Pacific Northwest Species of Phaeocollybia, revised 2010

Material adapted with permission from pp. 38–41 in Phaeocollybia of Pacific Northwest North America. (Lorelei L. Norvell & Ronald L. Exeter. 2008. USDI BLM/OR/WA/GI-08/100-1792. ISBN–13: 978-0-9791310-1-1; ISBN-10: 0-9791310-1-4. 228 pp.) Available from USDI-BLM, Salem (Oregon) District. Subject to copyright. In addition, copyright for photographs is held by each photographer. Do not copy photographs without permission.

SPECIES (Norvell & Exeter 2008 page reference)
Phaeocollybia ammiratii Norvell 2000 45
Phaeocollybia attenuata (A.H. Sm.) Singer 1951 51
Phaeocollybia benzokauffmanii Norvell 2000 57
Phaeocollybia californica A.H. Sm. 1957 63
Phaeocollybia dissiliens A.H. Sm. & Trappe 1972 71
Phaeocollybia fallax A.H. Sm. 1957 77
Phaeocollybia gregaria A.H. Sm. & Trappe 1972 85
Phaeocollybia kauffmanii (A.H. Sm.) Singer 1940 91
Phaeocollybia lilacifolia A.H. Sm. 1957 99
Phaeocollybia luteosquamulosa Norvell 2000 107
Phaeocollybia ochraceocana Norvell & Exeter 2007 113
Phaeocollybia olivacea A.H. Sm. 1957 119
Phaeocollybia oregonensis A.H. Sm. & Trappe 1972 125
Phaeocollybia phaeogaleroides Norvell 2002 131
Phaeocollybia piceae A.H. Sm. & Trappe 1972 137
Phaeocollybia pleurocystidiata Norvell & Redhead 2000 143
Phaeocollybia pseudofestiva A.H. Sm. 1957 149
Phaeocollybia radicata (Murrill) Singer 1951 155
Phaeocollybia redheadii Norvell 2000 161
Phaeocollybia rifflipes Norvell 2002 169
Phaeocollybia scatesiae A.H. Sm. & Trappe 1972 181
Phaeocollybia sipei A.H. Sm. 1957 187
Phaeocollybia spadicea A.H. Sm. 1957 193
Naucoria attenuata Smith 1937 see P. attenuata
Naucoria festiva sensu Smith (1937) see P. fallax
Naucoria kauffmanii Smith 1937 see P. kauffmanii
Naucoria lugubris sensu Smith (1937) see P. spadicea
Phaeocollybia carmanahensis Redhead & Norvell 1993 see P. oregonensis
Phaeocollybia rufotubulina Norvell 2004
(Norvell & Exeter 2008, p. 175)
see P. californica
Phaeocollybia similis sensu Smith (1957b), Smith & Trappe (1972) see P. attenuata
Phaeocollybia tibiikauffmanii Norvell 2004
(Norvell & Exeter 2008, p. 199)
see P. spadicea
Phaeocollybia perplexa Orton 1960  
        See Stagnicola perplexa (Orton) Redhead & A.H. Sm. 1986  
Phaeocollybia deceptiva A.H. Sm. & Trappe 1972  
        Not a phaeocollybia; believed to represent an unknown species of Cortinarius  
        (see also Norvell 1998a, Norvell & Exeter 2007)  



Key to the Phaeocollybia species of Pacific Northwest North America

Note — I have adapted our published key to reflect DNA sequence data received after it was too late to send in major text revisions for Norvell & Exeter (2008), then in press. Although we indicated the problems with P. rufotubulina and P. tibiikauffmanii in the key and the species treatments, the published key retained both species. Subsequent DNA sequence analyses suggest there are at least four new species, which we hope to name in the near future. — Lorelei Norvell

1a. Fruitbody small; stipe apex usually ≤ 4 mm across, never drab apically; cap usually ≤ 50 mm broad, orange, tawny, or yellow-brown, but never green or drab

1b. Fruitbody medium to large; stipe apex usually > 5 mm across, color varied; cap usually ≥ 50 mm broad, varied in color, including green or drab

2a. (1) Basidiospores ellipsoid, minutely punctate ornamentation and slightly pointed apical callus visible under high power oil immersion; clamp connections present

2b. Basidiospores limoniform, verrucose to warty ornamentation and protruding apical beak visible without oil immersion lens; clamp connections absent

3a. (2) Spores small, ~5.8 × 3.2 µm; cheilocystidia thick-walled, tibiiform with narrow necks, abundant but inconspicuous and difficult to see; fruitbody collybioid with stipe pliable, not easily broken; phenology autumnal (October–December)

Phaeocollybia radicata
Ron Exeter

3b. Spores large, ~10.3 × 6 µm; cheilocystidia thin-walled, narrowly clavate, extending well beyond hymenium; fruitbody mycenoid with stipe fragile and easily broken; phenology vernal (April–May) or autumnal (October–December)

Phaeocollybia phaeogaleroides
Ron Exeter

4a. (2)Stipe and pseudorhiza fleshy, not shiny or brittle; cheilocystidia thick-walled, tibiiform; pleurocystidia similar, frequent on gill faces; spores tapering to straight beaks, ~9.2 × 6 µm; phenology vernal (February–May)

Phaeocollybia pleurocystidiata
Ron Exeter

4b. Stipe polished, corneous; pseudorhiza brittle and wire-like (criniform); cheilocystidia thin-walled, clavate; pleurocystidia absent; spores big-bellied with abrupt tilted beaks, ~9 × 5.75 µm; phenology late autumn and winter (October–January)

Phaeocollybia attenuata
Ron Exeter

5a. (1) Young cap green, often aging brownish olive or brown; spores limoniform

5b. Young cap ochre, orange, tawny, brownish, or drab (never green); spore shape varied

6a. (5) Young gills violet; spores moderately beaked, in face view fusoid or naviculate, verrucose to marbled, ~9 × 5.3 µm; cheilocystidia thin-walled, clavate with swollen to subcapitate heads, rarely forming filiform apical outgrowths

Phaeocollybia fallax
Ron Exeter

6b. Young gills creamy to yellowish buff; spores with pronounced beaks, +/- ovate in face view, heavily rugulose warty roughened, size varied; cheilocystidia varied

7a. (6) Spores ~8 × 5 µm, with long, projecting beaks; cheilocystidia thick-walled, tibiiform with narrow refractive necks

Phaeocollybia pseudofestiva
Ron Exeter

7b. Spores ~10 × 6 µm, ‘turtle-backed’ with abruptly protruding eccentric refractive beaks; cheilocystidia thin-walled, clavate, in age often with apical filiform outgrowths

Phaeocollybia olivacea
Michael Beug

8a. (5) Spores ellipsoid or limoniform, length |x| = < 7.5 µm; cheilocystidia uniformly thin-walled

8b. Spores limoniform, length |x| = > 7.5 µm; cheilocystidia walls thin or thick

9a. (8) Spores limoniform, marbled to verrucose; clamps absent; pileipellis 2- or 3-layered

9b. Spores ellipsoid, punctate-roughened; clamps present or not; pileipellis 2-layered

10a. (9) Fruitbody small to medium, fragile (stipe ≤ 7 mm & cap ≤ 60 mm diam); cap bald, glutinous, tawny to dark brown; stipe polished, drab to violet (apex); stuffed to hollow, often insect-infested; pileipellis 2-layered with colorless top layer, dull brownish bottom layer; spores ~6.9 × 4.3 µm

Phaeocollybia rifflipes
Ron Exeter

10b. Fruitbody large, robust (stipe ≤ 28 mm & cap ≤ 120 mm diam); cap appressed-scaly, subviscid (never glutinous), ochraceous tawny to tawny; stipe matte, tan to brown, firmly stuffed, never insect infested; pileipellis 3-layered with yellow-orange top and bottom layers, colorless middle layer; spores ~7.4 × 4.7 µm

Phaeocollybia ochraceocana
Ron Exeter

11a. (9) Fruitbody overall drab to gray, robust with stout firmly stuffed pink to drab stipe (≤ 20 mm diam) and fleshy pseudorhiza; taste and odor cucumber-farinaceous; all tissues soon deep magenta in syringaldazine; spores ~6.8 × 4 µm

Phaeocollybia oregonensis
Lorelei Norvell

11b. Fruitbody overall orange, lacking drab colors, fragile with slender hollow tan stipe (≤ 13 mm diam) and cord-like pseudorhiza; taste and odor mild; cap & gills syringaldazine negative

12a. (11) Clamp connections abundant; cap bright to dull orange with yellowish margin; cheilocystidia irregularly filamentous to narrowly clavate; spores ~6.7 × 4.3 µm

Phaeocollybia dissiliens
Ron Exeter

12b. Clamp connections absent; cap uniformly brownish orange to auburn; cheilocystidia narrowly clavate with long pedicels and swollen (subcapitate) heads; spores ~6.5 × 3.8 µm

Phaeocollybia sipei
Ron Exeter

13a. (8) Cap minutely scaly (appressed), dry to subviscid (never glutinous), color ochre to tawny (never gray- or dark brown); pileipellis 3-layered with colorless gelatinized middle layer between yellow to yellow-orange top and bottom layers

13b. Cap bald, smooth, subviscid to glutinous and never appressed scaly, colors varied; pileipellis 2-layered, with colorless top layer and variously pigmented lower layer

14a. (13) Spores large, ~10 × 6 µm; cap dry to greasy, generally ochre (yellow-ochre, ochre-gold); frequently associated with Abies

Phaeocollybia luteosquamulosa
Ron Exeter

14b. Spores small, ~7.4 × 4.7 µm; cap greasy to subviscid, tawny ochraceous or tawny; associated with Pseudotsuga or Tsuga

Phaeocollybia ochraceocana
Ron Exeter

15a. (13) Cheilocystidia tibiiform, with thin-walled broad bases and narrow, refractive, thick-walled necks and capituli; stipes hollow or stuffed; clamp connections absent

15b. Cheilocystidia variably cylindrical to clavate, occasionally showing filamentous apical secondary growth in older specimens, but always lacking refractive thick-walled necks; stipes stuffed with firm pith; clamp connections present or absent

16a. (15) Cap viscid, tawny to dark chestnut brown; mature stipe stuffed with firm compact pith; fruitbodies scattered to closely gregarious, arising from unbranched fleshy (not cord-like) pseudorhizas; spore median short, < 8 µm long

Phaeocollybia spadicea
Ron Exeter

16b. Cap moist to glutinous, tawny orange to dull brown; mature stipe tubular and hollow; fruitbodies closely gregarious to fasciculate, arising from a rooting branching rhizomorphic cord; spore median medium-sized, > 8.5 µm long

17a. (16) Cap heavily glutinous, acutely conic-campanulate, yellow- to dark-brown; densely fasciculate, with scores of variably aged fruitbodies arising from one point on the subterranean cord; suprapellis thick, colorless with hyphae submerged in thick gel matrix and not spirally pigment-encrusted; spores ~8.5 µm long

Phaeocollybia scatesiae
Ron Exeter

17b. Cap moist to viscid, obtusely convex-campanulate, red orange to tawny; clustered in troops or arcs (rarely in fasciculate mounds); suprapellis compact, pale amber to orange with hyphae spirally encrusted and with refractive septa; spores ~9 µm long

Phaeocollybia californica
Ron Exeter

18a. (15) Clamp connections frequent throughout all tissues, most easily seen on the pileus suprapellis hyphae and cheilocystidia; cap convex-campanulate with an acutely pointed or often papillate umbo, tawny ochraceous to tawny; cheilocystidia cylindrical to narrowly clavate; spores ~9 × 5.5 µm

Phaeocollybia ammiratii
Ron Exeter

18b. Clamp connections lacking or rare (then only in stipe pellis); young cap shape & color, cheilocystidial shape, and spore sizes varied

19a. (18) Young gills whitish, smoky gray, or deep violet; young caps tawny, brownish-pink or drab; cap & gills magenta in syringaldazine

19b. Young gills pinkish, orangish, or yellowish; young caps varied, but rarely pink or drab; cap & gills magenta or not in syringaldazine

20a. (19) Young gills intensely bluish lilac to violet; cap tawny when young, soon darkening to dark brown; pseudorhiza syringaldazine negative; taste not farinaceous; spores ~8 × 5 µm

Phaeocollybia lilacifolia
Steve Trudell

20b. Young gills white (occasionally pinkish) or ash gray, never lilac or violet; cap pinkish, drab, or purple-brown; all tissues soon deep magenta in syringaldazine; taste ‘bitter cucumber’ farinaceous; spores ~9 × 5.5 µm

Phaeocollybia benzokauffmanii
Lorelei Norvell

21a. (19) Young cap yellow tan, usually lacking orange colors and zonate with darker banded edge, soon chestnut- or cocoa brown (rarely grayish or drab); young stipe ivory tan, with lower stipe staining orange with orange band at ground level; habit fasciculate, densely gregarious; young gills dark under UV; all tissues syringaldazine negative; spores moderately large, ~9.5 × 5.7 µm

Phaeocollybia gregaria
Ron Exeter

21b. Cap orangish to tawny, when young either overall orange, red-orange, or tawny or zonate with tawny to apricot-brown disc and pale amber margin; young stipe orange, buff, or pale cinnamon, lower stipe color varied; habit solitary, scattered, or gregarious; young gills fluoresce under UV; syringaldazine reactivity and spore size varied

22a. (21) Fruitbody moderately small to large; stipe slender (apex ≤ 12 mm diam), stuffed but soon insect-eaten at ground level; cap subviscid, uniformly bright apricot- to peach-colored, with conic umbo; all tissues negative in syringaldazine; pileipellis hyphae colorless, spirally gel-incrusted, subpellis pigments diffuse, not encrusting; spores ~9.4 × 6 µm, beaks short (≤ 5 µm), straight

Phaeocollybia piceae
Lorelei Norvell

22b. Fruitbody moderately large to massive; stipe robust (apex ≤ 25 mm diam), stuffed with firm, insect-free pith; cap viscid to glutinous, orange, tawny, or orange-/red-brown or zonate with tawny disc, amber margin, tan edge, umbo obtuse; all tissues strongly magenta in syringaldazine; pileus subpellis hyphae pigment-encrusted; spores varied in size, beaks long (≤ 1.5 µm), tilted or straight

23a. (22) Young to mature cap +/- uniformly orange, tawny, or dark orange-brown; lower stipe and pith staining first orange, then orange-brown; spores medium (~8.5 × 5 µm), lemon-shaped with tilted beak; cheilocystidia cylindrical or narrowly to broadly clavate, rarely pedicellate and subcapitate

Phaeocollybia kauffmanii
Michael Beug

23b. Young cap zonate with reddish tawny umbo, amber margin and tan edge, aging to overall tawny brown to dark red-brown; lower stipe and pith staining red-brown; spores large (~10.5 × 6 µm), almond-shaped with long ‘belly’ and slightly tilted beak; cheilocystidia usually pedicellate and catenulate, subcapitate with subglobose apices

Phaeocollybia redheadii
Ron Exeter

























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