readily as they develop or are handled.

................................................................................17

16a Cap 10-12 mm; broadly convex and depressed; bicolorous, the disc brown and the remainder light brown. Gills beginning + adnate, becoming subdecurrent. Stipe 25-28 mm; glabrous; translucent; yellowish white above, light brown below. Taste and odor farinaceous. (See 37a.)

................................................................................N. farinogusta

16b Cap 17-50 mm; broadly campanulate, convex or conic, consistently acute umbonate, thus not depressed as above; dark brown, soon fading to medium brown with dark brown remaining on umbo; margin extending beyond gills from 0.5 to 2 mm. Gills adnexed; subdistant to distant. Stipe 45-125 mm; longitudinally striate but not silvery; at first orange white to whitish orange, soon darkening by age and bruising to medium brown. Taste indistinct; odor indistinct, sometimes grassy. Remarks N. clandestina v. oculobrunnea has similar colors, cap shape and odor, but stipe is not longitudinally striate and spores are larger. (See also 33a for N. pseudopapillata.)

................................................................................N. pseudopapillata

17a (15b) Taste and odor mostly indistinctive or non-farinaceous.

................................................................................18

17b Taste and odor farinaceous or cucumber, moderate to strong.

................................................................................20

18a Tomentum at base of stipe scarce to absent. Cap 15-35 mm; bicolorous, disc and striations dark brown, remainder light brown. Gills pallid to pale brownish. Stipe 50-100 mm; longitudinally striate, silvery brownish, darkening to medium to dark brown. Taste indistinct; odor indistinct, rarely suggestively farinaceous. Remarks common in Pacific Northwest but not as common as v. proxima which has bald to faintly striate stem and distinctly farinaceous odor. (See also 39a for f. inodorata.)

................................................................................N. proxima f. inodorata

18b Tomentum at base of stipe abundant.

................................................................................19

19a Cap 25-60 mm; bicolorous, dark brown to dark gray brown on the disc, the remainder medium brown. Stipe 80-160 mm; moderately clavate; silky white becoming brownish orange in age. Taste and odor indistinct. Remarks may fruit in spring through fall; N. substrictia (rare, the only Nolanea with spores as large) has brown gills and farinaceous odor; N. pseudostrictia has isodiametric spores; N. verna has tan brown gills and smaller spores; all three have coarsely incrusted pigmentation (minute and weak in N. strictia); Nolanea holoconiota also has bicolorous cap and fruits in spring, but cap is light brown to yellowish brown, with more grayish orange umbo, has pruinose stem with caulocystidia, and somewhat smaller spores.

................................................................................N. strictia

19b Cap 10-80 mm; apiculate to acutely umbonate; bicolorous, light brown to yellow brown, umbo more grayish orange; when faded appearing atomate or micaceous, often wrinkled or corrugate. Gills white to pallid at first. Stipe 35-100 mm; equal; pruinose 1/3 to 2/3 of upper length, often completely; pale yellow to pale orange to light orange. Taste unpleasant to slightly bitter, at times not distinctive; odor not distinctive. Microstructures cylindric caulocystidia typically originate from the middle of the length of the hyphae. Remarks one of the commonest Nolaneas, tends to fruit in winter and spring, frequently misidentified as Nolanea verna which has a dark gray-brown unicolorous cap, caulocystidia which do not arise from the middle of hyphae, and coarse incrustations on the hyphae of cap cuticle and cap trama (the incrustations typically absent in N. holoconiota); N. strictia also fruits in spring, and has bicolorous dark brown and medium brown cap, silky white striate stem, somewhat larger spores, and no caulocystidia; N. substrictia (rare) fruits in spring has medium brown cap, medium brown bald stem, and no caulocystidia; N. pseudostrictia has unicolorous dark brown cap which dries lighter, yellowish orange bald stem which darkens with age and lacks caulocystidia, and isodiametric spores.

................................................................................N. holoconiota

20a (17b) Stipe dark to medium brown with a light brown base, when not exposed to light; to brownish orange when exposed; 10-35 mm. Taste and odor farinaceous, at times indistinctly so.

................................................................................21

20b Stipe of lighter and different colors; 30-110 mm. Taste and odor of mild cucumber and/or distinctly farinaceous.

................................................................................22

21a Cap 6-40 mm; bicolorous, disc and striations dark brown and remainder medium brown. Taste and odor distinctly farinaceous. Remarks relatively common in Pacific Northwest but not as common as var. minimospora; N. farinogusta has smaller cap (10-12 mm), bald stipe, and 2-spored basidia. N. proxima has dark brown to gray brown cap and isodiametric spores.

................................................................................N. cetrata f. cetrata

21b Too close to make macroscopic distinctions. Above taxon has abundant to almost exclusively 1-2 spored basidia with rare to no 4-spored basidia and spores averaging greater than 9.7 microns long. This taxon has an equal number of 1-2-spored basidia as it has 4-spored basidia and spores averaging between 9.2 and 9.7 microns long. N. cetrata var. minimospora has mostly 4-spored basidia and spores averaging less than 9.1 microns long. Remarks relatively common in Pacific Northwest but not as common as var. minimospora.

................................................................................N. cetrata f. mediospora

21c Mostly 4-spored basidia and spores averaging less than 9.1 microns long. While the stipe is noted to be fragile and is thus keyed above as well, Largent says that they have identical characteristics apart from the spore sizes and basidia. Remarks common in Pacific Northwest. (See also 14a.)

................................................................................N. cetrata f. minimospora

22a (20b) Cap 15-60 mm; dark gray brown on the disc and light brownish gray to grayish brown to light yellowish brown elsewhere; flesh 1-2 mm thick; margin becoming irregularly lobed. Gills whitish to slightly brownish. Stipe 40-110 mm; silvery white to pale orange to orange-white becoming light brown to dark yellowish brown from the base upward in age or when bruised; flesh stuffed then hollow; surface may be striate from agglutination of superficial fibrils which turn brown. Taste and odor of mild cucumber to farinaceous. Microstructures spores shaped as type variety in 38a. (See also 38b.)

................................................................................N. staurospora v. incrustata

22b Cap 13-30 mm; acutely umbonate; dull brown to dark brown at first, unicolorous but fading from the umbo outward; flesh to 3.5 mm thick; margin even. Gills white to pallid to watery gray to, at times, pale grayish brown. Stipe 30-90 mm; honey gray to grayish orange at first, becoming snuff brown in age; flesh hollow; surface striate with light brown streaks. Taste farinaceous; odor farinaceous, often strongly so. Remarks N. hebes has abundant cheilocystidia which are absent in this species.

................................................................................N. obscurata

23a (4b) Gills brownish, either beginning or shortly after opening.

................................................................................24

(This group contains 17 taxa with brown or brownish gills, 7 of which have been covered in the foregoing white gills group. Specimens, which may have started white, may be brownish by the time collected. In making a decision on white or brown gills, it is well to take a look at several specimens in various stages of development. If it is still not clear, then run the specimen through the white and the brown gills sections of the key. Of the brown gills group, all but one are hygrophanous, all are glabrous and translucent-striate on the cap. The cap colors are mostly dark, ranging from near black through fuscous, dark gray brown, dark brown and dark yellow brown to three which are from medium brown to sordid-avellaneous. Most fade to lighter browns and orange browns as they age.)

23b Gills grayish.

................................................................................40

24a Stipe fragile, breaking and splitting easily on handling.

................................................................................25

24b Stipe not fragile but varying in degrees of toughness.

................................................................................31

25a Cap margins splitting radially readily on handling or expansion.

................................................................................26

25b Cap margins not splitting readily on handling or expansion.

................................................................................28

26a Stipe off-white, soon darkening to orange gray then light to medium brown with age or handling. Cap 10-40 mm; at first nearly fuscous then quickly dark brown with mid-ring and margin fading to yellowish white in age; acutely umbonate; margin undulate as cap matures. Stipe 40-85 mm; pruinose to minutely squamulose at apex; basal tomentum whitish, scarce to absent. Taste indistinct; odor indistinct to, at times, grassy. Remarks N. substrictia (rare) and N. pseudostrictia have similar color and stature but can be differentiated by their coarsely incrusted pigmentation; N. strictia has conic or bellshaped cap without a wavy margin, white gills, different habitat, and larger spores.

................................................................................N. undulata

26b Stipe silvery gray or medium to dark brown.

................................................................................27

27a Cap 14-36 mm; acute umbonate to mammillate; dark brown fading to brownish orange with streaks in age. Stipe 40-90 mm; medium to dark brown and remaining more or less concolorous with the cap; basal tomentum absent. Taste and odor indistinct, at times faintly farinaceous. Remarks Although the description for N. clandestina v. clandestina does not mention stipe fragility and is therefore keyed below, Largent describes the difference in terms of color: v. clandestina has dark gray brown to fuscous cap and concolorous stipe, and v. oculobrunnea has dark brown cap and light brown stipe at first; N. pseudopapillata has similar colors, cap shape and odor, but longitudinally striate stipe and smaller spores.

................................................................................N. clandestina v. oculobrunnea

27b Cap 10-40 mm; broadly convex but not umbonate; bicolorous, disc and striations dark gray-brown to nearly fuscous, elsewhere medium to dark brown and margin a bit lighter, becoming brownish orange in age Stipe 22-90 mm; silvery light brown becoming dark brown in streaks or entirely; basal tomentum moderate, whitish. Taste and odor farinaceous, often strongly so. Remarks common in Pacific Northwest; f. inodorata has distinctly striate stem and mild to suggestively farinaceous odor; N. sericea, N. fusco-ortonii, and N. fusciceps all have dark gray-brown colors and isodiametric spores, but all have a unicolorous umbonate cap that is often nearly black, strong farinaceous odor (except N. fusco-ortonii), silvery stem usually broader than 0.4cm at apex, and different habitats.

................................................................................N. proxima f. proxima

28a (25b) Cap without acute umbo; margin flush with ends of gills; 30-35 mm; dirty tan or sordid-avellaneous. Gills sinuate; distant. Stipe glabrous; 60 mm; avellaneous. Taste ?; odor mild. Remarks may not be distinct from N. fusciceps, but type description of N. occidentalis distinguished by glabrous stipe and indistinct odor. (See 13a.)

................................................................................N. occidentalis

28b Cap with acute umbo; cap margin extending past gills 1 mm.

................................................................................29

29a Stipe glabrous; 80-130 mm; slender clavate; silky, satiny, silvery brown, soon darkening with age or bruising to dark gray brown; basal tomentum gray-white and abundant to moderate. Cap 35-65 mm; dark yellow-brown, sometimes darker on the disc, flesh to 2 mm thick. Gills light grayish brown. Taste and odor rancid farinaceous. Remarks common in Pacific Northwest. N. hebes is smaller, with scarce basal mycelium, and smaller spores. N. obscurata lacks cheilocystidia which are typically abundant in N. hirtipes.

................................................................................N. hirtipes

29b Stipe not glabrous; equal; without basal tomentum.

................................................................................30

30a Cap 42-100 mm; shiny unicolorous dark brown; extremely fragile (usually collected as fragments). Gills white to very pale brown. Stipe 50-100mm; yellowish orange, soon darkening with dark brown striations and grayish canescent-like interstices; very fragile. Taste indistinct to somewhat acidulous; odor indistinct to somewhat grassy. Remarks fruits in winter and spring. (See 7a for similar species.)

................................................................................N. pseudostrictia

30b Cap 15-60 mm; shiny becoming dull, at first fuscous to black to very dark gray brown. Gills dark grayish brown. Stipe 30-70 mm; silvery striate, grayish to light grayish brown soon changing to dark gray brown by handling or age, consistently lighter at the base. Taste and odor strongly farinaceous but not rancid, cut stipe more like cucumber. Habitat grassy areas, or mossy humus on hard-packed soil, typically in open areas or along trails or roadsides. Remarks common in Pacific Northwest; similar to N. fusciceps: reliable differentiation is by the presence of coarse external incrustations on the hyphae of the cap trama and cap cuticle in N. sericea; N. edulis has convex-depressed bald cap and mild odor; N. fusco-ortonii has broadly convex bald cap, mild odor, and habitat under oaks or conifers; N. incanosquamulosa has broadly convex cap with hoary surface or colorless fine scales and habitat under conifers; E. alpicola has gray to brown cap with olive margin, mild odor and habitat under conifers.

................................................................................N. sericea

31a (24b) Cap acute conic to acute umbonate.

................................................................................32

31b Cap convex or umbonate but not acute conic or acute umbonate.

................................................................................36

32a Stipe orange white or silvery gray at maturity.

................................................................................33

32b Stipe medium brown to darker at maturity.

................................................................................34

33a Cap 17-50 mm; shiny to dull, dark brown becoming bicolored with disc remaining dark brown and the rest fading to medium brown; margin extending beyond gills from 0.5 to 2 mm. Gills adnexed; subdistant to distant; white to pallid to off-white to slightly brownish. Stipe 45-125 mm; longitudinally striate but not silvery, at first orange-white to whitish orange, soon darkening by age and bruising to medium brown. Taste indistinct; odor indistinct, sometimes grassy. Remarks N. clandestina v. oculobrunnea has similar colors, cap shape and odor, but stipe is not longitudinally striate and spores are larger. (See also 16b for N. pseudopapillata.)

................................................................................N. pseudopapillata

33b Cap 30-70 mm; silky dark brown with margins of older specimens lighter brown, obscurely radially streaked in some specimens; margin flush with ends of gills. Gills close; tan, light brown or brown. Stipe 55-80 mm; longitudinally striate, silvery gray with striations brownish and interstices whitish. Taste slightly rancid; odor indistinct. Remarks N. holoconiota also fruits in spring and has abundant caulocystidia and is often misidentified as verna) but N. holoconiota has bicolorous cap which is typically light brown or yellowish brown, white to pallid gills at first, and different caulocystidia; N. strictia also fruits in spring but has white gills when young and somewhat larger spores and lacks caulocystidia; N. substrictia (rare) fruits in spring but has medium brown cap, medium brown bald stem, large spores, and lacks caulocystidia; N. pseudostrictia fruits in spring but has somewhat lighter cap, white gills when young, yellowish orange bald stem which darkens with age, isodiametric spores, and lack of caulocystidia. N. subcapitata has at most weakly incrusting pigment and white to pallid gills.

................................................................................N. verna v. isodiametrica

34a (32b) Stipe glabrous; 40-90 mm; dark gray-brown to near fuscous, fading to brownish orange or light brown. Cap 8-50 mm; shiny then dull, very dark gray-brown to nearly fuscous, fading to medium brown but remaining dark on the umbo. Gills brown to pale brown, fading to pallid brown, margin lighter in color. Taste and odor faintly farinaceous. Remarks Although the description for N. clandestina v. oculobrunnea mentions stipe fragility and is therefore keyed above, Largent describes the difference in terms of color: v. clandestina has dark gray brown to fuscous cap and concolorous stipe, and v. oculobrunnea has dark brown cap and light brown stipe at first.

................................................................................N. clandestina v. clandestina

34b Stipe not glabrous, somewhat striate. Taste and odor different.

................................................................................35

35a Cap 14-50 mm; acutely conic; margin lobed on expansion; medium brown fading to light brown or brownish orange in age. Gills brown with margin concolorous. Stipe 90-145 mm; with a radicating base; silky medium brown, a bit lighter than the cap, paler upper and darker lower. Taste moderate of cucumber; odor slightly of cucumber when cut or crushed. Remarks reported from Idaho but rare if present in Pacific Northwest; may fruit in spring; N. pseudostrictia has white gills and isodiametric spores; N. strictia has white to pallid gills, mild odor and intracellular pigment; N. verna has dark brown cap and stem and smaller spores; N. holoconiota has bicolorous, light brown to yellow brown cap with more grayish orange, light yellow to light orange pruinose stem, and caulocystidia that typically come from the middle of the hyphae; N. undulata has somewhat smaller spores and pigment only minutely incrusting

................................................................................N. substrictia

35b Cap 10-20 mm; acutely umbonate; margin even and entire; dark gray-brown to almost fuscous, remaining so on disc, mid-ring and margin fading to medium brown then brownish orange in age. Gills pallid to pale brown, margin lighter to concolorous. Stipe 35-60 mm; near orange brown then turning dark brown from base upward. Taste and odor rancid farinaceous. Remarks N. hirtipes is larger, with abundant basal mycelium, and larger spores. N. obscurata lacks cheilocystidia which are abundant in N. hebes.

................................................................................N. hebes

36a (31b) Stipe glabrous and yellowish white or whitish orange.

................................................................................37

36b Stipe longitudinally striate and silvery brown or silvery gray.

................................................................................39

37a Basidiome very small; cap 10-12 mm; convex and depressed; bicolorous, disc brown and remainder light brown; margin splitting readily radially on handling or expansion. Gills adnate to subdecurrent; whitish to pale brownish. Stipe 25-28 mm; apex 1.0-1.5 mm; upper half yellow-white, lower light brown, fading to whitish. Taste and odor farinaceous. Remarks N. cetrata is larger, with longitudinally striate stipe. (See also 16a for N. farinogusta.)

................................................................................N. farinogusta

37b Basidiomes larger; margins not splitting readily. Gills never subdecurrent; whitish to pale brownish at first. Stipe longer and broader at the apex; silvery white to pale orange

................................................................................38

38a Cap 13-35 mm; dark brown at first, with darker disc, fading entirely to light brown to dark brownish orange; opaque except margin translucent-striate. Stipe 35-70 mm; apex 3-5 mm; silvery, off-white to whitish orange, darkens to dark brown; unchanging when bruised. Taste indistinct; odor of mild cucumber when cut. Microstructures The distinctive spores are 4-5-sided in profile, angular in the configuration of a 4-pronged jumping jack, prismatic to stellate. (See 9a.)

................................................................................N. staurospora v. staurospora f. discoloripes

38b Cap 15-60 mm; dark gray brown on the disc and light brownish gray to grayish brown to light yellowish brown elsewhere, fading to brownish or grayish orange, the disc remaining darker; translucent-striate to the disc, opaque with age; margin even to irregularly lobed. Stipe 40-110 mm; apex 2-4.5 mm; silvery white to pale orange, changing to dark yellow brown from base upward. Taste and odor mild cucumber to farinaceous. Microstructures spores shaped as type variety. (See also 22a.)

................................................................................N. staurospora v. incrustata

39a (36b) Cap 15-35 mm; not umbonate; translucent-striate to the disc; from uniformly dark brown, in protected places, to bicolorous with disc and striations dark brown and remainder becoming medium to light brown, fading entirely to pale orange to orange-white. Gills pallid to somewhat brownish to pale brownish. Stipe 50-100 mm; apex 2-4 mm; silvery brownish and darkening to medium to dark brown. Taste indistinct; odor indistinct, rarely suggestively farinaceous. Remarks relatively common in Pacific Northwest but not as common as f. proxima which has bald to faintly striate stem and distinctly farinaceous odor. (See also 18a for f. inodorata.)

................................................................................N. proxima f. inodorata

39b Cap 20-50 mm; umbonate; translucent-striate from margin halfway to disc; very dark gray brown to almost black, thus fuscous; fading to light brown. Gills dark grayish brown. Stipe 30-70 mm; apex 3-5 mm; silvery gray, darkening to dark brown where handled. Taste and odor indistinct.

................................................................................N. fusco-ortonii v. fusco-ortonii

40a (23b Gills grayish.) Stipe glabrous, therefore any streaking will be innate. Cap of one fragile. Gills of one subdecurrent. Stipe of one with abundant tomentum at base.

................................................................................41

40b Stipe not glabrous, striations with superficial fibrils. Cap of one lobed; not fragile. Gills not subdecurrent. Stipe without basal tomentum.

................................................................................43

41a Cap 10-25 mm; acute umbonate; translucent-striate only on the margin when moist; dark brown to sepia becoming orange gray in age; flesh pallid. Gills grayish. Stipe 35-50 mm; dark brownish gray, darker than cap; basal tomentum abundant. Taste and odor faintly raphanoid-farinaceous. Remarks N. pusillipapillata has dark yellow brown cap, light brownish orange stem and larger spores; N. bicoloripes which is larger with long hard stem that darkens, and predominant intracellular pigment.

................................................................................N. subsolstitialis

41b Cap convex to plane to often depressed; flesh concolorous with cap. Stipe without basal tomentum.

................................................................................42

42a Cap 10-30 mm; convex to depressed; bicolorous, the disc dark brown, the rest medium brown, margin dingy gray when faded. Gills subdecurrent in age; close to subdistant; pale gray to grayish, often whitish. Stipe 30-50 mm; fragile; pruinose apex; grayish brown and paler than cap. Taste nutty to indistinct; odor indistinct. Remarks may not be distinct from N. fusciceps, but type description of N. californica distinguished by glabrous stipe, indistinct odor, nutty taste, gills that may be decurrent and whitish. (See 10b.)

................................................................................N. californica

42b Cap 20-60 mm; fragile; umbo disappearing with age, often plane or depressed; fuscous to nearly black. Gills narrowly adnexed; close; gray-tinged to drab gray or cinnamon-drab. Stipe 40-80 mm; not fragile; fuscous or paler, innately white-streaked when dry. Taste and odor distinctly farinaceous Remarks similar to N. sericea: reliable differentiation is by the presence of coarse external incrustations on the hyphae of the cap trama and cap cuticle in N. sericea.

................................................................................N. fusciceps

43a (40b) Cap 20-60 mm; opaque; not glabrous; cinereous-hoary or, with age, with faint colorless squamules; fuscous-drab to mummy brown at first, fading to hair brown, wood brown or pale bister (more or less dark brown); often lobed at the margin. Gills drab gray to cinnamon drab, paler than cap. Stipe 20-60 mm; fragile; longitudinally striate and scurfy; pallid above, near fuscous at base, darker overall in age. Taste and odor distinctly of raw cucumber. Remarks N. sericea has bald cap that is translucent-striate with age and grows in hard packed soil, grass, or moss-covered soil, whereas N. incanosquamulosa grows under conifers especially Sitka Spruce.

................................................................................N. incanosquamulosa

43b Cap translucent-striate only on margin; glabrous; not lobed along the margin. Gills grayish to ashy gray, lighter than 43a. Stipe not fragile. Taste and odor different.

................................................................................44

44a Cap 15-50 mm; plano-convex to plane; brown-black; margin ashy gray when faded. Stipe 30-40 mm; pallid grayish to fuliginous above, not dark below; often grooved and twisted. Taste and odor indistinct, somewhat fragrant or, at most, faintly farinaceous.

................................................................................N. latifolia

44b Cap 15-30 mm; broadly campanulate with an abrupt umbo; fuscous becoming olive brown. Stipe 15-30 mm; grayish when young; silky fibrillose becoming striate. Taste and odor farinaceous.

................................................................................N. abbreviatipes

 


PARAECCILIA Largent

Omphalinoid: No veil. Cap convex to depressed, some umbilicate; margins variable. Gills attached, becoming decurrent; not waxy. Stipe central and cartilaginous, stuffed to hollow; no volva; no ring. Other common features, this group: Cap often infundibuliform; surface often densely appressed-fibrillose; margin inrolled, opening to decurved in age. Mostly colored brown, gray-brown to fuliginous; flesh 0.5 to 2 mm thick, fragile. Gills drab, gray brown, red brown, gray or sordid. Stipe hollow; not orange. Two species lignicolous out of six.

(Since ornamentation on the cap may vary under environmental conditions, or be subject to misinterpretation because of the descriptions or of the viewer's varying skills, attention should be paid to other factors in the descriptions. An attempt has been made to present enough details to be conclusive without having to double-key.)

1a Growing on wood, burnt wood or rotted wood.

................................................................................2

1b Growing on the ground from soil or humus.

................................................................................3

2a Cap under 10 mm broad; azonate; radial fibrils gray on a pale gray background; plano-convex with shallow depression. Gills gray-white. Stipe pale gray to light gray; 18-23 mm; glabrous, base with a few white fibrils.

................................................................................P. minutissima

2b Cap over 10 mm broad; zonate; dark fuliginous to wood brown with drab streaks and fading to drab; spreading infundibuliform with 1-3 sulcate concentric zones. Gills pale drab or wood brown. Stipe fuliginous and hoary with white fibrils; 20-30 mm; may be eccentric; base covered with white mycelium showing white rhizomorphs.

................................................................................P. sericeonitida v. ligniphila

3a (1b) Cap 10-30 mm; convex with a slightly depressed disc; glabrous; translucent-striate; gray-brown, drying to sordid grayish buff. Gills light drab; adnate with a short-decurrent tooth. Stipe glabrous, concolorous with cap. Taste like fresh hazelnuts.

................................................................................P. nucisapora

3b Cap ornamented, opaque, dark brown. Gills pallid, red-brown, gray-brown, dark gray or brown; decurrent. Stipe ornamented, colors varied. Taste and/or odor unlike hazelnuts.

................................................................................4

4a Cap 10-30 mm; plano-convex, occasionally shallowly depressed. Gills pallid. Stipe 17-25 mm; pruinose from apex to base. Taste and odor indistinct to slightly pungent.

................................................................................P. rusticoides

4b Cap 10-42 mm; umbilicate to infundifuliform. Gills dark gray or dark brown. Stipe 6-35 mm; fibrillose in part. Taste and odor not pungent.

................................................................................5

5a Cap 10-35 mm; becoming infundibuliform; dark brown to dark reddish brown fading to orange-gray. Gills gray-brown to reddish brown; long decurrent; close. Stipe 6-20 mm with pruinose apex and appressed-fibrillose below; light brown fading to brownish white, bruising yellow-orange. Taste mild to slightly bitter; odor fungoid.

................................................................................P. perundata

5b Cap 14-42 mm; shallow-depressed to deeply umbilicate; dark fuscous brown fading to grayish brown. Gills gray to dark gray; adnate to arcuate decurrent; subdistant. Stipe 15-35 mm; striate and silvery from whitish appressed fibrils (concolorous with cap otherwise); white mycelium at base. Taste farinaceous; odor cucumber.

................................................................................P. sericeonitida var. sericeonitida

 


POUZARELLA Mazzer

Mycenoid: Cap conic or campanulate; margin straight or decurved. Gills attached, not decurrent. Stipe central and cartilaginous or brittle; no volva; no ring. Three species.

1a Cap 10-25 mm; wholly matted fibrillose; not conic; watery to dark fuliginous to drab brown to wood brown. Gills gray. Stipe 30-40 mm; glabrous and concolorous with cap. Taste and odor rancid farinaceous.

................................................................................P. fernandae

1b Cap of different ornamentation; conic; different coloration. Gills not gray. Stipe fibrillose and silvery. Taste and odor fishy or grassy.

................................................................................2

2a Cap 7-25 mm; with appressed radial fibrils; disc pallid to white, elsewhere mouse gray to gray brown with a silvery sheen. Gills gray pinkish brown with margin concolorous and entire. Stipe 25-40 mm; silvery fibrillose upper to reddish strigose hairs near base. Odor unpleasant, fishy.

................................................................................P. fulvostrigosa

2b Cap 7-40 mm; densely tomentose off disc, changing to densely appressed-fibrillose at margin; dark olive brown with a metallic green tint. Gills dark gray-brown to fuscous with margin paler and + serrulate. Stipe 30-70 mm; silvery pale gray becoming dark gray-brown when bruised or aged; appressed-fibrillose. Taste unpleasant, odor grassy.

................................................................................P. versatilis

 


RHODOCYBE Maire

The 12 taxa of this genus are represented by four statures. As noted earlier, Rhodocybe should be checked for its polar-angular and pustulate spores before working it through this key. However, if the macroscopic features have clearly brought it here, give it a try. All caps fall within the "small" category, ranging from 4-37 mm broad; mostly within 10-30 mm. Many descriptions were short on details, causing the following descriptions to be somewhat erratic but still effective.

1a Basidiomes growing from decayed remains of fleshy fungi.

................................................................................R. olympiana

Collybioid Cap hair brown to lead color under the thin coating of glabrescent silvery fibrils and with a rusty brown disc. Gills close; whitish gray to sordid brown. Stipe grayish young to tawny old; surface covered with silvery fibrils, becoming glabrous. Taste and odor farinaceous.

1b Basidiomes growing from wood, wood debris, soil or humus.

................................................................................2

2a Basidiomes growing from wood: solid, rotten, burnt, chips, etc.

................................................................................3

2b Basidiomes growing from soil or humus.

................................................................................6

3a Clitocyboid. Cap glabrous; warm, even tan. Gills crowded; pinkish tan similar to cap. Stipe bone white with innate silvery-fibrillose coating full length. Disagreeable, strong nutty taste. Habitat on wood chips; habit caespitose.

................................................................................R. lepistoides

3b Other statures: tricholomatoid, omphalinoid, collybioid.

................................................................................4

4a Tricholomatoid. Cap glabrous; tan. Gills near white when young becoming pink to pinkish orange; subdistant. Stipe light yellow to pale orange at apex; pruinose at apex; with fine silvery fibrils showing striate at mid-length; white matted basal tomentum; solid, becoming hollow in age. Taste delayed strong farinaceous; odor sweet farinaceous. Habit gregarious to caespitose; habitat on decayed wood in coniferous forest.

................................................................................R. speciosa

4b Other statures: Omphalinoid and Collybioid.

................................................................................5

5a Omphalinoid. Cap evenly grayish or grayish brown to darker; subcanescent, pubescent or silky-matted fibrillose, collapsing to glabrous in age. Gills grayish or gray-brown; close to subdistant. Stipe white from pubescence at first; glabrescent and becoming gray. Taste/odor indistinct. Habitat on humus, occasionally wood chips. (See also 6a.)

................................................................................R. caelata

5b Collybioid. Cap glabrous, uniform buff to rufous tan. Gills tan to pinkish buff; sub-crowded; margin wavy and often split. Stipe glabrous, base often with a matted, yellowish tomentum; concolorous with gills or darker, occasionally striate-silky and/or finely grooved. Taste fruity to farinaceous; odor none to aromatic. Habitat usually on decayed wood or Douglas Fir cones; rarely terrestrial. (See also 14b.)

................................................................................R. roseiavellanea

6a (2b) Omphalinoid. See 5a for description. Habit scattered to gregarious; habitat in grass, moss, lichen or humus in conifer and hardwood forests; on wood chips. (See also 5a.)

................................................................................R. caelata

6b Collybioid or Tricholomatoid.

................................................................................7

7a Tricholomatoid. Cap glabrous, drying dull-matte; dark fuscous brown, drying lighter brown; stains dark red where bruised. Gills color of dry cap with a pinkish cast; distant; brittle; margin paler: Stipe darker than dry cap, fuscous brown; staining dark red where bruised (this item hard to see if not aware); glabrous, with shiny appressed-fibrillose mat at base. Taste/odor indistinct. (See also 13a.)

................................................................................R. aureicystidiata

(The problem here is that the diameter of the stipe does not look Tricholomatoid. See 13a.)

7b Collybioid, including R. roseiavellanea, which is rarely terrestrial.

................................................................................8

8a Basidiomes fulvous or rusty-colored throughout; cap translucent striate halfway to center, becoming plicate as it matures, flesh 2-3 mm thick, brittle. Stipe glabrous with finely appressed white mycelium at base. Taste and color distinctly farinaceous.

................................................................................R. nitellina

8b Basidiomes differing in color and other characteristics.

................................................................................9

9a Stipe whitish to pale gray to gray-brown; gray with bluish or violet tinge; dark blue to blue-gray or pale vinaceous gray. Taste not distinctive; odor not distinctive or somewhat fruity fragrant at times.

................................................................................10

9b Stipe smoke gray to drab; tan to pinkish buff or fuscous brown. Odor and taste variable.

................................................................................13

10a Stipe from blue to blue gray.

................................................................................11

10b Stipe white to gray-brown or pale vinaceous gray.

................................................................................12

11a Stipe dark blue to blue gray. Gills bluish gray. Cap dark purplish or reddish brown; flesh deep blue to gray blue. [compare also Entoloma nitidum, considered by some to be a Rhodocybe - I.G.]

................................................................................R. trachyospora v. purpureoviolacea

11b Stipe gray with bluish or violet tinge. Gills whitish to pale gray to grayish brown. Cap dark gray-brown, yellow-brown at margin; flesh sordid flesh buff.

................................................................................R. trachyospora v. griseoviolacea

12a (10b) Stipe white to pale gray to gray-brown. Gills pallid to grayish brown. Cap gray-brown with lighter margin; flesh sordid flesh buff.

................................................................................R. trachyospora v. trachyospora

12b Stipe pale vinaceous gray. Gills livid to pale vinaceous. Cap fuscous purplish with vinaceous to red-gray margin; flesh pale vinaceous.

................................................................................R. trachyospora v. vinacea

13a (9b) Stipe fuscous brown, staining red where bruised; straight; flexible with solid interior. Gills fuscous pinkish brown; margin paler; distant; brittle. Cap dark fuscous brown; flesh dark fuscous brown; firm, almost tough. Taste and odor none. (See 7a.)

................................................................................R. aureicystidiata

13b Stipe, gills and cap of different colors and characteristics.

................................................................................14

14a Stipe smoke gray to drab, or darker; white pubescent above, lessening downward to white mycelium over base; brittle; solid to stuffed to hollow at apex. Gills pale mouse gray to clay buff older; margin paler; close to subdistant; subdecurrent; Cap 7-20 mm; evenly smoke gray to drab, paler in age; flesh whitish, 1 mm. Taste slowly to farinaceous to green corn; odor faintly to distinctly farinaceous when cut or crushed.

................................................................................R. hirneola

14b Stipe tan to pinkish buff, occasionally striate, silky and/or finely grooved; base with a matted yellowish tomentum (or not), with short white rhizomorphs. Gills tan to pinkish buff; margin wavy often split, sub-crowded. Cap buff to uniform rufous tan; flesh concolorous; firm, tough to corky. Taste may be fruity to farinaceous; Odor none to aromatic. See also 5b.

................................................................................R. roseiavellanea

 


TRICHOPILUS (Romagn.) P.D. Orton

1a Mycenoid. Cap 15-70 mm across; drab gray; disc fibrillose, disc to margin fibrillose-squamulose; button stage sometimes showing a rudimentary veil. Gills drab gray. Stipe 20-60 mm; longitudinally striate and/or covered with a thin gray canescent appressed-fibrillose coating, not punctate.

................................................................................T. plebeioides

1b Tricholomatoid. Cap 15-50 mm across; drab gray at first, becoming gray-brown with age; surface punctate-tomentulose when young, often remaining so only on the disc. Gills dark gray with pale serrulate margin. Stipe 35-120 mm; punctate at apex, lessening downward; dark brown to orange gray to orange.

................................................................................T. jubatus

 


 

GLOSSARY

adnate - gill attachment in which the margin attaches at right angles to the stipe at the equipont (see below) or which may attach a short distance above the equipont in what is called ascending adnate where the gills curve slightly upward along the proximal half of the blades. This broadly attached line and point is the division between decurrent (downward) and +/- notched (upward). Gills may be adnate with decurrent teeth, for example, or ascending adnate as above (a bit down or a bit up) .

adnexed - The gill edge curves gradually upward along the proximal half of the blades and is attached to the stipe by a narrow upper portion of the blade. This connection does not recurve toward the stipe as it approaches. A gill is abruptly adnexed if the gill edge curves abruptly upward, contacts the stipe in a straight line and by a narrow upper portion of the blade. This is one of the group of notched attachments.

aeriferous - appearing as if air is trapped.

agglutinated - typically a stipe condition in which surface-fibrils draw together in visible upright clumps remaining dotted over the surface at irregular distances.

anthesis - point of basidiome development at which the fresh, expanded cap is in full flower, contains features for identification and is at the brink of spore release.

apex - top, highest part.

apiculate - with an apiculus, a nipple-like projection on spore which corresponds to the area that was attached to the basidium.

appressed-fibrillose - with fibrils lying flat or fastened to the cap or stipe.

appressed-squamulose - with squamules (small, flat, pointed scales) lying flat or fastened to the surface of the cap, sometimes stipe.

arcuate-decurrent - gill running far down the stipe in a long curved arc.

areolate - surface cracked into plaques or blocks, like the cracking that occurs when mud dries in the sun.

atomate - a powdered surface consisting of minute shiny particles.

avellaneous - dull grayish brown, hazel-brown, or light gray-yellow-brown, or closer to drab, or gray tinged with pink, in Ridgway 1912 a color closer to pinkish buff.

B. - used here as an abbreviation for basionym.

bald - equals glabrous.

basal tomentum - equals basal mycelium; may range from scarce (a few fibrils) to forming a velvet layer on the base of the stipe.

basidiome - The whole reproductive structure of a mushroom in which the basidia and basidiospores are produced; stipe, cap and gills.

basionym - the first official recorded name of the taxon under discussion, the basic name from which subsequent name changes are made: it is the same mushroom with a different name.

bister - blackish brown, a warm dark brown color, like sepia, dark yellow-brown.

brittle - breaking easily; applied to consistency of the stipe which forms a sharp, non-fibrous edge when broken; resistant and breaking with a snap; sometimes used in place of cartilaginous but not pliable.

caespitose - growing in close groups or close clusters or tufts (may be from a common base, but stipes not joined together).

campanulate - bell-shaped.

canescent - of surface texture of cap or stipe, becoming densely covered with a whitish or greyish down.

cartilaginous - According to Elias Fries, the term cartilaginous was meant to encompass those stipes that had the look of cartilaginous, not just the consistency. Typically a cartilaginous stipe is under 5 mm at the apex, stuffed or hollow and firm, tough and pliable. However, there appear to be inclusions in several genera where many taxa are described with cartilaginous stipes which are brittle or even fragile. It is perhaps an unfortunate application of a simile.

cespitose - same as caespitose.

cheilocystidium - a sterile cell located along the edge of a gill.

clavate - of a stipe; thicker at the base and obviously tapering to the apex.

clitocyboid - cap convex to broadly convex or plane, rarely campanulate; gill attachment subdecurrent to decurrent; annulus absent; volva absent; stipe consistency fleshy fibrous; bearing a resemblance to the genus Clitocybe.

close - of gill spacing; gills nearly touching but with visible space between.

collybioid - cap convex to broadly convex; gill attachment variable but not decurrent; annulus absent; volva absent; stipe consistency cartilaginous; bearing a resemblance to the genus Collybia.

concolorous - refers to a part of the basidiome of the same or nearly the same color as another part.

conic - cap cone-shaped.

convex - cap evenly rounded upward to the center.

convex-depressed - a convex cap with depressed disc (or more); may be thought of as a concave form atop a convex form.

crowded - of gill spacing; gills with spaces nearly nonexistent between; touching.

cuspidate - sharp, pointed.

decurrent - gills turning downward from the equipont on the stipe. As noted above, gills may be attached at the equipont and have a decurrent tooth. They may also be subdecurrent (= short decurrent?) in which the gills definitely run a short distance down the stipe, beyond adnate with a decurrent tooth, but barely. Short decurrent may be a valid description for gills which are obviously decurrent but do not proceed down the stipe as much as the width of the gills.

decurved - referring to a cap margin or scales, means curved downward

depressed - The middle of the cap is sunken lower than the margin. Broadly depressed involves most of the cap. Narrowly depressed is restricted to the center of the cap, perhaps only the disc area. Shallowly depressed: the center of the cap is only slightly sunken below the margin. This may be misleading in that these depressions may not be below the margin at all but actually below the mid-ring of the cap with the margins as low as or lower than the depressions. The look may be that of a concavity in the top of a convex cap.

disc - part of cap: center top of cap, often differing in color or surface ornamentation from the mid-ring and margin.

distant - of gill spacing, far apart, appearing as if some gills are missing.

drab - a dull medium or brownish gray, dark gray with shades of yellow; gray with violet toes; in Ridgway 1912 a gray-brown.

dresden brown - dark yellowish brown.

eccentric - off-center, same as excentric.

effuso-reflexed - growing flat on substrate with spore bearing surface exposed, but bending outward to form a cap.

emarginate - of gills, with a notch near stipe, Largent & Baroni in "How to Identify Mushrooms to Genus VI" seem to equate it with abruptly adnexed, and Smith gives "notched near stem, (i.e. about sharply adnexed)", but Ainsworth’s Dictionary of the Fungi 8th Edition appears to equate it to sinuate, and Hansen illustrates it as a deeper notch of the sinuate type, Lawrence Leonard wrote an excellent article in McIlvainea 14(2): 15-26. 2000 outlining the ambiguities in the use of this term, for purposes of this key, the terms are taken from Largent’s work and one might assume that he follows the definition in Largent and Baroni.

entire - see margin entire.

equipont - the point at which a straight gill margin intersects the stipe or would intersect if continued. The point of adnate-horizontal attachment of the margin to the stipe. Notched attachments occur above this and decurrent attachments occur below it. See ascending adnate. (ek'-wi-pont)

eroded - of the margins of caps or gills. As a result of deterioration of tissues, these thin areas develop irregular, jagged edges.

evanescent - of veils, disappearing with age; fleeting; vanishing (= fugacious).

excentric - off-center, same as eccentric.

fabaceous - bean-like.

farinaceous - odor of freshly ground meal from whole grain, especially wheat.

fibril - of cap or stipe surface, minute hair or very small fiber.

fibrillose - of cap or stipe surface, composed of delicate fibers which are long and evenly disposed, loosely or tightly, on surface.

fibrillose matted - covered with fibrils which are interwoven in such a manner as to give the surface (of cap, in particular) an appearance of felt.

finely adnexed - of gills, so narrowly attached to the stipe as to give the appearance of being free. Section the cap and look for the connection (bridge) from the side.

flesh-brown - color of spores of many taxa of Entolomataceae. It is not a good term since it refers to skin color. Preferably it should be brownish pink as compared with the skin of a white person, even those vary considerably.

floccose - with easily removed cottony or woolly tufts; woolly or cottony; dry and loosely arranged; having the appearance of cotton flannel.

flocculose - with fine, easily removed cottony or woolly tufts; finely woolly or cottony.

fragile - breaking or falling apart on handling as with Nolanea pseudostrictia where the basidiome is usually collected as fragments.

fuliginous - sooty brown or dark-smoke colored.

furfuraceous - surface of cap or stipe scurfy or covered with bran-like particles resembling scales.

fuscous - color variously described in combination with gray, brown, purple, red or black, best stated as the color of an extremely dark storm cloud.

glabrescent - becoming glabrous (becoming bald).

glabrous - equals bald; not hairy nor fibrillose nor squamulose.

heterodiametric - with different diameters in different directions.

hygrophanous - having a water-soaked appearance when wet and changing to a lighter color on drying.

incurved - of cap margin, curved inward toward stipe, but less than inrolled.

innate - fibrils (or scales) which are not readily removed from the surface to which they are fastened or imbedded. not projecting beyond the plane of the structure in which they are visible. Such surfaces are often referred to as glabrous since they are an integral part of the tissue.

inrolled - of cap margin, rolled inwards so that the edge of the margin actually points toward the stipe.

iridescent - showing changes in color when viewed from different angles.

isodiametric - equal in diameter in all directions.

lamella (plural lamellae) - gill.

lamellar - pertaining to the gill.

lignicolous - growing in, on or out of wood.

margin entire - Outline of cap (or gill) is smooth and without interruption, can be lobed, irregular, crenate or serrate otherwise.

margin even - equals smooth.

margin smooth - of cap. As seen from the side, the bottom line of the margin is a single flat plane revolving around the stipe.

margin undulate - cap edge alternating up and down, as seen from the front; largely wavy along the edge. Undulant means somewhat wavy along the edge.

margin wavy - equals undulate or undulant. Gill can be wavy along the margin.

mid-ring - Not shown in the keys, the term may be used to describe that area of the cap lying between the disc and the margin which is often referred to in the descriptions as "elsewhere".

micron - One thousandth of a millimeter. Herein used as a full word, not the abbreviation um.

nom. prov. - provisional name.

mycenoid - cap conic to campanulate; gill attachment variable but not decurrent; annulus absent; volva absent; stipe consistency cartilaginous; bearing a resemblance to the genus Mycena.

nitrous - like nitrous acid, similar to the alkaline odor of bleach

notched - gill attachments above the equipont, narrowly attached by a thin upper bridge from the blade, the space between the gill and the stipe being the shape of a 30 - 60 degree right triangle with the narrow angle up +/-, making a notch between the gill and stipe. See sinuate, uncinate and adnexed.

omphalinoid - cap convex to broadly convex to plane, at times umbilicate; gill attachment subdecurrent to decurrent; annulus absent; volva absent; stipe consistency cartilaginous; bearing a resemblance to the genus Omphalina.

ornamentation - referring to surface of cap or stipe, any projections outside the structural surface such as fibrils, tomentum, hairs, warts, scales, etc.

pallid - very pale in color, almost a dull whitish.

papilla - a small nipple-like protuberance.

pileipellis - the outer cellular layer of the cap, excluding veils, seen through a microscope in section.

pileus - cap.

pleurotoid - stipe excentrically or laterally attached or stipe absent; bearing a resemblance to the genus Pleurotus.

pruinose - covered with a fine powder, herein mostly referring to a stipe condition in the apical portion; granular.

pubescence - a covering of soft short downy hairs.

pubescent - covered with soft short downy hairs.

punctate - of surface of stipe, marked with dots consisting of hollows, depressions, spots, raised-joined squamules or scales, or agglutinated fibrils, all very small.

raphanoid - radish-like.

reticulate - covered with a network of interlacing lines.

rimose - of surface of cap or stipe, appearing to be cracked.

rimose-fibrillose - of cap or stipe surface, a condition in which appressed fibrils adhere to each other in lateral groups so that the spaces between strands appear empty and like cracks.

rivulose - arranged like rivulets in the soil, marked with riverlike lines.

Saccardo's umber - close to date brown, dark yellow brown.

scabrous - of cap or stipe surface, roughened because of erect and dry scales which are often pointed. Use lip test to determine.

seceding - gills pulling away from attachment to the stipe as the cap expands. They always leave some imprint around apex.

serrate - saw-toothed to almost ragged.

serrulate - finely serrate.

sinuate - gill attachment above the equipont where the margin angles upward toward the junction of the stipe and cap then curves to join the stipe +/- horizontally with a narrow bridge from the blade: one of the notched attachments.

sp. prov. - species provisional: a new species temporarily suggested or published to see if it will prove acceptable.

spathulate - shaped like a spatula or spoon, oblong with a narrowing base

squamose - with moderate to large scales.

squamulose - with small scales. Punctate-squamulose - with squamules joined at the tips forming raised spots or punctuate. See punctate.

squarrose - covered with upright pointed scales. squarrulose is the diminutive.

strigose - having long stiff hairs.

sub- - prefix meaning near, nearly, more or less, somewhat, slightly; below or under

subcrowded - a term used occasionally of gill spacing, intermediate between close and crowded, might also be used to mean more or less crowded

subdecurrent - of gills, intermediate between adnate and decurrent, when attachment extends slightly further down stipe than when adnate.

subdistant - of gill spacing, intermediate between close and distant (moderate).

subisodiametric - with not quite equal diameter in different directions.

synonym - a name by which the particular taxon may have been known or under which specific characteristics are described, considered by the author an outdated or invalid name whose concept applies to part or all of the taxon under consideration.

taxa (plural), taxon (singular) - The group of forms, varieties, species and genera that make up the family Entolomataceae, when not referring to an identified group or individuals. The taxa of Nolanea in the Northwest total 37 forms, varieties and species. Taxon is any one of these.

terrestrial - growing apparently from the ground but in actuality from underground roots, grass roots, decaying surface debris such as leaves, needles, moss, grass and branchlets of conifers (often said to be from humus, which is misleading since humus is the soluble end product from the breakdown of plant debris); from the ground, not out of wood.

tomentose - having a covering of soft matted hairs; densely matted and woolly or hairy, like a woollen blanket. (Tomentum is the product not the condition). The surface may also be tomentose-floccose or flocculose, or tomentose-scaly, which also has some of the material organized into scales.

tomentulose - finely tomentose.

translucent-striate - refers to a cap which allows some light to pass through and which, as a result, shows the gills as darker, radiating lines in the translucent area.

tricholomatoid - cap convex to broadly convex or plane, rarely campanulate; gill attachment variable but not decurrent; annulus absent; volva absent; stipe consistency fleshy fibrous; bearing a resemblance to the genus Tricholoma.

umbilicate - narrow, moderate to deep depression in center of cap which may or may not have a small umbo in the bottom.

umbo - an extra protrusion, hump or bump on a convex to plane cap; often an added convexity atop a convex cap. See various "umbonate" forms.

uncinate - of gill attachment to stipe, one of the notched gill variations in which the connection is above the equipont. The edge of the gill rises quickly toward the stipe-cap junction then curves toward the stipe and downward, tapering to leave a tooth at the base of the connection. The bridge of tissue is narrow from the blade to the stipe. The toothed portion does not come below the equipont.

undulate - undulant - wavy - See "margin undulate"

veil - thin layer of protective tissue surrounding the cap in some taxa, in this family a partial veil. No sign of the partial veil is left on the stipe in this family and seldom are the velar remains found on the cap.

ventricose - of gills and cystidia, occasionally stipes, structure is widest in the middle and tapers to both ends.

virgate - of cap and stipe, markedly streaked or striate, usually with dark-colored groups of fibrils.

viscid - sticky but not slimy or lubricous.

warts - warty - bumpy outgrowths of tissue, small and, in general, slightly higher than wide. Applied to stipes, in this case.

wavy - undulant along the edge of a gill or the margin of a cap.

zonate - concentric bands of color over the cap, often structural as well from concentric bands of ornamentation.

 

 

REFERENCES

  1. Arora, David. 1986. Mushrooms Demystified. Ten Speed Press. 959p.
  2. Baroni, Timothy J. 1981. "A revision of the Genus Rhodocybe Maire (Agaricales)." Beih. Nova Hedwigia 67: 1-194.
  3. Baroni, Timothy J., David L. Largent. 1989. "The Genus Rhodocybe: new combinations and a revised key to Section Rhodophana in North America." Mycotaxon 84(1) 47-53.
  4. Hesler, L. R., 1967. "Entoloma (Rhodophyllus) in S. E. North America." Beih. Nova Hedw. 23: 1-192.
  5. Kauffman, C.H. 1925. "The Fungus Flora of Mt. Hood with some new species" Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts & Letters 5:115-148.
  6. Largent, D. L. 1968. Leptonia and Related Genera of the West Coast. Doctoral Thesis.
  7. Largent, D. L. 1974. "Studies in the Rhodophylloid fungi IV. Leptonia sect. Leptonidei." Northwest Sci. 48: 52-56.
  8. Largent, D. L. 1974. "Studies in the Rhodophylloid fungi V. Leptonia subgenus Paludocybe section Albicaules and sect. Roseicaules and related taxa." Northwest Sci. 48: 57-65.
  9. Largent, D. L. 1974. "Rhodophylloid Fungi of the Pacific Coast (United States) IV. Infrageneric concepts in Entoloma, Nolanea, and Leptonia." Mycologia 66: 987-1021.
  10. Largent, D. L. 1974. "New or Interesting Species of Claudopus and Entoloma from the Pacific Coast." Madroño 22: 363-373.
  11. Largent, D. L. 1977. "The genus Leptonia on the Pacific Coast of the United States." Bibliotheca Mycologica 55: 1-286.
  12. Largent, D. L. 1994. Entolomatoid Fungi of the Western U.S. and Alaska. Mad River Press. Eureka.
  13. Largent, D. L. & T.J. Baroni. 1988. How to Identify Mushrooms to Genus VI. Mad River Press. Eureka
  14. Largent, D. L. & Robert G. Benedict. 1970. "Studies in the Rhodophylloid Fungi II Alboleptonia, a new genus." Mycologia 62: 437-452.
  15. Largent, D. L. & Robert G. Benedict. 1971. "Studies in the Rhodophylloid Fungi I. Generic Concepts." Madroño 21. 32-39.
  16. Largent, D. L. & H.D. Thiers. 1972. "Rhodophylloid Fungi of the Pacific Coast (United States) II: New or Interesting Subgeneric Taxa of Nolanea." Northwest Sci. 46: 32-39.
  17. Lennox, J. Williams, 1979. "Collybioid Genera in the Pacific Northwest." Mycotaxon 9(1): 117-231.
  18. Moser, M. 1983. Keys to the Agarics and Boleti. Translated by R. Phillips. Whitefriars Press, London.
  19. Noordeloos, M.E. 1987. "Entoloma (Agaricales) in Europe." Beih. Nova Hewigia 91. J. Cramer. Berlin-Stuttgart. (not consulted)
  20. Noordeloos, M.E. 1988. "Entolomataceae." In Bas & al., Flora agaricina neerlandica, vol. 1. (not consulted)
  21. Singer, R. 1986. The Agaricales in Modern Taxonomy. Koeltz Science Books, Germany.

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

No study of this kind could progress without help from others. My thanks go to Dr. Joseph Ammirati who was generous with the use of his library materials and to Lorelei Norvell who provided a large list of species to consider for inclusion in an authentic key for Northwest genera and species. In addition, David Largent's personal assistance has been instrumental in unlocking a number of problems even though he was heavily committed in his own study of the family. With the release of his 1994 publication, "Entolomatoid Fungi of the Western U.S. and Alaska", this work on the Northwest species became possible.

I would like to point out that a great deal of work has been done on the transcription of my often confusing hand-written manuscript into the computer generated printout you see here. Lorraine Dod's dedication to the finished product required many days of painstaking attention to a highly technical and complicated product. I am indeed indebted to her for the generous assistance she has given me on this project.

 

 

TABLE OF SPORE SIZES

 
ALBOLEPTONIA Largent & R.G.Benedict 
    A. earlei (Murrill) Largent & R.G.Benedict7.0-9.8 x 5.3-6.9 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    A. ochracea Largent & R.G.Benedict7.6-12.0 x 6.7-8.7 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    A. sericella v. lutescens Largent & R.G.Benedict7.3-12.9 x (5.3)5.9-10.2 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    A. subsericella (Murrill) Largent & R.G.Benedict9-11.8 x 6.6-9.1 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
 
CLAUDOPUS Gillet 
    C. bysissedus (Pers.: Fr.) Quél.7.4-11.5 x 5.3-8.2 microns, angular
    C. parasiticus (Quél.) Ricken 9.6-13.2 x 8.1-10.7 microns, 4-7 sided, rarely rectangular
 
CLITOPILOIDEA (Romagn.) Largent 
    Clitopiloidea 912, sp. prov.9.3-12.4 x 6.0-8.6 microns, 5-6 sided
 
CLITOPILUS (Fr. ex Rabenh.) P. Kumm. 
    C. hobsonii (Berk. & Broome) P.D.Orton 6.5-9(10) x 4-5.5, with 7-12 ridges side-view, angular end-on
    C. prunulus (Scop. ex Pr.) P. Kumm.8.7-10.6(12) x 5.3-6.5, with 6-7(8) ridges side-view, angular end-on
 
ENTOLOMA (Fr.) P. Kumm. 
    E. alnobetulae (Kühner) Noordel.6.4-10.2(11.5) x (5.0)5.9-8.8 microns , distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    E. alpicola (Favre) Noordel.7.6-11.3 x 6.3-9.9 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    E. bloxami (Berk. & Broome) Sacc.6.3-11.1 x 5.4-9.6 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    E. brunnescipes Largent 7.9-10.2 x 6.7-9.7 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6-sided
    E. clavaformipes (Murrill) Largent7.2-10.1 x 5.8-8.4 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    E. grande Peck7.1-10.6 x 5.8-8.6 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6-sided
    E. griseoavellaneum Largent6.7-8.7 x 5.0-7.5 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    E. heracleodora Largent8.1-11.4 x 5.3-8.9 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    E. lividoalbum f. lividoalbum (Kuhn. & Romagn.) Kubicka6.9-11.7 x 5.0-10.5 microns, dist. ang., 5-6 sided
    E. lividoalbum (Kuhn. & Romagn.) Kubicka f. inodoratum7.7-11.7 x 6.1-9.6 microns, dist. ang., 5-6 sided
    E. lyophylloidium Largent7.8-11.1 x 6.2-8.8 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    E. myrmecophilum (Romagn.) Moser v. myrmecophilum (6.9)7.6-10(11) x 6.0-9.3 microns, dist. ang., 5-6 sided
    E. nidorosum (Fr.) Quél.6.3-10.1 x 5.3-8.7 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    E. politum (Pers.: Fr.) Donk6.0-9.9 x 5.2-8.4 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    E. pseudocostatum Largent6.8-10.8 x (5.8)6.8-9.6 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    E. pseudolividum Largent7.1-12.3 x 6.0-9.9 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    E. rhodopolium (Fr.) P. Kumm. f. rhodopolium6.5-11 x 5.6-9.3 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    E. rhodopolium (Fr.) P. Kumm. f. 87006.2-10.3 x 4.7-9.2 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    E. rhodopolium (Fr.) P. Kumm. f. 89547.0-9.0 x 6.4-7.9 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    E. rhodopolium (Fr.) P. Kumm. f. 91076.3-9.2 x 5.5-8.2 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    E. rhodopolium (Fr.) P. Kumm. f. 92786.5-9.2 x 6.0-8.3 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    E. sericatum (Britz.) Sacc.6.4-10.0 x 5.5-8.7 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    E. speculum (Fr.) Quél.6.5-9.9 x 5.2-8.5 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    E. subpolitum Largent7.9-10.2 x 6.1-8.0 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    E. subsaundersii Largent7.0-11.0 x 6.0-10.0 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
 
INOCEPHALUS (Noordl.) P.D. Orton 
    I. appressus Largent7.6-11.3 x 6.5-8.4 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    I. azureus (Largent) Largent8.4-11.2 x 6.2-7.9 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    I. fabaceolus (Largent) Largent7.6-11.0 x 6.1-9.3 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided, rarely 4-sided
    I. furfuraceodiscus Largent7.6-10.5 microns x 5.3-7.4 microns, somewhat bumpy-angular, 5-7 sided
    I. minutopilus Largent7.8-10.0 x 6.0-8.8 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    I. perfuscus (Largent) Largent 8.6-11.2 x 5.7-8.1 microns, angular, 5-7 sided
    I. rhombisporus (Kühner & Bours.) Largent6.7-11.8 x 5.6-10.5 microns, angular, mostly 4-, rarely 5-6 sided
 
LEPTONIA (Fr.) P. Kumm. 
    L. acutoumbonata Largent8.7-12.8 x 6.2-8.9 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    L. albida (Murrill) Murrill6.9-9.9 x (4.6)5.4-7.5 microns, angular, 5-6 sided
    L. albinella Peck8.6-11.0 x 6.9-9.4 microns, angular, 5-6 sided
    L. anatina (Lasch: Fr.) P. Kumm.9.7-15.9 x 6.3-10.7 microns, angular, 5-6 sided
    L. asprella (Fr.: Fr.) P. Kumm.9.0-12.8 x 5.6-10.0 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    L. atrifucata Largent8.4-10.0 x 5.4-7.3 microns, angular, 5-7 sided
    L. badissima Largent9.6-12.9(13.7) x 6.2-9.1(10.0) microns, angular, 5-6 sided
    L. caesiocincta (Kühner) P.D. Orton8.4-11.5 x 6.7-6.9 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    L. chalybaea (Fr.: Fr.) P. Kumm. v. chalybaea (7.3)8.4-11.8 x (5.5)6.0-8.8 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    L. coacta Largent9.5-12.3 x 6.1-7.8 microns, angular, 5-6 sided
    L. coelestina (Fr.) P.D. Orton sensu Noordel.6.4-8.1 x 4.7-6.2 microns, indistinctly angular, 6-8 sided
    L. convexa Largent v. convexa Largent 6.9-11.0 x 4.9-7.8 microns, indistinctly angular, 6-8 sided
    L. convexa Largent v. badiodorsa Largent9-12 x 6-8 microns, indistinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    L. cyanea (Peck) Mazzer v. occidentalis Mazzer in Largent7.8-11.0 x 5.3-7.8 microns, indis. angular, 6-8 sided
    L. decolorans (E. Horak) Largent f. decolorans Largent7.6-11.5 x 5.0-8.1 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    L. decolorans E. Horak f. cystidiosa (Hesler) Largent8-11 x 6.5-8.0 microns, angular, 5-6 sided
    L. earlei (Murrill) Murrill11.3-18.9 x 6.7-11.5 microns, angular, 6-9 sided
    L. exalbida Largent(7.6)8.0-12.0 x 6.0-8.2 microns, angular, 5-6 sided
    L. exilis (Fr.: Fr.) P.D. Orton(8.7)9.2-14.1 x 5.8-10.7 microns, angular, 5-6 sided
    L. foliocontusa Largent v. caeruleotincta Largent8.0-12.0 x 5.4-8.5 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    L. foliocontusa Largent v. discolor Largent(7.4)8.2-11.7 x (5.1)5.9-9.1 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    L. formosa (Fr.: Fr.) Gillet v. formosa8.8-11.8 (15.2) x 6.4-10.0 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    L. formosa (Fr. Fr.) Gillet v. microspora Largent8.5-11 x 5.5-8.2 microns, distinctly angular in most, 5-6 sided
    L. fuligineomarginata (Hesler) Largent(6.8) 7.4-12.7 x 5.0-9.0 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    L. gracilipes Peck(6.5) 8.3-11.3 x (4.6)5.5-8.3 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    L. grisea Peck8.9-12.1 x 5.9-9.0 microns, distinctly angular, 5-7 sided
    L. incana (Fr.: Fr.) Gillet8.5-13.1 x 7.0-9.4 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6-sided
    L. insueta Largent8.1-11.2 x 5.8-8.1 microns, obscurely angular
    L. lividocyanula (Kühner) P.D. Orton7.5-11.4 microns x 5.2-8.5 microns, angular, 5-6 sided
    L. lutulenta Largent7.9-11.0 x 5.4-7.4 microns, indistinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    L. microspora Largent7.6-11.9 x 5.0-8.4 microns, angular, 5-6 sided
    L. nigrosquamosa (Hesler) Largent v. californica Largent8.4-11.5 x 6.0-8.5 microns, angular, 5-6 sided
    L. occidentalis (Murrill) Murrill v. occidentalis Murrill9.5-11.0 x 6.5-8.0 microns, obscurely angular
    L. occidentalis (Murrill) Murrill v. fibrillosipes Largent8.2-10.9 x 5.7-7.8 microns, obscurely angular
    L. occidentalis (Murrill) Murrill v. metallica Largent9.1-13.1 x 5.9-7.6 (9.2) microns, obscurely angular
    L. ovatospora Largent9.3-12.3 x 7.6-9.7 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    L. parva Peck9-11.5 x 6-8.6 microns, angular, 5-6 sided
    L. pseudobulbipes Largent7.5-9.0 x 7.0-8.0 microns, angular, 4-(5) sided
    L. rectangula Largent8.6-11.1 x 6.2-8.5 microns, distinctly angular
    L. rosea Longyear var. marginata Largent8.4-12.0 x 5.5-9.4 microns, angular
    L. rostrata Largent6.6-8.5 x 5.7-7.5 microns, angular
    L. serrulata (Fr.: Fr.) P. Kumm.8.2-12.0(13.0) x 5.6-8.6(9.2) microns, angular
    L. sodalis (Romagn.) P.D. Orton(8.4) 8.9-12.7 x (5.5)6.3-9.5 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    L. striatula (Hesler) Largent f. farinacea Largent8.7-12 x 6.5-8.5 microns, angular, 5-6 sided
    L. strictipes Peck8.4-12.2(13.2) x 5.5-9.5 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    L. subcoelestina Largent(6.5)8.1-10.8 x 5.0-6.6 microns, indistinctly angular, 6-8 sided
    L. subeuchroa Kauffman7.2-9.2 x 5.2-7.0 microns, angular
    L. subgracilis Largent8.3-10.3 x 6.0-7.4 microns, indistinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    L. subnigra (Murrill) Murrill8.8-14.4 x 6.4-9.9 microns, irregularly angular
    L. subviduense Largent v. subviduense Largent7.4-11.8 x 5.4-8.6 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    L. subviduense Largent v. marginata Largent8.2-11.6 x 5.9-7.8 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    L. tjallingiorum (Noordel.) P.D. Orton8.3-11.6 x 5.2-8.0 microns, indistinctly angular, 6-8 sided
    L. trichomata Largent8.3-11.4 x 5.6-8.1 microns distinctly angular, 5-6-sided
    L. turci Bresadola8.8-12.2 x 5.9-9.0 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    L. umbilicata (Murrill) Murrill9-12 x 6-9 microns, distinctly angular, 5-8 sided
    L. undulatella (Peck) Saccardo7.7-10.3 x 5.2-8.4 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    L. violacea (Kauffman) Largent9.0-13.0 x 7.0-9.5 microns, distinctly angular, 6-8 sided
    L. violaceonigra Largent9.3-14.1 x 5.9-9.2 microns, indistinctly angular, 6-8 sided
    L. zanthophylla Largent9-11.5 x 6-7 microns, obscurely angular
 
NOLANEA (Fr.) P. Kumm. 
    N. abbreviatipes Largent8.3-11.2 x 5.9-8.2 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. bicoloripes Largent & Thiers5.5-10.1 x 4.1-7.6 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. californica (Murrill) Largent7.1-10.7 x 5.9-9.2 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. cetrata (Fr.) P. Kumm. f. cetrata8.2-12.8 x 5.1-9.9 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. cetrata (Fr.) P. Kumm. f. mediospora Largent7.7-11.4 x 5.0-8.2 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. cetrata (Fr.) P. Kumm. f. minimospora Largent(6.3) 7.0-11.3 x (4.1) 4.9-7.7 (9.3) microns, dist. ang., 5-6 sided
    N. clandestina (Fr.: Fr.) P. Kumm. v. clandestina(7.2) 8.1-11.7 x 6.0-9.0 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. clandestina (Fr.: Fr.) P. Kumm. v. oculobrunnea Largent7.1-12.6 x 5.6-9 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. edulis (Peck) Largent v. edulis7.3-10.3 x 6.7-9.6 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. edulis (Peck) Largent v. concentrica Largent7.2-9.5 x 6.3-8.4 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. farinogusta (Arnolds & Noordel.) Largent7.9-9.9 x 6.0-7.8 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. fructufragrans Largent & Thiers8.0-11.0 x 6.3-8.4 microns, distinctly angular, 5-7 sided
    N. fusciceps (Kauffman) Largent7.0-10.2 x 6.2-8.8 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. fusco-ortonii v. fusco-ortonii Largent7.0-9.7 x 6.1-8.3 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. hebes (Romagn.) P.D. Orton8.1-11.5 x 5.1-8.3 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. hirtipes (Schum.: Fr.) P. Kumm.8.8-14.0 x (5.9) 6.4-9.9 (10.4) microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. holoconiota Largent & Thiers(7.1) 9.1-12.7 x 5.2-9.6 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. incanosquamulosa Largent 7.2-10.6 x 6.2-8.7 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. latifolia Kauffman6.6-9.4 x 5.6-8.1 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. minutostriata Largent6.7-9.8 (10.0) x 6.1-9.1 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. obscurata Largent7.8-11.7 (13.0) x 5.0-8.1 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. occidentalis Murrill7-9 x 6.5-9 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. proxima Largent f. inodorata Largent6.4-11.2 (12.5) x 6.0-10.9 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. proxima Largent f. proxima Largent6.5-11.0 x 6.1-10.0 (11.2) microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. pseudopapillata Largent7.1-10.5 x 5.1-8.2 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. pseudostrictia Largent(7.6) 8.0-11.3 x (6.6) 7.0-9.6 (10.0) microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. pusillipapillata Largent7.0-10.9 x 4.5-8.0 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. sericea (Bull.) P.D. Orton(6.3) 7.4-10.0 (11.4) x (5.6) 6.0-9.3 (9.8) microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. staurospora (Bres.) J. Lange v. incrustata Largent & Thiers7.7-12.6 x 6.2-10.4 microns, stellate, 4-5 sided
    N. staurospora (Bres.) J. Lange v. staurospora f. discoloripes Largent7.4-11.0 x 6.5-10.5 microns, stell.4-5 sided
    N. strictia (Peck) Largent9.3-15.2 x 6.0-11.4 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    N. subcapitata Largent7.6-11.4 x 5.7-9.0 microns, 5-6 sided
    N. subsolstitialis Largent6.0-9.4 x 4.0-7.4 microns, 5-6 sided
    N. substrictia Largent9.6-13.5 (15.1) x 6.2-9.1 microns, 5-6 sided
    N. subviolaceoverna Largent6.7-9.4 x 5.4-8.6 microns, 5-6 sided
    N. undulata Largent7.0-11.2 x (5.4) 6.0-8.0 microns, 5-6 sided
    N. verna (Lund.) Kotl. & Pouzar v. isodiametrica Largent7.8-11.6 x 6.8-9.3 microns, 5-6 sided
 
PARAECCILIA Largent 
    P. minutissima Largent7.8-10.5 x 6.0-9.5 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
    P. nucisapora Largent7.8-9.7 x 5.3-7.2 microns, angular, 7-9 sided
    P. perundata (Largent & Thompson) Largent8.3-10.9 x 5.1-6.5 microns, irregularly angular
    P. rusticoides (Gillet) Largent6.9-9.4 x 5.6-9.0 microns, 5-6 sided, indistinctly angular
    P. sericeonitida (P.D. Orton) Largent v. ligniphila Largent6.3-9.6 x 5.1-7.5 microns, 5-6 sided, irregular angular
    P. sericeonitida (P.D. Orton) Largent v. sericeonitida5.6-9.8 x 4.6-7.6 microns, 5-6 sided, indistinctly angular
 
POUZARELLA Mazzer 
    P. fernandae (Romagn.) Largent6.5-9.5 x 4.6-6.7 microns, 5-6-sided, obscurely angular
    P. fulvostrigosa (B. & Br.) Mazzer10.0-12.8 x 6.0-7.9 microns, 5-8 sided, indistinctly angular
    P. versatilis (Fr. ex Gillet) Mazzer8.2-11.5 x 5.5-8.3 microns, distinctly angular, 5-6 sided
 
RHODOCYBE Maire 
    R. aureicystidiata Lennox ex T.J.Baroni6.5-9(11) x 4-5(6.5) microns, undulate-pustulate
    R. caelata (Fr.) Maire(6.5)7-9 x 4-5 microns, obscurely to distinctly angular end-view, undulate-pustulate
    R. hirneola (Fr.) P.D.Orton5.5-8(8.5) x 5-6.5(7) microns, round to angular end-view, smooth or slightly irregular
    R. lepistoides nom. prov. Lennox6.5-8 x 4-5 microns, coarsely roughened
    R. nitellina (Fr.) Singer(6.5)7-9(14) x (3.5)4-5(6) microns, angular in end view, undulate-pustulate
    R. olympiana (A.H. Sm.) Lennox6-7 x 4.5 x 5 microns, spiny
    R. roseiavellanea (Murrill) Singer(6)7-10 x 4.5-6 microns, some angular in end-view, rather coarsely roughened
    R. speciosa Lennox ex T.J.Baroni5.5-7(8) x 5-5.5 microns, angular in end-view, almost smooth
    R. trachyospora (Largent) T.J.Baroni & Largent6.0-8.0(9) x 6-7(8) microns, 6-9 sided, warty angular
    R. trachyospora v. griseoviolacea (Largent) T.J.Baroni & Largentindistinguishable from type var.
    R. trachyospora v. purpureoviolacea (Largent) T.J.Baroni & Largentindistinguishable from type var.
    R. trachyospora v. vinacea Redhead & T.J.Baroniindistinguishable from type var.
 
TRICHOPILUS (Romagn.) P.D. Orton 
    T. jubatus (Fr.) P.D. Orton7.4-11.5 x 4.7-9.3 microns, 5-6 sided, indistinctly angular
    T. plebeioides (Schulz.) Largent7.7-11.5 x 6.4-8.5 microns, 5-7 sided, obscurely angular

 

INDEX

 ALBOLEPTONIA Largent & R.G.Benedict 1970

    A. earlei (Murrill) Largent & R.G.Benedict

       *Basionym = Pleuropus earlei, Murrill 1911

       *Synonym = Clitopilus earlei, Murrill 1912

                           Entoloma murrillii Hesler 1967

    A. ochracea Largent & R.G.Benedict 1970

    A. sericella v. lutescens Largent & R.G.Benedict 1970

       B = Agaricus sericellus v. lutescens Fr. 1867

       S = Alboleptonia adnatifolia (Murrill) Largent & R.G.Benedict 1970

             Pleuropus adnatifolius Murrill 1917

             Clitopilus adnatifolius Murrill 1917

    A. subsericella (Murrill) Largent & R.G.Benedict 1970

 

 CLAUDOPUS Gillet 1876

    C. bysissedus (Pers.: Fr.) Quél. 1874

    C. parasiticus (Quél.) Ricken 1915

       B = Leptonia parasitica Quél. 1878

 

 CLITOPILOIDEA (Romagn.) Largent 1994

    Clitopiloidea 912, sp. prov.

 

 CLITOPILUS (Fr. ex Rabenh.) P. Kumm. 1871

    C. hobsonii (Berk. & Broome) P.D. Orton 1960

       B = Agaricus hobsonii Berk. & Broome 1860

       S = Pleurotus hobsonii (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. 1887

             Clitopilus pleurotelloides (Kühner) Joss. 1941

    C. prunulus (Scop. ex Fr.) P. Kumm.

       B = Agaricus prunulus Scop. 1772

       S = Pleuropus obesus Murrill

             Clitopilus orcellus (Bull. ex Fr.) P. Kumm.

 

 ENTOLOMA (Fr.) P. Kumm. 1871

    E. alnobetulae (Kühner) Noordel. 1981

    E. alpicola (Favre) Noordel. 1981

       B = Rhodophyllus clypeatus v. alpicola Favre 1955

    E. bloxami (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. 1887

       B = Agaricus bloxami Berk. & Broome 1854

    E. brunnescipes Largent 1994

    E. clavaformipes (Murrill) Largent 1994

       B = Pleuropus entoloma Murrill 1945

    E. grande Peck 1898

       S = Entoloma burlinghamiae Murrill 1917

    E. griseoavellaneum Largent 1994

    E. heracleodora Largent 1994

    E. lividoalbum f. lividoalbum (Kuhn. & Romagn.) Kubicka 1975

       B = Rhodophyllus lividoalbus Kuhn. & Romagn. 1954

    E. lividoalbum (Kuhn. & Romagn.) Kubicka 1975 f. inodoratum

    E. lyophylloidium Largent 1994

    E. myrmecophilum (Romagn.) Moser 1974 v. myrmecophilum

    E. nidorosum (Fr.) Quél. 1872

       B = Agaricus nidorosus Fr. 1838

    E. politum (Pers.: Fr.) Donk 1949

       B = Agaricus politus Pers. 1801

       S = Entoloma maculatum Hesler 1967

             Leptonia trivialis Kauffman 1925

             Entoloma trivialis (Kauffman) Largent 1971

    E. pseudocostatum Largent 1994

    E. pseudolividum Largent 1994

    E. rhodopolium (Fr.) P. Kumm. 1871 f. rhodopolium

    E. rhodopolium (Fr.) P. Kumm. 1871 f. 8700

    E. rhodopolium (Fr.) P. Kumm. 1871 f. 8954

    E. rhodopolium (Fr.) P. Kumm. 1871 f. 9107

    E. rhodopolium (Fr.) P. Kumm. 1871 f. 9278

    E. sericatum (Britz.) Sacc. 1895

       B = Agaricus sericatus Britz. 1893

    E. speculum (Fr.) Quél. 1872

       B = Agaricus speculum 1836

    E. subpolitum Largent 1994

    E. subsaundersii Largent 1994

 

 INOCEPHALUS (Noordl.) P.D. Orton 1991

    I. appressus Largent 1994

    I. azureus (Largent) Largent 1994 6b 31

       B = Leptonia azurea Largent 1977

    I. fabaceolus (Largent) Largent 1994 3b 31

       B = Leptonia fabaceola Largent

    I. furfuraceodiscus Largent 1994 5b 31

    I. minutopilus Largent 1994 5a 31

    I. perfuscus (Largent) Largent 1994 3a 31

       B = Leptonia perfusca Largent 1977

    I. rhombisporus (Kühner & Bours.) Largent 1994 6a 31

       B = Leptonia rhombispora Kühner & Bours. 1929

 

 LEPTONIA (Fr.) P. Kumm. 1871

    L. acutoumbonata Largent 1994

    L. albida (Murrill) Murrill 1917

       B = Leptoniella albida Murrill

       S = Entoloma albidum (Murrill) Hesler 1967

    L. albinella Peck 1887

       S = Leptoniella albinella (Peck) Murrill 1917

             Entoloma albinellum (Peck) Hesler 1967

    L. anatina (Lasch: Fr.) P. Kumm. 1871

    L. asprella (Fr.: Fr.) P. Kumm. 1871

       B = Agaricus asprellus Fr.: Fr. 1871

       S = Leptonia validipes Peck 1913

             Leptoniella validipes (Peck) Murrill 1917

             Leptoniella domestica Murrill 1951

             Leptonia domestica (Murrill) Murrill 1951

             Leptoniella subplacida Murrill 1917

             Leptonia subplacida (Murrill) Murrill 1917

             Entoloma carolinense Hesler 1967

             Leptonia gracilipes Peck v. validipes (Peck) Largent 1977

             Leptonia gracilipes Peck v. validipes (Peck) Largent f. subplacida Largent 1977

    L. atrifucata Largent 1977

    L. badissima Largent 1977

    L. caesiocincta (Kühner) P.D. Orton 1960

    L. chalybaea (Fr.: Fr.) P. Kumm. 1871 v. chalybaea

       B = Agaricus chalybaeus Fr.: Fr. 1821

       S = Leptoniella nigra Murrill 1917

             Leptonia nigra (Murrill) Murrill 1917

    L. coacta Largent 1977

    L. coelestina (Fr.) P.D. Orton 1960 sensu Noordel. 1992

    L. convexa Largent v. convexa Largent 1977

    L. convexa Largent v. badiodorsa Largent 1977

    L. cyanea (Peck) Mazzer v. occidentalis Mazzer in Largent 1977

    L. decolorans E. Horak f. cystidiosa (Hesler) Largent 1994

       B = Entoloma aethiops (Fr.) Hesler v. cystidiosum Hesler 1967

       S = Leptonia decolorans E. Horak f. tomentosipes Largent 1977

    L. decolorans (E. Horak) Largent 1977 f. decolorans Largent 1994

       B = Entoloma decolorans E. Horak 1973

    L. earlei (Murrill) Murrill 1912

       B = Leptoniella earlei Murrill 1911

       S = Entoloma earlei (Murrill) Hesler 1967

             Entoloma subfurfuraceum Hesler 1974

             Leptonia subfurfuracea (Hesler) Largent 1977

             Leptonia badissima Largent v. longispora Largent 1977

    L. exalbida Largent 1977

       S = Leptonia exalbida v. acystota Largent 1977

    L. exilis (Fr.: Fr.) P.D. Orton 1960

       B = Agaricus exilis Fr.: Fr. 1821

       S = Leptonia pyrospila Romagn. ex P.D. Orton 1960

             Leptonia pyrospila Romagn. ex P.D. Orton v. grandispora Largent 1977

             Leptonia pyrospila Romagn. ex P.D. Orton v. hesperia Largent 1977

    L. foliocontusa Largent v. caeruleotincta Largent 1994

    L. foliocontusa Largent v. discolor Largent 1994

    L. formosa (Fr.: Fr.) Gillet 1874 v. formosa

       B = Agaricus formosus Fr.: Fr. 1821

       S = Leptonia fulva P.D. Orton 1960

             Entoloma aurantiobrunneum Hesler 1967

             Leptonia fastigiata Largent 1977

    L. formosa (Fr. Fr.) Gillet v. microspora Largent 1994

    L. fuligineomarginata (Hesler) Largent 1977

       B = Entoloma fuligineomarginatum Hesler 1974

       S = Eccilia fuliginosa Murrill 1917

             Entoloma fuliginosum (Murrill) Hesler 1977

             Entoloma brunneomarginatum Hesler 1977

    L. gracilipes Peck 1913

       S = Leptoniella gracilipes (Peck) Murrill 1917

    L. grisea Peck 1893

       S = Leptonia longistriata Peck 1911

             Leptoniella longistriata (Peck) Murrill 1917

             Entoloma longistriatum (Peck) Noordel. 1988

             Entoloma sarcitulum v. majusculum (Kühner & Romagn.) Noordel. 1985

    L. incana (Fr.: Fr.) Gillet 1874

    L. insueta Largent 1977

    L. lividocyanula (Kühner) P.D. Orton 1960

       B = Rhodophyllus lividocyanulus Kühner 1953

       S = Eccilia griseorubellus (Lasch) P. Kumm. 1929

    L. lutulenta Largent 1994

    L. microspora Largent 1994

       B = Leptonia vinaceobrunnea (Hesler) Largent v. microspora Largent 1977

    L. nigrosquamosa (Hesler) Largent v. californica Largent 1977

    L. occidentalis (Murrill) Murrill v. occidentalis Murrill 1917

    L. occidentalis (Murrill) Murrill v. fibrillosipes Largent 1994

    L. occidentalis (Murrill) Murrill v. metallica Largent 1977

    L. ovatospora Largent 1977

    L. parva Peck 1893

       S = Leptonia parva Peck v. macrospora Largent 1977

             Leptoniella parva (Peck) Murrill 1917

             Entoloma parvum (Peck) Hesler 1967

    L. pseudobulbipes Largent 1977

    L. rectangula Largent 1977

    L. rosea Longyear 1902 var. marginata Largent 1974

    L. rostrata Largent 1977

    L. serrulata (Fr.: Fr.) P. Kumm. 1871

       B = Agaricus serrulatus Fr.: Fr. 1821

       S = Leptonia serrulata v. atrides (Lasch) Largent 1977

             Agaricus atrides Lasch 1829

    L. sodalis (Romagn.) P.D. Orton 1992

       B = Rhodophyllus sodalis Kühner & Romagn. 1953

       S = Entoloma atrodiscum Hesler 1974

             Entoloma fuscosquamosum Hesler 1967

             Entoloma obscurum Hesler 1967

             Leptonia vinaceobrunnea v. macrospora Largent 1977

             Entoloma vulgare Hesler 1967

             Entoloma poliopus Romagn. 1954 v. discolor Noordel. 1985

    L. striatula (Hesler) Largent f. farinacea Largent 1994

       B = Entoloma nigroviolaceum (P.D.Orton) Hesler v. striatulum Hesler 1967

       S = Leptonia parva Peck v. macrospora Largent f. striatula (Hesler) Largent 1977

    L. strictipes Peck 1911

       S = Leptoniella strictipes (Peck) Murrill 1917

             Leptonia grisea Peck v. strictipes (Peck) Largent 1977

             Eccilia angustifolia Murrill 1917

             Entoloma appalachianense Hesler 1967

             Leptoniella cinchonense (Murrill) Murrill 1911

             Leptonia cinchonense (Murrill) Murrill 1912

             Entoloma cinchonense (Murrill) Hesler 1967

             Leptonia fuliginosa (Murrill) Murrill 1917

             Leptoniella fuliginosa Murrill 1917

             Entoloma latifolium Hesler 1967

             Entoloma luteoroseum Hesler 1967

             Entoloma subfarinaceum Hesler 1967

             Leptonia sarcitula P.D. Orton 1960

             Entoloma longistriatum (Peck) Noordel. v. sarcitulum (Kühner & Romagn.) Noordel. 1988

    L. subcoelestina Largent 1977

    L. subeuchroa Kauffman 1925

    L. subgracilis Largent 1977

    L. subnigra (Murrill) Murrill 1946

       B = Leptoniella subnigra Murrill 1946

    L. subviduense Largent v. subviduense Largent 1994

    L. subviduense Largent v. marginata Largent 1994

    L. tjallingiorum (Noordel.) P.D. Orton 1991

    L. trichomata Largent 1977

    L. turci Bresadola 1884

    L. umbilicata (Murrill) Murrill 1917

       B = Leptoniella umbilicata (Murrill) Hesler 1967

       S = Entoloma umbilicatum (Murrill) Hesler 1967

             Entoloma umbiliciformis Hesler 1974

             Leptioniella semiglobata Murrill 1917

             Leptonia semiglobata (Murrill) Murrill 1917

             Entoloma avellaneosquamosum Hesler 1967

             Leptonia avellaneosquamosa (Hesler) Largent 1977

    L. undulatella (Peck) Saccardo 1887

       B = Agaricus undulatellus Peck 1897

       S = Leptoniella undulatella (Peck) Murrill 1917

             Leptonia mexicana (Murrill) Murrill 1912

             Leptoniella mexicana Murrill 1911

             Nolanea alachuanum Murrill 1940

             Entoloma mexicanum (Murrill) Hesler 1967

             Entoloma squamodiscum Hesler 1967

    L. violacea (Kauffman) Largent 1994

       B = Nolanea coelestina (Fr.) Gillet 1874 v. violacea Kauffman

    L. violaceonigra Largent 1977

    L. zanthophylla Largent 1977

 

 NOLANEA (Fr.) P. Kumm. 1871

    N. abbreviatipes Largent 1994

    N. bicoloripes Largent & Thiers 1972

    N. californica (Murrill) Largent 1971

       B = Eccilia californica Murrill 1917

    N. cetrata (Fr.) P. Kumm. f. cetrata 1871

    N. cetrata (Fr.) P. Kumm. f. mediospora Largent 1994

    N. cetrata (Fr.) P. Kumm. f. minimospora Largent 1994

    N. clandestina (Fr.: Fr.) P. Kumm. 1871 v. clandestina

       B = Agaricus clandestinus Fr.: Fr. 1821

    N. clandestina (Fr.: Fr.) P. Kumm. 1871 v. oculobrunnea Largent 1994

    N. edulis (Peck) Largent 1971 v. edulis

       B = Leptonia edulis Peck 1885

    N. edulis (Peck) Largent v. concentrica Largent 1994

    N. farinogusta (Arnolds & Noordel.) Largent 1994

       B = Entoloma farinogustus Arnolds & Noordel. 1979

    N. fructufragrans Largent & Thiers 1972

    N. fusciceps (Kauffman) Largent 1971

       B = Leptonia fusciceps Kauffman 1930

    N. fusco-ortonii v. fusco-ortonii Largent 1994

    N. hebes (Romagn.) P.D. Orton 1960

       B = Rhodophyllus hebes Romagn. 1954

       S = Nolanea tenuipes P.D. Orton 1960

             Entoloma leptotus Noordel. 1980

    N. hirtipes (Schum.: Fr.) P. Kumm. 1871

       B = Agaricus hirtipes Schum.: Fr. 1821

    N. holoconiota Largent & Thiers 1972

    N. incanosquamulosa Largent 1994

    N. latifolia Kauffm. 1925

    N. minutostriata Largent 1994

    N. obscurata Largent 1994

    N. occidentalis Murrill 1917

       S = Entoloma washingtonense Murrill 1917

    N. proxima Largent f. inodorata Largent 1994

    N. proxima Largent f. proxima Largent 1994

    N. pseudopapillata Largent 1994

    N. pseudostrictia Largent 1994

    N. pusillipapillata Largent 1994

    N. sericea (Bull.) P.D. Orton 1960

       B = Agaricus sericeus Bull. 1778

    N. staurospora (Bres.) J. Lange v. incrustata Largent & Thiers 1972

       S = Nolanea staurospora (Bres.) J. Lange v. farinacea Largent & Thiers 1972

    N. staurospora (Bres.) J. Lange v. staurospora f. discoloripes Largent 1994

    N. strictia (Peck) Largent 1994

       B = Agaricus strictior Peck 1873

       S = Entoloma strictius (Peck) Sacc. 1897

             Rhodophyllus strictior (Peck) Singer 1951

    N. subcapitata Largent 1994

    N. subsolstitialis Largent 1994

    N. substrictia Largent 1994

    N. subviolaceoverna Largent 1994

    N. undulata Largent 1994

    N. verna (Lund.) Kotl. & Pouzar v. isodiametrica Largent 1994

 

 PARAECCILIA Largent 1994

    P. minutissima Largent 1994

    P. nucisapora Largent 1994

    P. perundata (Largent & Thompson) Largent 1994

       B = Eccilia perundata Largent & Thompson 1985

    P. rusticoides (Gillet) Largent 1994

       B = Eccilia rusticoides Gillet 1874

       S = Claudopus rusticoides (Gillet) P.D. Orton 1991

    P. sericeonitida (P.D. Orton) Largent v. ligniphila Largent 1994

    P. sericeonitida (P.D. Orton) Largent v. sericeonitida Largent 1994

 

 POUZARELLA Mazzer 1976

    P. fernandae (Romagn.) Largent 1994

       B = Rhodophyllus fernandae Romagn. 1936

    P. fulvostrigosa (B. & Br.) Mazzer 1976

       B = Agaricus fulvostrigosus Berk. & Broome 1878

    P. versatilis (Fr. ex Gillet) Mazzer 1976

       B = Agaricus versatilis Fr. 1851

 

 RHODOCYBE Maire 1926

    R. aureicystidiata Lennox ex T.J.Baroni 1979

    R. caelata (Fr.) Maire 1926

       B = Agaricus caelatus Fr. 1838

       S = Tricholoma caelatum (Fr.) Gillet 1874

             Clitopilus caelatus (Fr.) Kühner & Romagn. 1953

             Rhodocybe dubia Favre 1960

             Rhodocybe australis Singer 1969

    R. hirneola (Fr.) P.D.Orton 1960

       B = Agaricus hirneolus Fr. 1821

       S = Clitocybe hirneola (Fr.) P. Kumm. 1871

             Rhodophyllus hirneolus (Fr.) Singer 1942

             Clitopilus hirneolus (Fr.) Kühner ex Konrad & Maubl. 1948

             Clitopilus hirneolus (Fr.) Kühner & Romagn. 1953

    R. lepistoides nom. prov. Lennox 1975

    R. nitellina (Fr.) Singer 1946

       B = Agaricus nitellinus Fr. 1838

       S = Collybia nitellina (Fr.) Quél. 1875

             Rhodopaxillus nitellinus (Fr.) Singer 1936

    R. olympiana (A.H. Sm.) Lennox 1979

       B = Collybia olympiana A.H. Sm. 1941

    R. roseiavellanea (Murrill) Singer 1962

       B = Pleuropus roseiavellaneus Murrill 1938

    R. speciosa Lennox ex T.J.Baroni 1979

    R. trachyospora (Largent) T.J.Baroni & Largent

       B = Entoloma trachyosporum Largent 1974

       S = Rhodocybe carlottae Redhead & T.J.Baroni 1986

    R. trachyospora v. griseoviolacea (Largent) T.J.Baroni & Largent 1989

       B = Entoloma trachyosporum v. griseoviolaceum Largent 1974

    R. trachyospora v. purpureoviolacea (Largent) T.J.Baroni & Largent 1989

       B = Entoloma trachyosporum v. purpureoviolaceum Largent 1974

    R. trachyospora v. vinacea Redhead & T.J.Baroni 1986

       S = Rhodocybe carlottae v. vinacea Redhead & T.J.Baroni 1986

 

 TRICHOPILUS (Romagn.) P.D. Orton 1991

    T. jubatus (Fr.) P.D. Orton 1991

       B = Agaricus jubatus Fr. 1821

       S = Entoloma jubatum (Fr.) Karsten 1879

             Leptonia jubata (Fr.) Largent 1974

             Entoloma subjubatum Murrill 1917

             Agaricus scabrinellus Peck 1893

             Entoloma scabrinellum (Peck) Sacc. 1897

    T. plebeioides (Schulz.) Largent 1974

       B = Agaricus plebeioides S. Schulz 1876

 

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